A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics  National Energy strategy Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics AT

Title (orig.): National Energy strategy

Language: English

Link:

Federal Ministry of Science Websites

Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland  Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland - DE

Title (orig.): Wallhecken Landkreis Friesland

Language: German

Summary:

The brochure gives an introduction what defines hedgerows on bank (Wallhecken, Knicks) and shows their occurence in the county Friesland in the North of the German state Lower Saxony. Further, the history and ecological importance of hedgerows on banks is explained and what factors threatens their preservation. Finally, the brochure lists the measures necessary to protect and maintain these landscape structures and informs about the availalbe financial support for owners.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ecological, legal, treatment and financial information on hedgerows on banks

Link:

General information on hedgerows on bank on the homepage of the Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland

Attachment

PDF Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland (14.27 MB)

IDAE, Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy  The Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (IDAE) IDAE, Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy 1974 ES

Title (orig.): El Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE)

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy, IDAE, is a part of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism agency, through the Ministry of Energy, which oversees organically. Contribute to achieving the objectives that have acquired our country in terms of improving energy efficiency, renewable energy and other low carbon technologies is the strategic framework of their activity. In this sense, the IDAE conducts dissemination and training, technical support, development of specific programs and funding technological innovation projects and replicable character. Also, the Institute is leading an intense international activity within the framework of various European programs and cooperation with third countries.

Link:

El Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE)

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Pilot and Demonstration Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Pilot and Demonstration Program

Language: English

Link:

Pilot and Demonstration Program

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Energy Research Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Research Program

Language: English

Link:

Energy Research Program

Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Forest Code Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 1979 FR

Title (orig.): Forest Code

Language: English

Summary:

The French forest code is a collection of regulations and legislation concerning the protection and management of forests in France, including public forests. Sustainable forest management ensures their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant economic, ecological and social functions, at local, national and international level without causing damage to other ecosystems.

Link:

Forest Code

Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 1987 FR

Title (orig.): Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks

Language: English

Summary:

The law covers provisions relating to the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks. It consists of 53 articles divided into 2 parts, namely: Organisation of civil security, establishing the conditions for the preparation of safeguard measures and the implementation of means to deal with major risks and disasters, in order to protect people, property and the environment against accidents, disasters and catastrophes (I); Forest protection against fire and prevention of major risks, bearing dispositions on the right of citizens to information on the major risks to which they are subject to the control of urbanization, forest defense against the fire, the prevention of natural and technological risks (II). The Act amends various previous laws and, in particular, it adds three tracks to Act No. 65-498 of 29 June 1965 on the transport of chemicals by pipeline.

Link:

Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks

Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment  Tax regulation mechanisms Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment 1990-2010 SWE

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms

Language: English

Summary:

  • Tax reductions for households. Act No. 2009:194 sets rules for the tax-deduction of RES-related installation works in households. The installation of renewable energy devices and the replacement of conventional heating sources with renewable ones may be deducted from tax.
  • Energy and carbon dioxide taxes. In Sweden, energy and carbon dioxide taxes are levied on the supply, import and production of fossil fuels for heating purposes. Renewable energy sources are exempt from these taxes. The biogas must be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598. Biomass must also be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598.
  • Nitrous oxide tax. The producers of heat are obliged to pay a tax according to their nitrous oxide emissions. Heat producers using renewable energy sources are exempt from this obligation.

All renewable energy technologies are exempt from the tax obligations.

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms

The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances)  Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies) The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances) 1992 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Arrêté royal d'exécution du Code des impôts sur les revenus 92 du 27 Août 1993, lequel est dénommé, en abrégé, “AR/CIR 92” / Koninklijk Besluit Tot Uitvoering Van Het Wetboek Van De Inkomstenbelastingen 1992, Afgekort Als "Kb/Wib 92

Language: English

Summary:

Entitled companies may reduce their taxable profit by a fixed percentage of their investment in renewable energy installations.  The regions are responsible for determining whether renewable energy installations are eligible or not (Art. 49 AR/CIR 92 referring to Annex II). The categories of eligible investments are listed within the appendix 1 of the form CEB 2 available in each region and referring to Annex II of AR/CIR 92.

The tax deduction amounts to 14,5% of the investment value for the fiscal year 2014 (Avis relatif à la déduction pour investissement).

  • Tax deductions on investments costs can be claimed through the tax return.
  • A certificate regarding investments for energy saving devices is necessary. The certificate is delivered by the regions, according to the investment location. The competent administration departments of the regions are to be found in the notice of the federal tax administration regarding the tax deduction on investments.

Link:

National: Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies)

Ministry of the Economy  Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1993 LU

Title (orig.): Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Language: English

Summary:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 provides the legal basis for deployment and renewable energy usage in Luxembourg. The Law sets out energy savings and renewable energy objectives and measures.

The Law provides for research and demonstration activities on renewable energy sources and/or energy conservation to benefit from public assistance, particularly in the form of pilot projects. It establishes that electricity produced from small-scale renewable energy sources and cogeneration are to be connected to public networks, and that feed-in tariffs are to be established for these sources. It also provides the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration obligations to be set, for buildings requiring large amounts of energy and those in industry.

The Law establishes mandatory energy use norms and standards for buildings. Building owners must undertake energy performance evaluation. They must also undertake energy-saving improvements in insulation, heating and cooling components, should heating needs exceed 600 kW, cooling needs exceed 300 kW or transformer capacity exceed 500 kW.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: Providing the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration

Link:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland  The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland 1994 UK

Title (orig.): The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Language: English

Summary:

The Secretary of State for the Environment as respects England, the Secretary of State for Wales as respects Wales and the Secretary of State for Scotland as respects Scotland, being Ministers designated(1) for the purposes of section 2(2) of the European Communities Act 1972(2) in relation to measures relating to the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution of water and the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers conferred on them by section 2(2) of that Act, sections 30(4) and 104(1) of the Control of Pollution Act 1974(3), sections 1(3)(a), 2, 8(2) and 9(1)(4) of the Control of Pollution (Amendment) Act 1989(5), sections 29(10), 33(3), 35(6), 36(1), 39(3), 40(3), 43(8), 45(3), 50(3), 54(14), 64(1), (4) and (8), 74(6), 75(8) and 156 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990(6) (having in particular had regard in exercising their powers under section 33(3) of that Act to the matters specified in section 33(4) of that Act) and of all other powers enabling them in that behalf hereby make the following Regulations:

(1S.I. 1989/2393 and 1992/2870.
(4) See the definition of “prescribed”.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy on reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers

Link:

The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland  Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland 1996 FIN

Title (orig.): Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Language: English

Summary:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry (1094/1996, amendments up to 112/2003 included) contains 9 chapters:

  • Chapter 1 – General provisions
  • Chapter 2 – Ensuring the sustainability of timber production
  • Chapter 3 – Support for maintaining the biological diversity in forests
  • Chapter 4 – Forest ecosystem management
  • Chapter 5 – Other promotion measures
  • Chapter 6 – Application, granting and payment as well as recovery and legal consequences
  • Chapter 7 – Steering and supervision
  • Chapter 8 – Miscellaneous provisions
  • Chapter 9 – Entry into force and transitional provisions

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial support on maintenance of forest biomass

Link:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Bio Waste Regulation Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 1996 DE

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Bioabfallverordnung

Rösch, Christine  Intercomparison of Approaches to Biowaste and Green Waste Utilization for Material and Energy Production with Particular Consideration of the Situation in Baden- Württemberg Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 1996 DE

Title (orig.): Vergleich stofflicher und energetischer Wege zur Verwertung von Bio- und Grünabfällen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verhältnisse in Baden-Württemberg

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

In this work helpful tools were developed for decision making in policy, administration and economy, starting from systems analytical comparison of different approaches of biowaste and green waste treatment with a view to material and energy production. The methods included in the comparison are composting in the backyard, on agricultural fields, in special plants treating only green waste or biowaste and green waste, biowaste treating in biofermentation plants as well as the utilization of green waste and crop residues as biofuel in biomass power plants.

Link:

Download on Homepage of the Karlsruher Institute for Technology

Government  Law 54/1997 of 27 November, on the Electricity Sector Government 1997 ES

Title (orig.): Ley 54/1997, de 27 de noviembre, del Sector Eléctrico

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The Electricity Sector Law 54/1997, of November 27, whose main objective is to regulate the activities of the special regime for power generation from renewable energies, power less than 50MW, granting powers to the Autonomous Communities for authorization. This Act is repealed, except the additional provisions 6,7,21 and 23, by repealing 1.a of law 24/2013 of December 26. BOE-A-2013-13645, subject to the provisions of the final disposition 3 of the act. However, the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of art. 38 and 2, 3 and 4 of Art.42, will remain in force until the art. 33 of the Act applies, as provided transitional provision 7.

Link:

Ley 54/1997, de 27 de noviembre, del Sector Eléctrico

Ministry of the Environment  Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE) Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Language: English

Summary:

The Fund for Environmental Protection (“Fonds pur la Protection de l’Environment (FPE)”) was established on 25th November 1999. The goals of the Fund are:

  • Prevention and fight with air pollutions, noise and climate change
  • Prevention and waste management
  • Protection of the environment and environmental heritage
  • Rehabilitation of waste disposal sites and their management
  • Rehabilitation of contaminated areas
  • Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency
  • Deployment of renewable energies

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency; Deployment of renewable energies

Link:

Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Ministry of the Environment  National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg) Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Language: English

Summary:

In the context of the Rio Conference, the Luxembourgish Government approved in 1999 the National Plan for a Sustainable Development. The main objectives of the Plan are the search and the application of political, economic and social policies thus enhancing the sustainable development of the Luxembourgish economy and society, reducing the use of natural resources and preserving the quality of the environment.
The Plan aims at identifying the priority domains of intervention for a sustainable development, at formulating concrete objectives and at proposing actions and tools supporting its implementation and monitoring.

(LCMW) Relevance: Protection of natural and human environment as well as of natural resources

Link:

National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Ministry of the Environment  Energy Tax Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Energy Tax

Language: English

Summary:

The Energy tax was established by the National Plan on Suistainable Development from 1999. The tax was introduced in order to unify legislative framework in the energy sector to the measures outlined in the EU Directives 2003/55/EC and 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning Common Rules for the Internal Market in Natural Gas and Electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Unification of the legislative framework in the energy sector

Link:

Energy Tax

Finish Ministry of the Environment  Land Use and Building Act (Finish) Ministry of the Environment 1999 FI

Title (orig.): Land Use and Building Act

Language: English

Summary:

The objective of this Act is to ensure that the use of land and water areas and building activities on them create preconditions for a favourable living environment and promote ecologically, economically, socially and culturally sustainable development.

The Act also aims to ensure that everyone has the right to participate in the preparation process, and that planning is high quality and interactive, that expertise is comprehensive and that there is open provision of information on matters being processed.

Link:

Land Use and Building Act

Attachment

Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour  Eco-Tax Reform Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour 1999 DE

Title (orig.): Eco-Tax Reform