A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth  Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012 Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth 2012

Title (orig.): Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Summary:

Green Electricity Act 2012

Link:

Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth 2010 AT

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

4.6 Specific measures for the promotion of the use of energy from biomass

4.6.2 Measures to increase biomass availability, taking into account other biomass users (agriculture and forest-based sectors)

Measures to encourage unused arable land, degraded land, etc. to be used for energy purposes

The cultivation of land for food products and the production of bioresources are not in competition in Austria according to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture.

Unused raw material potential arises primarily from the use of grassland for biogas production. Until a few years ago grassland was still hardly used, however in the near future it will be a very interesting source material for various types of usage (fibre, lactic acid, etc.) and subsequent biogas production.

Strategy to promote the production and use of biogas

Biogas is currently still mainly produced for generating sets which produce green electricity and heat. Because biogas is, besides stored hydropower, the only storable renewable energy source, biogas technology may be used for daily production right up to the peak electricity production in the future. Treated biogas has the same chemical composition as natural gas. Therefore the targets aimed at for the future are the integration of treated biogas into the natural gas grid as well as the sale of biogas to filling stations. According to the Biogas and Compost Association, the use of biogas as fuel is possible through the steady spreading of natural gas powered vehicles and natural gas filling stations (Biogas and Compost Association).

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics  National Energy strategy Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics AT

Title (orig.): National Energy strategy

Language: English

Link:

Federal Ministry of Science Websites

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Electricity act (ElWOG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2010 AT

Title (orig.): Electricity act (ElWOG)

Language: English

Link:

Electricity act (ElWOG)

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Natural gas act (GWG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2015 AT

Title (orig.): Natural gas act (GWG)

Language: English

Link:

Natural gas act (GWG)

Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association  Wood heating for hotels and industry Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association 2016 AT

Title (orig.): Holzwärme für Hotels und Gewerbe

Language: German

Summary:

This flyer presents best practice projects in which Austrian hotel companies – from small inns to luxury 5-star wellness hotels – have switched from oil to wood heating. It describes how the change took place, the motivation of the hotel operators and the economic effects of the measure.

Link:

Online Shop of the Austrian Biomass Association to download flyer

Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER  BELGIUM National renewable energy action plan Plan Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER 2010 BE

Title (orig.): D’action national en matière d'énergies renouvelables; Nationaal actieplan voor hernieuwbare energie

Language: English

Summary:

Belgian authorities pursue a sustainable energy policy that takes into account the economic and social interests of the energy sector as well as the exhaustion of fossil resources and environmental concerns. In this context, renewable energy sources contribute to achieving the following targets:

  • reducing consumption of energy from fossil sources to safeguard future reserves
  • reducing greenhouse gas emissions; – reducing the country’s dependence on energy imports
  • minimising the impact of price fluctuations for energy from other sources
  • creating employment in the framework of an innovative economy
  • diversifying the available range of energy to improve the functioning of the energy market

In the field of electricity generation, Belgium has set up a scheme of green certificates and guaranteed minimum prices to support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources

Link:

Belgium National Action Plan

PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges  Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges 2003 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

Language: English

Summary:

The Royal Decree on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources was adopted in July 2002 and came into force 1 July 2003. It addresses two fundamental issues: first, it sets the conditions for issuing green certificates by the federal regulator (CREG) for offshore wind energy production, and second, it states that the grid operator is obliged to buy green certificates issued anywhere in Belgium at minimum prices of:

  • EUR 107/MWh for offshore wind energy (for installations with a financial close before 1/5/2014) for energy produced by first installed capacity up to 216 MW for each concession, and EUR 90/MWh for additional capacity, and at minimum prices equal to LCOE – [reference price of electricity – correction factor] for installations with a financial close after 1/5/2014, with LCOE = 138 EUR/MWh;
  • EUR 20/MWh for ocean energy (namely wave and tidal).

Other obligations related to buying green certificates have been deleted by the Royal Decree of 21/12/2012. Only green certificates delivered to PV installations commissioned before 1/8/2012 can benefit from a minimum purchase price obligation of up to 150 EUR/MWh.

By virtue of a Royal Decree of 20 December 2000, last modified by the Royal Decree of 20 March 2014, the Minister for Energy from now on can deliver domanial concessions for the construction and the exploitation of installations of electricity production, generated from water, currents or winds, in the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone of Belgium. The decree in question determinates precisely the zone where the installations may be set up. It also specifies the criteria of granting and the procedure by which the concessions are being issued.

The Programme law of July 2005 called for the mandatory contribution by national transmission service operators (TSO) of up to EUR 25 million worth of undersea cables for each concession. An imbalance costs regime for offshore wind production has been put in place by the Royal Decree of 30/3/2009. Imbalance refers to when the electricity producer produces too much or too little electricity, and must pay the difference to the Regulator. The new policy provides a 10% price reduction on the daily market price for the imbalance cost, for output gaps up to 30 %, or has to be compensated by the producer for imbalances above 30 %, based on the TSO’s tariff for the compensation of imbalances or according to the market conditions for imbalance energy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources

Link:

Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market  Flanders: Net-Metering (Mécanisme de compensation) Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market 2012; 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Flanders: Net-Metering (Mécanisme de compensation)

Language: English

Summary:

Flanders supports electricity from renewable energy sources by means of a quota system, an ecological premium and a net-metering scheme. Regarding heating and cooling from renewable energy resources, the Flemish support scheme provides for a quota system. Grid operators and municipalities are responsible for setting up premium schemes. The access of electricity from renewable energy sources to the grid is regulated by the basic legislation on energy market and technical regulations by the Flemish Electricity and Gas Regulator (VREG). Electricity from renewable energy sources is given priority in both connection to and use of the grid. Distribution grid operators are obliged to finance grid expansion. Diverse policies are currently under discussion. The level of implementation differs. On 28 September 2012, the Energy Regulation has been revised transposing the building obligations for heat from renewable energy into Flemish law.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Flanders: Net-Metering

Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region  Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014) Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region 2010; 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

Language: English

Summary:

Energy subsidies are provided by the Walloon Region for the generation of electricity through CHP plants using renewable energy. The energy subsidies for CHP plants were renewed for the year 2014 with the same conditions as for 2013.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from biogas and biomass

Link:

Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market  Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support) Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support)

Language: English

Summary:

Enterprises that make certain ecological professional investments in Flanders, can benefit from ecological aid in the form of an investment grant. The application for the ecology premium is made entirely electronically through the Internet.

In general, companies are stimulated to invest in environmental friendly and energy efficient technologies via a subsidy scheme consisting of the Ecologic Premium Plus (EP-PLUS) and Strategic Ecologic Support (EP-STRES).  An ecologic premium plus (EP-PLUS) is paid to technologies registered within a limited technology list (LTL) compiled and revised by the Ministry on the basis of proposals made by VITO (Independent Research Centre). Technologies not singled out in LTL may apply for strategic ecologic support (EP-STRES).The subsidy is paid to companies that operate in the Flemish region (Art. 10 Decree on Economic Aid). For both, the support cannot be combined with green electricity certificates (Art. 17 6° Decree on Ecological Investment). Projects are selected on a call for project basis 3 times per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Investment in environmental friendly and energy efficient technologies

Link:

Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support)

Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04)  Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement) Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04) 2004; 2006; 2009 BE

Title (orig.): Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement)

Language: English

Summary:

Primes Energies 2014: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels Capital region provides energy subsidies for residential, industrial as well as service sector buildings located in the Brussels region. Moreover, energy subsidies can also apply for renovation works in buildings older than 10 years. The energy subsidies are defined each year and apply from 1 January to 31 December.

The energy subsidies of the Brussels Capital region are allocated according to the income level. Three levels of subsidies are thus possible (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014):

  • Base income: > € 60,000 for singles and > € 75,000 for couples
  • Middle income: € 30,000 – 60,000 for singles and € 45,000 – 75,000 for couples
  • Low income: < € 30,000 for singles and < € 45,000 for couples

These income limits are increased by € 5,000 EUR per fiscally irresponsible person and if the applicant is under 35 years old. The subsidy is increased by 10 % for residential buildings situated within a Housing and Renovation Development Area (Espace de Développement Renforcé du Logement et de la Rénovation).

Social real estate agencies, public service real estate agencies as well as the Housing fund of the Brussels region benefit of the subsidies of the low income category. Industrial as well as service sector buildings benefit from the subsidies of the base income category (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014).

Aide à l’investissement: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels-Capital provides investment assistance for companies which develop environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants.

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants

Link:

Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014)
Brussels: Subsidy (Aide à l'investissement)

FPS Public health - environment  Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances FPS Public health - environment 2011 BE

Title (orig.): Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances

Language: English

Summary:

The Royal Decree of 5/4/2011 on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances establishes sustainability and physico-chemicals requirements for wood pellets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Wood pellets

Link:

Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances

SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable  Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable 2005; 2010 BE

Title (orig.): Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Language: English

Summary:

As of 2006, the Walloon government awarded grants for the installation of micro-cogeneration systems and high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers. Households, entreprises, self-employed workers and private entities were all eligible to receive grants. Every year, the programme is reviewed, taking into account the evolution of technology.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grants for the installation of high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers

Link:

Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM)  Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP) Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM) 2002 BE

Title (orig.): Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Language: English

Summary:

In April 2000, the federal government decided that all generators of electricity from renewable sources will become progressively free to choose their own electricity supplier if they use more electricity than they are able to generate. Consumers who buy a significant amount of their electricity from renewable sources are also eligible to choose their electricity supplier. When coordinating the call to electricity suppliers, the transport-grid manager, taking into account the needed supply security, gives priority to plants using renewable energy sources for power production, or to cogeneration units. The Flemish Parliament approved the decree regarding the liberalisation of the electricity market and marked the following categories as eligible:

  • Producers using quality CHP installations or renewables for electricity generation (up to a certain ceiling)
  • Consumers of renewables-generated electricity by means of a CHP unit (for a certain amount of electricity) or consumers using heat from CHP units or renewables
  • Consumers using heat from a supplier who generates this heat by means of CHP units or renewables (for a maximum of 500 kWh electricity per GJ heat)

In Wallonia, a corresponding decree was approved and aims to gradually open the market for producers using CHP and/or renewables for electricity generation, as well as consumers using renewable electricity and/or electricity generated by means of a CHP unit, or using heat from CHP units or renewables.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances)  Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies) The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances) 1992 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Arrêté royal d'exécution du Code des impôts sur les revenus 92 du 27 Août 1993, lequel est dénommé, en abrégé, “AR/CIR 92” / Koninklijk Besluit Tot Uitvoering Van Het Wetboek Van De Inkomstenbelastingen 1992, Afgekort Als "Kb/Wib 92

Language: English

Summary:

Entitled companies may reduce their taxable profit by a fixed percentage of their investment in renewable energy installations.  The regions are responsible for determining whether renewable energy installations are eligible or not (Art. 49 AR/CIR 92 referring to Annex II). The categories of eligible investments are listed within the appendix 1 of the form CEB 2 available in each region and referring to Annex II of AR/CIR 92.

The tax deduction amounts to 14,5% of the investment value for the fiscal year 2014 (Avis relatif à la déduction pour investissement).

  • Tax deductions on investments costs can be claimed through the tax return.
  • A certificate regarding investments for energy saving devices is necessary. The certificate is delivered by the regions, according to the investment location. The competent administration departments of the regions are to be found in the notice of the federal tax administration regarding the tax deduction on investments.

Link:

National: Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies)

Bulgarian Ministry of Finance  Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act Bulgarian Ministry of Finance 2013 BG

Title (orig.): Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

Language: English

Summary:

Tax regulation mechanism: A reduced rate of excise duty is applied to unleaded petrol or gas oil if a share of 4 to 5% of bioethanol or biodiesel has been added.

Link:

Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)  Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL) European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

Language: English

Summary:

BEERECL has been established to support industrial energy efficiency and small renewable energy projects in the private sector by using funding from the Kozloduy International Fund, which was created by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in May 2002. BEERECL provides grants of up to 20 percent of the disbursed loan principle for RES projects financed prior to 30 September 2009, and up to 15 percent grants for financing received after the latter date. However, eligible Investments in biomass should have installed capacity of less than 5 MW electric output, and Investments in biomass heat only boilers with a thermal input higher than 10 MWth are subject to EBRD approval – No restrictions for biogas plants.

Link:

Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA) State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

Language: English

Summary:

Grid connection. Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Based on the regulations of the Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources and Biofuels Act, electricity distribution companies are obliged to purchase the electricity generated from geothermal and solar energy for 25 years, whereas from the other sources of RES, including biomass, the offtake obligation is fixed at 15 years. End suppliers are obliged to offtake the electricity produced by RES. Failure to do so will result in a penalty amounting to between BGN 7,000 (appr. EUR 3,600) and BGN 20,000 (appr. EUR 10,225).

Link:

Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources (2011 last updated 2015). Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Producers that own power plants can sell the electricity with regulated prices (feed-in tariff), differentiated on the basis of type of technology (biomass-biogas), plant size and type of fuel (biomass waste, organic fraction of MSW, sewage sludge, agricultural biomass)

Link:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources