A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

ADAS  Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities. ADAS 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities.

Language: English

Summary:

One of the roles of the NNFCC is to develop markets for UK renewable feedstocks. One of these, biomass, has the potential to supply energy for heating, electricity production and as a liquid transport fuel. This report establishes the current scale and location of biomass production in the UK and assesses the potential for increasing biomass production in the future. This report was commissioned by the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of renewable feedstocks markets in UK.

AEA group  UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report DECC 2011 UK

Title (orig.): UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Language: English

Summary:

This report examines potential biomass supply in the UK between 2010 and 2030, given current constraints and the potential to address some of these constraints. It examines the supply side issues only and does not consider constraints on the conversion and use of biomass. The analysis examined the situation to 2030, based on forward estimates of potential biomass supply and included three international development scenarios: business as usual; high investment; and low development. The resource estimated for 2030 is not available now in many cases; a significant proportion of the supply in 2030 would require considerable investment to become available.

(LCMW) Relevance: Forward estimates of potential biomass supply included three international development scenarios

Link:

UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 127/2013 establishing industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n. 127/2013 de 30 de Agosto

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, consisting of 9 Chapters and 8 Annexes, establishes industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution. In particular, it establishes the regime for industrial emissions applicable to prevention and integrated control of pollution, as well as norms and requirements to avoid or reduce any kind of emission or production of waste in soil, water and air in order to reach a high level of environmental protection, transferring to National legislation the EU Parliament and Council Directive No. 2010/75 related to industrial emissions. Annexes specify residue limits and environmental quality standards to be met and authorised activities to be performed within the National territory.

Link:

Factsheet: Industrial emissions

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Wood Energy Programme Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Wood Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

For domestic heating, the programme seeks to maintain the same national wood consumption by 2006 and to improve the energy and environmental efficiency of wood combustion. It includes a communication plan for supporting best practices in wood combustion for public/privates operators. Quality labels have been established with manufacturers for wood devices.

Link:

Wood Energy Programme

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Heat Fund Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 2008 FR

Title (orig.): Heat Fund

Language: English

Summary:

The Heat Fund was implemented in order to support the production of heat from renewable resources and recovered energy. This system of support for investment is one of the commitments of the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund’s goal is to support 5.5 Mtoe production of renewable heat between 2009 and 2020; this number represents more than a quarter of the renewable energy production target of 20 Mtoe by 2020 set by the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund mainly supports the development of the use of biomass (forestry, agriculture, production and thermal recovery of biogas, etc.), geothermal energy, heat pumps and solar thermal. The targetted sectors are collective housing, tertiary, agriculture and industry. By encouraging the use of renewable energy by heating networks, the Heat Fund will also have an important social impact (reduction and stabilisation of heating bills of essentially social housing) and directly encourage overall diversification of the energy supply.The Heat Fund intervention methods are:- for large scale biomass facilities (production of renewable heat greater than 1 000 toe/year) in the industrial, agricultural and tertiary sectors: there is an annual national call for projects. Four calls for projects have been already launched and a fifth one will be launched in September 2012.- for all other sectors (including residential), and for biomass facilities between 100 and 1000 toe/year, the Heat Fund is managed by the ADEME at regional level with regional calls for projects. It complements aid currently granted in the context of State-Region Project Contracts.

Link:

Heat Fund

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economic Affairs, European Comission 2010 NL

Title (orig.): Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

Netherlands 2020 targets:

  • Overall target: 14.5% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 9% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 37% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 10% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to achieve above enlisted targets Netherlands established comprehensive legal and administrative framework nurturing deployment of renewables with a number of complementary financial, fiscal and promotional measures:

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets

Link:

Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling Ministry of Economic Affairs 2006 NL

Title (orig.): Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Language: English

Summary:

Upon its publication in the EU Official Journal on 4 January 2003, the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) entered into EU law, allowing member states until 4 January 2006 to transpose the Directive into domestic building codes. The Directives principal objectives are: To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU through cost effective measures; To promote the convergence of building standards towards those of Member States which already have ambitious levels. Measures include: Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings; Application of performance standards on new and existing buildings; Certification schemes for all buildings; Regular inspection and assessment of boilers/heating and cooling installations. The Netherlands transposed into national law these measures, along with a building labelling scheme designed to encourage property buyers to choose property using relatively less fossil energy – either through integrated renewable energy generation or the buildings energy efficiency.

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy generation and the buildings energy efficiency

Link:

Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  International Energy Programme Ministry of Economic Affairs 2010 NL

Title (orig.): International Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

The Dutch government initiated the International Energy Programme, a research co-operation partnership, to further benefit from international experience and knowledge in the field of sustainable energy policies. The backbone of the programme is knowledge management and international networking. The Energy Programme aims to enhance Dutch national policies through information sharing and international co-operation, especially with focus countries namely Russia, Romania, Ukraine and China.

(LCMW) Relevance: Sustainable energy policies

Link:

International Energy Programme

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Community composting Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Kompostujeme na území MAS Ploštin (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

The citizens have the possibility to borrow the composter for home composting; The municipalities can borrow the composter for processing of biomass from public areas.

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste sent to composting

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Collective treatment of organic waste Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Biologicky rozložitelný odpad (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

Collective purchase of composters for organic residues from public areas and households (288 composters, volume of 900 liter each; 12 composters for public areas, volume of 5100 liter each).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste collectively composted

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Alexander van der Jagt and Anna Lawrence  Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission 2015 GB

Title (orig.): Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities

Language: English

Summary:

Forest Research is the Research Agency of the Forestry Commission and is the leading UK organisation engaged in forestry and tree related research. The Agency aims to support and enhance forestry and its role in sustainable development by providing innovative, high quality scientific research, technical support and consultancy services.

Forest Research (FR) was commissioned to provide a snapshot of the state of urban tree management by local authorities in Scotland in a study entitled Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns (TWIST). Research themes were identified in partnership with a steering group comprising members of Forestry Commission Scotland, Arboricultural Association and several Scottish local authorities. To address these, FR carried out interviews with tree officers from nine local authorities, focusing on tree management in specific towns, examining tree stock of varying size and age; and analysing relevant documents such as tree strategies. This was supplemented with a short survey distributed to all 32 Scottish local authorities (response rate: 69%).

Some positive examples are highlighted, and opportunities to address the status quo are identified, for example improving data, learning from success, involving communities in urban trees and woodland management and enhancing socio-economic valuations of trees and woodlands.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanace and utilization of forest biomass

Link:

Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities

Attachment

Anders, Kenneth; Fischer, Lars  Woody roads into a new landscape? Aufland Verlag 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Holzwege in eine neue Landschaft? - Perspektiven für holzige Biomasse aus der Sicht von Akteuren

Language: German

Summary:

Within the scope of the AgroForNet research network, the Landscape Communication Agency has conducted extensive surveys on short-term plantations, material from landscape maintenance and forestry residuals as well as other uses of woody biomass in German landscapes between 2010 and 2013. These were supplemented by research on historical agroforest systems, middle and low forests. From this material, the authors compiled a reading book, which supports the question of the future of these land use forms with the existing practices. The book is a snapshot of high landscape dynamics and a catalog of diverse possibilities to shape one’s own landscape and to create new value-creating relationships.

(LCMW) Relevance: Best practice examples of roles of stakeholders when using LCMW biomass

Link:

Purchase book

Arodudu, Oludunsin, et al.  Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators Elsevier Ltd. 2014 DE, NL, NG

Title (orig.): Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators

Language: English

Summary:

The production of bioenergy is dependent on the supply of biomass. Biomass production for bioenergy may cause large land use conversions, impact agricultural production, food prices, forest conservation, etc. The best solution is to use biomass that does not have agricultural or ecological value. Some of such unconventional sources of biomass are found within urban spaces. We employed Geographic Information System (GIS) and quantitative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas. Net Energy Gain (NEG) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI) were used as indicators to assess the bioenergy potential of urban spaces within the Overijssel province of the Netherlands as a case study. Data regarding suitable areas were geometrically extracted from available GIS datasets, and used to estimate the biomass/bioenergy potential of different species with different yields per hectare, growing under different environmental conditions. We found that potential net-energy gain from built-up areas can meet 0.6–7.7% of the 2030 renewable energy targets of the province without conflicting with socio-ecological concerns, while also improving human habitat.

(LCMW) Relevance: Methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas.

BAFU & BFE  Energy potencial of wood outside the forest: Study commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment and the Federal Office of Energy BAFU & BFE 2009 DE

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale ausserhalb des Waldes; Studie im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Umwelt BAFU und des Bundesamtes für Energie BFE

Language: German

Summary:

In der Schweiz steigt die Nachfrage nach Energieholz. Aus diesem Grund wird auch ausserhalb des Waldes anfallendes Holz vermehrt genutzt. Bisher liegen kaum Informationen darüber vor, wie viel Holz ausserhalb des Waldes nachwächst und wie dieses Flurholz verwertet wird. Die vorliegende Studie trägt dazu bei, diese Lücke zu schliessen. Ein wichtiger Aspekt ist dabei die Potenziale an Flurholz in der Schweiz abzuschätzen. Weiter wurde untersucht, wie Flurholz verwertet wird und mit welchen finanziellen Aufwendungen und Erträgen die Bewirtschaftung von Flurgehölzen verbunden ist.

(LCMW) Relevance: Study on energy potencial of wood outside the forest.

Barbera, Federica; Pais, Bárbara  Socio-Economic and Environmental Responsible Models for Sustainable Biomass Exploitation in European Protected Areas BioEUParks 2016 EU

Title (orig.): Socio-Economic and Environmental Responsible Models for Sustainable Biomass Exploitation in European Protected Areas

Language: English

Summary:

Final report (D1.2) of the BioEUParks project (2012 – 2016) : Exploiting the potentialities of solid biomasses in EU Parks.

BioEUParks project borns to answer to a crucial question: how to match nature and biodiversity conservation with sustainable exploitation of woody biomass for energy purpose?

Link:

Socio-economic and environmental responsible models for sustainable biomass exploitation in european protected areas

Barcelona  Management of biodiversity and green areas Barcelona 2011 ES

Title (orig.): Barcelona website

Language: EN

Summary:

Green spaces in the city of Barcelona are  of a big importance. On its website, a lot of information about it can be found regarding the use of natural resources, maintenance of the parks and gardens which generate biomass that is recycled by turning it into compost, an organic fertilizer for the green spaces in Barcelona.

Link:

Ecology, Urban Planning and Mobility Area (website)
Street Tree Management in Barcelona (brochure)

Baum et. al.  Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review Vizja Press&IT 2012 PL

Title (orig.): Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

Language: English

Link:

Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

Baumgartner, Hansjakob  Also in meadows grows energy wood Federal Office for Environment (CH), Magazine "Umwelt" 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

Meadows enrich the landscape among other also by providing important habitats for animals and plants. To fulfil this function on a long term regular maintenance work is necessary. The resulting woody biomass has a high potential to contribute to a climate neutral energy potential.

(LCMW) Relevance: In the city of Bern, biomass coming from LCMW is nearly completely used for energetic purposes. Description of the use of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Aktionsplan Holz: Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Baur, Frank; Faßbender, Beate; Frantzen, Jörg; Speck, Mike; Springer, Mikael; Trapp, Manuel; Weiler, Katja; Wern, Bernhard; Ziegler, Claudia; Gebhard, Ralf  Biomass potential analysis for the Saarland Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Verkehr des Saarlands 2011 DE

Title (orig.): Biomasse-Potenzialanalyse für das Saarland - Der Teilplan Biomasse zum Masterplan Neue Energie

Language: German

Summary:

A master plan “New Energy” has been developed in the German Saarland in order to describe the path to a sustainable energy supply, including the possibilities and necessary measures to be taken. The plan based, inter alia, on the regional potential for expansion of renewable energies. To this end, a range of potential analyses were carried out, the results of which are presented for the biomass sector as part of this report.

Link:

Download on homepage of the Institut for Future Energy Systems

Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde  Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings (green cuttings, leaves, wood) in the bioenergy region Ludwigsfelde RegioFutur 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Endbericht „Potentiale und Möglichkeiten der energetischen Verwertung von kommunalem Begleitgrün (Grünschnitt, Laub, Holz) in der Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde Plus+

Language: German

(LCMW) Relevance: Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings.