A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

WMW (Waste Management World)  Babcock & Wilcox Vølund lands order on second generation multi-fuel plant. New multi-fuel fired CHP plant in Landskronaa WMW (Waste Management World). Multi-fuel fired plant 2010 SE

Title (orig.): Babcock & Wilcox Vølund lands order on second generation multi-fuel plant. New multi-fuel fired CHP plant in Landskronaa

Language: EN

Summary:

The new facility in Landskrona, Sweden is part of a new generation of plants capable of burning a wide range of biomass and sorted waste fuels. Multi-fuel fired combined heat and power plants will cover the future need for advanced technology to exploiting all resources. New fuels, ranging from sorted industrial waste to wood chips, will contribute towards meeting the EU requirements for a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases.

Wiehe, Julia  Energetic utilisation of wood from landscape maintenance: Hedgerows on banks as heat source for the county Grafschaft Bentheim Inaugural Dissertation at the University Hanover 2003 DE

Title (orig.): Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege - Wallhecken als Wärmequelle für den Landkreis Grafschaft Bentheim

Language: German

Summary:

In this diploma thesis it was investigated if in the German county Grafschaft Bentheim and the neighboring Dutch province of Overijssel poorly preserved hedgerows on banks can be used as a renewable energy source for heat generation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Utilisation of hedgerows on banks

Link:

Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege

Waste serv ltd.  Electricity Production from waste treatment plant Waste serv ltd. 2011 MT

Title (orig.): Electricity Production from waste treatment plant

Language: English

Summary:

The new Sant’ Antnin Waste Treatment Plant includes a biological treatment plant for the production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable municipal solid waste.

The biogas produced is to be used for the generation of electricity by combustion in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant, and any excess electricity will be fed to the grid

Link:

Electricity Production from waste treatment plant

von der Mühlen & Dietrich  Landscape Management Plan County Friesland Landkreis Friesland 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landkreis Friesland Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplans: Biotopkartierung, Erhebung der gesetzlichen geschützen Biotope, Überprüfen der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung

Language: German

Summary:

Im Juni 2011 wurde durch den Landkreis Friesland die Biotoptypenkartierung auf der Grundlage einer Luftbildinterpretation, die Erfassung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope sowie die Überprüfung der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung von 1987 / 88 in Auftrag gegeben. Auftrag war es, eine für das Kreisgebiet flächendeckende Biotoptypenkarte unter Berücksichtigung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope (§ 30 BNatSchG) als Grundlage für die Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplanes des Landkreis Friesland zu erstellen. Vorgehensweise und Ergebnisse der Bestandserhebungen werden in diesem Fachbeitrag beschrieben.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ressource used for Biomass Assessment of the LCMW type Hedge Rows on Banks (D5.2)

Link:

Landkreis Friesland

Attachment

Landschaftsrahmenplan Landkreis Friesland (2.84 MB)

Velázquez-Martí B. , Sajdak M., López-Cortés I. , Callejón-Ferre A.J.  Wood characterization for energy application proceeding from pruning Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. in urban areas Renewable Energy (vol. 62, issue C, pages 478-483) 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Wood characterization for energy application proceeding from pruning Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. in urban areas

Language: EN

Summary:

Pruning urban forests generates significant amounts of lignocellulosic biomass every year. The energy potential of this biomass is unclear. The aim of this research was direct analysis of the gross calorific value (GCV), elemental composition and moisture content of Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica  Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. by means of laboratory equipment.

(LCMW) Relevance: The gross calorific value and other analysis proved these residues to be an interesting source of bioenergy.

Link:

Wood characterization for energy application proceeding from pruning Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. in urban areas

Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland  Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland - DE

Title (orig.): Wallhecken Landkreis Friesland

Language: German

Summary:

The brochure gives an introduction what defines hedgerows on bank (Wallhecken, Knicks) and shows their occurence in the county Friesland in the North of the German state Lower Saxony. Further, the history and ecological importance of hedgerows on banks is explained and what factors threatens their preservation. Finally, the brochure lists the measures necessary to protect and maintain these landscape structures and informs about the availalbe financial support for owners.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ecological, legal, treatment and financial information on hedgerows on banks

Link:

General information on hedgerows on bank on the homepage of the Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland

Attachment

PDF Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland (14.27 MB)

Umbria region Government  R.R. n°. 7 29/07/2011 - Umbria Region Umbria region Government 2014 IT

Title (orig.): Biomassa: La tecnologia che utilizza la biomassa 29/07/2011 - Umbria Region

Language: Italian

Summary:

Technology that uses biomass:The term biomass is understood to mean the organic material (mainly of plant origin), in which the solar energy has accumulated through the process of photosynthesis that can liberate and exploit through thermo-chemical or biochemical processes. These substances are available as direct products or residues of agriculture and forestry, as by-products or waste from the agro-food waste and how the chain of distribution and final consumption.

Associated with the term biomass, and now commonly used in renewable energy concept bio-fuel, which generally means any organic substance other than oil, natural gas, coal or from their derivatives, used as fuel.The most important types of biomass are:

  • Biomass forestry: forest residues, wood processing industry waste (wood chips, sawdust, etc.)
  • Agricultural Biomass: scraps of farms
  • Biogas derived from animal waste, waste from livestock farms, waste, algae and aquatic crops, municipal solid waste

For more information on the domestic use of biomass read the following guide. The administrative procedureThe administrative procedures for authorizing the installation and operation of biomass plants are the subject of rrn 7 of 29 July 2011. These procedures are defined in Annex A of RR 7/2011, which vary according to certain parameters (installed electric capacity, location and type of plant, the existing constraints in the area), and are as follows:

  • COMMUNICATION
  • enabler SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE
  • AUTHORIZATION ONLYIn the case of installations outside buildings and with an output exceeding 50 kW must meet the general criteria of location and design in Annex B and consider unsuitable areas listed in Annex C of the RR 7/2011

Link:

Biomassa: La tecnologia che utilizza la biomassa 29/07/2011 - Umbria Region

Umbria region Government  SEAR Regional Environmental Energy Strategy 2014-2020 - Umbria Region Umbria region Government 2014 IT

Title (orig.): SEAR Strategia Energetico Ambientale Regionale

Language: Italian

Summary:

After the Regional Energy Plan approved in 2004 and the regional strategy for the production of energy from renewable sources 2011-2013 approved in 2011 , the region has embarked on a new policy paper as a tool to monitor and govern the development of the region by supporting and promoting energy chain .

The preliminary document it was approved the preliminary document of the Regional Environmental Energy Strategy 2014 – 2020

The path of consultation , which began last February 6 , includes a series of meetings with associations and public bodies

It was adopted the proposed Regional Environmental Energy Strategy 2014 – 2020

Link:

SEAR Strategia Energetico Ambientale Regionale

Umbria region Government  Rural Development 2014-2020 - Umbria Region Umbria region Government 2014 IT

Title (orig.): Rural Development 2014-2020 - Umbria Region

Language: Italian

Summary:

This  Plan is the regional financial instrument for the development and improvement of rural sector in Umbria. FEASR finances this plan and the thematic objectives of European rural policy.

Support for investments in the creation, improvement or expansion of all types of small infrastructures , including investments in renewable energy and energy saving . Intervention 7.2.2 Support for investment in renewable energy and in energy saving.

Support for cooperation for the supply of biomass for energy production and industrial processes

Link:

Rural Development 2014-2020 - Umbria Region

Umbria Region  Regional Law 14 of 2010 Umbria Region 2010 IT

Title (orig.): Legge Regionale 14 del 2010: Disciplina degli istituti di partecipazione alle funzioni delle istituzioni regionali (Iniziativa legislativa e referendaria, diritto di petizione e consultazione)

Language: Italian

Summary:

With the Regional Law n. 14 of the 16th of February 2010, the Region of Umbria introduces new rules over the administrative and political participation of civil society in decision-making procedures within the competence of the regional institutions. Four instruments are designed to provide the participation of stakeholders: the legislative initiative, the referendum question initiative, the right to petition and finally the consultation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of governance and acceptance for bioenergy related projects

Link:

Online

UK Government  UK Green Deal UK Government 2010 UK

Title (orig.): UK Green deal

Language: English

Summary:

The Green Deal provides a framework of accredited market participants, through which people pay for some of the cost of improving their homes and businesses using a type of loan that is paid back with the savings they can expect to make on their fuel bills. Prior to signing a Green Deal Plan, an assessor will recommend improvements that are appropriate for a property and indicate whether they can be expected to pay for themselves through reduced energy bills.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on homes and businesses use of sustainable energy

Link:

UK Green Deal

UK Government  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) UK Government 2010 UK

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, member countries of the European Union were obliged to draft, and submit to the European Commission, National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathways that will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy targets.

The UK Government believes that climate change is one of the gravest threats we face, and that urgent action at home and abroad is required. We need to use a wide range of levers to decarbonise the economy. The development of renewable energy sources, alongside nuclear power and the development of carbon capture and storage, will also enable the UK to play its full part in international efforts to reduce the production of harmful greenhouse gases.

(LCMW) Relevance: UK 2020 renewable energy targets

Link:

National action plans online

UK Government  Second Progress Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources for the United Kingdom (2009) UK Government 2013 UK

Title (orig.): "Second Progress Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources for the United Kingdom (2009)"

Language: English

Summary:

The UK Government strongly supports renewable energy as part of a diverse low-carbon and secure energy mix. Alongside gas and low-carbon transport fuels, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage (CCS), renewable energy brings energy security, decarbonisation of our economy and green growth. UK Government committed to achieving the UK’s challenging and legally binding target of 15% renewables by 2020 in a cost effective and sustainable way, minimising the impact on consumer bills. All parts of the UK are playing a part in delivering this commitment, with the Devolved Administrations setting themselves challenging targets for the level of renewable electricity and heat consumption by 2020.

(LCMW) Relevance: Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources for the United Kingdom

Link:

PDF online

UK Government  Renewable Energy Strategy 2009 UK Government 2009 UK

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Strategy 2009

Language: English

Summary:

The UK Renewable Energy Strategy 2009 is a white paper outlining how the UK will meet its legally-binding target to ensure 15% of energy comes from renewable energy sources by 2020.

Under the 2008 Climate Change Act, the UK must meet legally binding carbon “budgets”, committing the UK to cuts its emissions by 34% by 2020 and 80% by 2050. The Strategy comprises three primary 2020 targets:

  • Over 30% of electricity to be generated from renewable energy sources, mostly from wind power, with biomass, hydro, wave and tidal power playing important roles;
  • 12% of heat to be generated from renewable energy sources, from a large range of sources (biomass, biogas, solar, heat pumps);
  • 10% of transport energy to come from renewable energy sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Target to get over 30% of electricity to be generated from renewable energy sources, mostly from wind power, with biomass, hydro, wave and tidal power playing important roles

Link:

The UK Renewable Energy Strategy 2009

UK Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC)  Climate Change Act 2008 UK Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Climate Change Act 2008

Language: English

Summary:

On 26 November 2008, the Climate Change Act became law. The Act aims to improve carbon management, help the transition toward a low-carbon economy, and demonstrate strong international UK leadership. Major provisions of the Act include the setting of legally binding targets, the establishment of a carbon budgeting system, and the creation of a Committee on Climate Change. The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) is an independent body designed to recommend targets, advise on the level of carbon budgets, as well as to monitor and report progress towards targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: The Act aims to improve carbon management and related increase of renewable energy (as the biomass energy)

Link:

Report: The Carbon Plan - reducing greenhouse gas emissions
CCC websites
Climate Change Act 2008

UE and Regional Government  Rural Development Programme 2014 - 2020 UE and Regional Government 2014 SI

Title (orig.): Rural Development Programme 2014 - 2020

Language: English

Summary:

Support for rural development by the Fund of European Agricultural for Rural Development (FEASR).

Link:

Factsheet on 2014-2020 Rural Development Programme for Slovenia

UE  Reg. (EU) N.1305/2013 UE 2013 IT

Title (orig.): REGOLAMENTO (UE) N. 1305/2013 DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO

Language: Italian

Summary:

Support for rural development by the Fund of European Agricultural for Rural Development (FEASR)

Link:

REGOLAMENTO (UE) N. 1305/2013 DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO

Tuscany Region  Regional Law 46 of 2013 (Tuscany): promotion of citizen participation in the processes of construction of regional and local policies Regione Toscana 2013 IT

Title (orig.): Legge Regionale 46 del 2013. Dibattito pubblico regionale e promozione della partecipazione alla elaborazione delle politiche regionali e locali

Language: Italian

Summary:

At the end of 2007 the Region of Tuscany approved Law no. 69 defining the rules on the Promotion of Participation in the Formulation of Regional and Local Policies. The new regional law on participation (LR 46/2013), follows and reinforces the positive experiences started in Tuscany in recent years due to the previous regional law (LR 69/2007) which represented, in many ways, a pilot case in Italy. This was an innovative legal provision explicitly aimed at pro-actively promoting citizen engagement in local and regional decision making: by incorporating features explicitly derived from deliberative theory, it institutionalizes citizen participation; that is, the involvement through group dialogue of citizens and stakeholders in decision-making about problems or issues of public interest. The results from this laboratory are of relevance to scholars, practitioners and politicians who are interested in such democratic innovations. The law was updated by the Law 46/2013 which instituted as compulsory the public regional debate for the investments over 50 million euro and as discretionary for investments above 10 million (which are anyway considered at regional level).

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of governance and acceptance for bioenergy related projects

Link:

Online

Tischew, S., Heck, P.  Establishing an example of a regional energy cycle with biomass from LCMW in the natural park Unteres Saaletal with special consideration of a GIS- assessment on the long-term availability of the biomass potential DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Etablierung eines beispielhaften regionalen Energiekreislaufs mit Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Naturpark Unteres Saaletal unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einer GIS-gestützten Abschätzung des langfristig zur Verfügung stehenden Biomassepotenzials

Language: DE

Summary:

1) Analyse status quo – classification of the research area with areal photos and existing data to select LCMW areas
2) Determination and definition of use- and maintenance- categories based on aims of nature protection
3) Establish 18 test areas to verify height classes, perform a biomass collection (harvest) and record data on vegetation and habitat.
4) Develop a procedure based on GIS to assess the biomass potential
5) Selection of several representative forest stands and record of random samples to derive forest stand types
6) Calculation of the biomass stock of the selected stands and calculation of the wood stock of the single stand types
7) Derive the actual useable biomass potential of all LCMW areas
8) Develop a regional concept for the use of wood from LCMW for a heating site in the primary school Wettin and make a cost calculation for the heating system

(LCMW) Relevance: Method for a comprehensive determination of the available standing woody biomass potential from LCMW

Link:

Etablierung eines beispielhaften regionalen Energiekreislaufs mit Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Naturpark Unteres Saaletal unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einer GIS-gestützten Abschätzung des langfristig zur Verfügung stehenden Biomassepotenzials

The Parliament of the Republic of Latvia  Waste Management Act Latvian Govenment 2014 LV

Title (orig.): Waste Management Act

Language: English

Link:

Waste Management Act