A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

Partners of the greenGain.eu INFORMATION PLATFORM can contribute with their content to the section greenGain DATABASE.
Please let us know if you are interested to become a partner via e-mail platform@greengain.eu.

If you are allready partner, you can sign in:

Sign in

Forgot pasword/login?

Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

ADAS  Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities. ADAS 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities.

Language: English

Summary:

One of the roles of the NNFCC is to develop markets for UK renewable feedstocks. One of these, biomass, has the potential to supply energy for heating, electricity production and as a liquid transport fuel. This report establishes the current scale and location of biomass production in the UK and assesses the potential for increasing biomass production in the future. This report was commissioned by the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of renewable feedstocks markets in UK.

AEA group  UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report DECC 2011 UK

Title (orig.): UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Language: English

Summary:

This report examines potential biomass supply in the UK between 2010 and 2030, given current constraints and the potential to address some of these constraints. It examines the supply side issues only and does not consider constraints on the conversion and use of biomass. The analysis examined the situation to 2030, based on forward estimates of potential biomass supply and included three international development scenarios: business as usual; high investment; and low development. The resource estimated for 2030 is not available now in many cases; a significant proportion of the supply in 2030 would require considerable investment to become available.

(LCMW) Relevance: Forward estimates of potential biomass supply included three international development scenarios

Link:

UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 127/2013 establishing industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n. 127/2013 de 30 de Agosto

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, consisting of 9 Chapters and 8 Annexes, establishes industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution. In particular, it establishes the regime for industrial emissions applicable to prevention and integrated control of pollution, as well as norms and requirements to avoid or reduce any kind of emission or production of waste in soil, water and air in order to reach a high level of environmental protection, transferring to National legislation the EU Parliament and Council Directive No. 2010/75 related to industrial emissions. Annexes specify residue limits and environmental quality standards to be met and authorised activities to be performed within the National territory.

Link:

Factsheet: Industrial emissions

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Wood Energy Programme Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Wood Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

For domestic heating, the programme seeks to maintain the same national wood consumption by 2006 and to improve the energy and environmental efficiency of wood combustion. It includes a communication plan for supporting best practices in wood combustion for public/privates operators. Quality labels have been established with manufacturers for wood devices.

Link:

Wood Energy Programme

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Heat Fund Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 2008 FR

Title (orig.): Heat Fund

Language: English

Summary:

The Heat Fund was implemented in order to support the production of heat from renewable resources and recovered energy. This system of support for investment is one of the commitments of the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund’s goal is to support 5.5 Mtoe production of renewable heat between 2009 and 2020; this number represents more than a quarter of the renewable energy production target of 20 Mtoe by 2020 set by the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund mainly supports the development of the use of biomass (forestry, agriculture, production and thermal recovery of biogas, etc.), geothermal energy, heat pumps and solar thermal. The targetted sectors are collective housing, tertiary, agriculture and industry. By encouraging the use of renewable energy by heating networks, the Heat Fund will also have an important social impact (reduction and stabilisation of heating bills of essentially social housing) and directly encourage overall diversification of the energy supply.The Heat Fund intervention methods are:- for large scale biomass facilities (production of renewable heat greater than 1 000 toe/year) in the industrial, agricultural and tertiary sectors: there is an annual national call for projects. Four calls for projects have been already launched and a fifth one will be launched in September 2012.- for all other sectors (including residential), and for biomass facilities between 100 and 1000 toe/year, the Heat Fund is managed by the ADEME at regional level with regional calls for projects. It complements aid currently granted in the context of State-Region Project Contracts.

Link:

Heat Fund

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economic Affairs, European Comission 2010 NL

Title (orig.): Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

Netherlands 2020 targets:

  • Overall target: 14.5% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 9% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 37% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 10% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to achieve above enlisted targets Netherlands established comprehensive legal and administrative framework nurturing deployment of renewables with a number of complementary financial, fiscal and promotional measures:

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets

Link:

Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling Ministry of Economic Affairs 2006 NL

Title (orig.): Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Language: English

Summary:

Upon its publication in the EU Official Journal on 4 January 2003, the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) entered into EU law, allowing member states until 4 January 2006 to transpose the Directive into domestic building codes. The Directives principal objectives are: To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU through cost effective measures; To promote the convergence of building standards towards those of Member States which already have ambitious levels. Measures include: Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings; Application of performance standards on new and existing buildings; Certification schemes for all buildings; Regular inspection and assessment of boilers/heating and cooling installations. The Netherlands transposed into national law these measures, along with a building labelling scheme designed to encourage property buyers to choose property using relatively less fossil energy – either through integrated renewable energy generation or the buildings energy efficiency.

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy generation and the buildings energy efficiency

Link:

Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  International Energy Programme Ministry of Economic Affairs 2010 NL

Title (orig.): International Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

The Dutch government initiated the International Energy Programme, a research co-operation partnership, to further benefit from international experience and knowledge in the field of sustainable energy policies. The backbone of the programme is knowledge management and international networking. The Energy Programme aims to enhance Dutch national policies through information sharing and international co-operation, especially with focus countries namely Russia, Romania, Ukraine and China.

(LCMW) Relevance: Sustainable energy policies

Link:

International Energy Programme

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Community composting Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Kompostujeme na území MAS Ploštin (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

The citizens have the possibility to borrow the composter for home composting; The municipalities can borrow the composter for processing of biomass from public areas.

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste sent to composting

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Collective treatment of organic waste Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Biologicky rozložitelný odpad (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

Collective purchase of composters for organic residues from public areas and households (288 composters, volume of 900 liter each; 12 composters for public areas, volume of 5100 liter each).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste collectively composted

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Alexander van der Jagt and Anna Lawrence  Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission 2015 GB

Title (orig.): Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities

Language: English

Summary:

Forest Research is the Research Agency of the Forestry Commission and is the leading UK organisation engaged in forestry and tree related research. The Agency aims to support and enhance forestry and its role in sustainable development by providing innovative, high quality scientific research, technical support and consultancy services.

Forest Research (FR) was commissioned to provide a snapshot of the state of urban tree management by local authorities in Scotland in a study entitled Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns (TWIST). Research themes were identified in partnership with a steering group comprising members of Forestry Commission Scotland, Arboricultural Association and several Scottish local authorities. To address these, FR carried out interviews with tree officers from nine local authorities, focusing on tree management in specific towns, examining tree stock of varying size and age; and analysing relevant documents such as tree strategies. This was supplemented with a short survey distributed to all 32 Scottish local authorities (response rate: 69%).

Some positive examples are highlighted, and opportunities to address the status quo are identified, for example improving data, learning from success, involving communities in urban trees and woodland management and enhancing socio-economic valuations of trees and woodlands.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanace and utilization of forest biomass

Link:

Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities

Attachment

Anders, Kenneth; Fischer, Lars  Woody roads into a new landscape? Aufland Verlag 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Holzwege in eine neue Landschaft? - Perspektiven für holzige Biomasse aus der Sicht von Akteuren

Language: German

Summary:

Within the scope of the AgroForNet research network, the Landscape Communication Agency has conducted extensive surveys on short-term plantations, material from landscape maintenance and forestry residuals as well as other uses of woody biomass in German landscapes between 2010 and 2013. These were supplemented by research on historical agroforest systems, middle and low forests. From this material, the authors compiled a reading book, which supports the question of the future of these land use forms with the existing practices. The book is a snapshot of high landscape dynamics and a catalog of diverse possibilities to shape one’s own landscape and to create new value-creating relationships.

(LCMW) Relevance: Best practice examples of roles of stakeholders when using LCMW biomass

Link:

Purchase book

Arodudu, Oludunsin, et al.  Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators Elsevier Ltd. 2014 DE, NL, NG

Title (orig.): Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators

Language: English

Summary:

The production of bioenergy is dependent on the supply of biomass. Biomass production for bioenergy may cause large land use conversions, impact agricultural production, food prices, forest conservation, etc. The best solution is to use biomass that does not have agricultural or ecological value. Some of such unconventional sources of biomass are found within urban spaces. We employed Geographic Information System (GIS) and quantitative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas. Net Energy Gain (NEG) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI) were used as indicators to assess the bioenergy potential of urban spaces within the Overijssel province of the Netherlands as a case study. Data regarding suitable areas were geometrically extracted from available GIS datasets, and used to estimate the biomass/bioenergy potential of different species with different yields per hectare, growing under different environmental conditions. We found that potential net-energy gain from built-up areas can meet 0.6–7.7% of the 2030 renewable energy targets of the province without conflicting with socio-ecological concerns, while also improving human habitat.

(LCMW) Relevance: Methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas.

BAFU & BFE  Energy potencial of wood outside the forest: Study commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment and the Federal Office of Energy BAFU & BFE 2009 DE

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale ausserhalb des Waldes; Studie im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Umwelt BAFU und des Bundesamtes für Energie BFE

Language: German

Summary:

In der Schweiz steigt die Nachfrage nach Energieholz. Aus diesem Grund wird auch ausserhalb des Waldes anfallendes Holz vermehrt genutzt. Bisher liegen kaum Informationen darüber vor, wie viel Holz ausserhalb des Waldes nachwächst und wie dieses Flurholz verwertet wird. Die vorliegende Studie trägt dazu bei, diese Lücke zu schliessen. Ein wichtiger Aspekt ist dabei die Potenziale an Flurholz in der Schweiz abzuschätzen. Weiter wurde untersucht, wie Flurholz verwertet wird und mit welchen finanziellen Aufwendungen und Erträgen die Bewirtschaftung von Flurgehölzen verbunden ist.

(LCMW) Relevance: Study on energy potencial of wood outside the forest.

Barbera, Federica; Pais, Bárbara  Socio-Economic and Environmental Responsible Models for Sustainable Biomass Exploitation in European Protected Areas BioEUParks 2016 EU

Title (orig.): Socio-Economic and Environmental Responsible Models for Sustainable Biomass Exploitation in European Protected Areas

Language: English

Summary:

Final report (D1.2) of the BioEUParks project (2012 – 2016) : Exploiting the potentialities of solid biomasses in EU Parks.

BioEUParks project borns to answer to a crucial question: how to match nature and biodiversity conservation with sustainable exploitation of woody biomass for energy purpose?

Link:

Socio-economic and environmental responsible models for sustainable biomass exploitation in european protected areas

Barcelona  Management of biodiversity and green areas Barcelona 2011 ES

Title (orig.): Barcelona website

Language: EN

Summary:

Green spaces in the city of Barcelona are  of a big importance. On its website, a lot of information about it can be found regarding the use of natural resources, maintenance of the parks and gardens which generate biomass that is recycled by turning it into compost, an organic fertilizer for the green spaces in Barcelona.

Link:

Ecology, Urban Planning and Mobility Area (website)
Street Tree Management in Barcelona (brochure)

Baum et. al.  Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review Vizja Press&IT 2012 PL

Title (orig.): Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

Language: English

Link:

Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

Baumgartner, Hansjakob  Also in meadows grows energy wood Federal Office for Environment (CH), Magazine "Umwelt" 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

Meadows enrich the landscape among other also by providing important habitats for animals and plants. To fulfil this function on a long term regular maintenance work is necessary. The resulting woody biomass has a high potential to contribute to a climate neutral energy potential.

(LCMW) Relevance: In the city of Bern, biomass coming from LCMW is nearly completely used for energetic purposes. Description of the use of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Aktionsplan Holz: Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Baur, Frank; Faßbender, Beate; Frantzen, Jörg; Speck, Mike; Springer, Mikael; Trapp, Manuel; Weiler, Katja; Wern, Bernhard; Ziegler, Claudia; Gebhard, Ralf  Biomass potential analysis for the Saarland Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Verkehr des Saarlands 2011 DE

Title (orig.): Biomasse-Potenzialanalyse für das Saarland - Der Teilplan Biomasse zum Masterplan Neue Energie

Language: German

Summary:

A master plan “New Energy” has been developed in the German Saarland in order to describe the path to a sustainable energy supply, including the possibilities and necessary measures to be taken. The plan based, inter alia, on the regional potential for expansion of renewable energies. To this end, a range of potential analyses were carried out, the results of which are presented for the biomass sector as part of this report.

Link:

Download on homepage of the Institut for Future Energy Systems

Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde  Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings (green cuttings, leaves, wood) in the bioenergy region Ludwigsfelde RegioFutur 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Endbericht „Potentiale und Möglichkeiten der energetischen Verwertung von kommunalem Begleitgrün (Grünschnitt, Laub, Holz) in der Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde Plus+

Language: German

(LCMW) Relevance: Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings.

Bioenergy Promotion  Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance Bioenergy Promotion 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance

Language: English

Summary:

Rotenburg (Wümme) County supports renewable energy mainly from biogas and woody resources through a strategy which was founded in 2007 and acts as a platform for commuication and information among related actors. This strategy is supported by addressing renwable energy in all mandatory publc planning like the Regional Development Plan (under renewal in 2014), the Regional Landscape Plan and the Concept for Climate Protection. Moreover, forestry-related, mostly EU-co-financed support schemes like site mapping, forest inventory and investment support provide good opportunities for assessment and utilisation of woody biomass, taking sustainability principles into account. A close cooperation exists between three local forest owners associations, which can form a basis for resliable supply of wood as an energy carrier.

(LCMW) Relevance: Project partner - greenGain.

Bioenergy Promotion project  Country Policy Assessment Report on Bioenergy 2011 Interreg IVB 2011 LV

Title (orig.): Country Policy Assessment Report on Bioenergy 2011

Language: English

Link:

Country policy assessment report from Latvia

Attachment

PDF (909.74 KB)

Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

BIOMASS Energy Centre  Overview of grants and incentives to encourage bioenergy use and development BIOMASS Energy Centre 2016 UK

Title (orig.): Overview of grants and incentives to encourage bioenergy use and development

Language: English

Summary:

The use of biomass as an energy source can have numerous benefits personally, locally, nationally and globally.  Many countries, including the UK, offer a range of grants and incentives to encourage its use and development. For convenience grants and support are divided into those that help support the purchase, installation or development of equipment, those that support the fuels supply chain, and those that provide consultancy and advice.

(LCMW) Relevance: Overview of grants and incentives to encourage bioenergy use and development

Link:

Online sources

Biomass logistic centers in Ourense, Galicia  Biomass logistic centers in Ourense, Galicia Bioenergy International 2011 ES

Title (orig.): Centros de Tratamiento de la Biomasa, Ourense, Galicia

Language: ES

Summary:

The network of biomass treatment centres (CTB) distributed along Ourense (Spain) allows the use of biomass from roadside cleaning and forest for energy purposes. The Provincial Council of Ourense has converted the existing problem regarding the residues accumulation and fire risk related to roadside biomass and forest areas in an opportunity to increase the life quality of the local habitants through the biomass potential use for energy which is strategically distributed among the 3 biomass logistic centres.

Link:

Centros de Tratamiento de la Biomasa, Ourense, Galicia

BMU & UBA  Ecologically sensible recycling of biowaste; Suggestions for municipal decision makers BMU & UBA 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Ökologisch sinnvolle Verwertung von Bioabfällen; Anregungen für kommunale Entscheidungsträger

Language: German

Summary:

Die Bundesregierung will bis spätestens 2020 die Emission treibhausrelevanter Gase in Deutschland um 40 Prozent gegenüber 1990 reduzieren. Ziele, die sich nur durch eine nachhaltige Energiewirtschaft – der Einsparung von Energie, der regenerativen Energieerzeugung und einen effizienteren Energieeinsatz – erreichen lassen. Angesichts dieser hochgesteckten Ziele ist zu prüfen, welchen Beitrag die Abfallwirtschaft, und hierbei auch die Bioabfälle zur Erreichung
der Ressourcen-, Energie- und Klimaziele, künftig zusätzlich noch leisten kann.

(LCMW) Relevance: Recycling of biowaste.

Bratkovich Steve , Bowyer Jim, Fernholz Kathryn and Alison Lindburg  Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters Alliance for Community Trees 2008 USA

Title (orig.): Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters

Language: EN

Summary:

Comprehensive article about the problematic of treatment of urban wood in the USA.

Link:

Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters

Bratkovich, Steve , et al.  Urban Forests & Urban Tree Use Opportunities on Local, State, National and International Scales DOVETAIL PARTNERS, INC. 2014 USA

Title (orig.): Urban Forests & Urban Tree Use Opportunities on Local, State, National and International Scales

Language: English

Summary:

This report focuses on urban forestry (urban forest management) as it is practiced in urban areas as defined by the Bureau of the Census. These areas include urbanized areas with populations of 50,000 or more, places that contain some urbanized areas within their boundaries, or places with at least 2,500 people and located outside of urbanized areas. Community forestry is a phrase that can mean one thing in Mexico or Nepal, and different things in the United States. For example, in the Pacific Northwest, where the federal government is the major landowner, community forestry might refer to the process by which loggers, environmentalists, and others come together to craft a vision for the management of public lands. In New England, community forestry can mean the management of predominantly rural town forests by local municipalities. In this report, community forestry and urban forestry are used interchangeably to describe tree and forestry activities practiced in population centers, whether large or small.

(LCMW) Relevance: This report focuses on urban forestry (urban forest management).

Britton, Renée Bradford  The potential for CO2 reduction of energetically used landscape conservation materials and green waste in the county Marburg - Biedenkopf, Germany Kassel University, Kassel, Germany and Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (Master thesis) 2013 DE

Title (orig.): The potential for CO2 reduction of energetically used landscape conservation materials and green waste in the county Marburg - Biedenkopf, Germany

Language: EN

Summary:

The goal of this thesis is to ascertain the annual average amount of green waste available from LCMW and to determine the potential of its energetic use and its positive contribution to the climate targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Key messages and data for greenGain Approaches: Bio-waste management analysis in Marburg-Biedenkopf Literature review on relevant energy-conversion technology Overview on green waste in Germany, key stakeholders of the energetic use Importance of logistic for the use of green residues Determining the potential of the green residues for the energy utilisation (yield of methane) Tool for modelling CO2 emissions Case scenario for Marburg-Biedenkopf: coal vs. grass plant Transferability of the concept to Jamaican context.

Link:

Thesis
Presentation

Bulgarian Ministry of Finance  Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act Bulgarian Ministry of Finance 2013 BG

Title (orig.): Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

Language: English

Summary:

Tax regulation mechanism: A reduced rate of excise duty is applied to unleaded petrol or gas oil if a share of 4 to 5% of bioethanol or biodiesel has been added.

Link:

Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU) & Bundesamt für Energie (BFE)  Energy wood potentials outside of the forest in Switzerland Ernst Basler + Partner AG 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

The aim of this study is to assess the potential amount of meadow wood (= wood growing on areas outside of forests) in Switzerland, how it is currently used and what gains and costs occur. The authors defined five sources for meadow wood (along roads, along rivers and lakes, urban green, hedgerows and agricultural areas). They used a GIS-model and conducted expert interviews for the data collection. The study showed that on 10 % of Switzerland’s area meadow wood is growing (400 000 ha) and that 420 000 t TS per year can be sustainably used. Over 80 % of the meadow wood is on urban or agricultural are and mostly in the region of the Swiss midland. Of today’s use only 54 % are used for energetic purposes, 39 % are left on the site and 7 % is used for material production. The profits and costs differ strongly between the regions. In some regions, the same material is sold and in others, disposal charges have to be paid.

(LCMW) Relevance: Broad overview of the situation of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes (PDF)
Holzenergie (website)

Bundesregierung  Energy Concept Bundesregierung 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Language: Deutsch

Summary:

Energy and Climate Fund

Link:

Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Butler Manning, David; Bemann, Albrecht; Bredemeier, Michael; Lamersdorf, Norbert; Ammer, Christian  Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas Wiley-VCH 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas

Language: English

Summary:

This book shows the major reasearch foundings of the projects AgroForNet: Linking the Producers and Consumers of Woodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas and BEST: Strengthening Bioenergy Regions. In stand-alone scientific research papers the latest knowledge on cultivation of dendromass for bioenergy purposes in Germany is presented in the context of international research. Different aspects are covered, among other i) environmental constraints, landscape functions, ecosystem services; ii) evaluating, managing and enhancing the supply of dendromass; and iii) socio-economic and legal aspects fo dendromass for bioenergy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Examples of frameworks for the development of woodfuel-based service systems and supply chains

Cabinet of Ministers  Guidelines for Energy Sector Development for 2007-2016 Latvian Government 2006 LV

Title (orig.): Par Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2007.–2016.gadam

Language: Latvian

Link:

Par Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2007.–2016.gadam

Carlini, Maurizio , et al.  Waste Wood Biomass Arising from Pruning of Urban Green in Viterbo Town: Energy Characterization and Potential Uses Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2013 IT

Title (orig.): Waste Wood Biomass Arising from Pruning of Urban Green in Viterbo Town: Energy Characterization and Potential Uses

Language: English

Summary:

The use of residual biomass arising from urban green pruning for energy production is a current and interesting subject for three main reasons: to achieve the aims of the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels and to manage the urban green in a sustainable way.The aim of this study is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of waste wood biomass from urban green pruning in Viterbo in order to use it for energy production. Moisture, ash, C, H, N contents and Calorific Value analysis are carried out. Starting from the results analysis, two energy uses are proposed: wood-chips boiler and gasification.

(LCMW) Relevance: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of waste wood biomass from urban green pruning.

CENTRE TECHNIQUE DU BOIS ET DE L'AMEUBLEMENT  Coexistence of biomass energy projects at regional level FP5-LIFE QUALITY 2004 FR

Title (orig.): Cohabitation de projets énergie - biomasse - à l’échelle d’un territoire

Language: French

Summary:

Study aims to optimize the coexistence in the region of energy production from biomass taking into better account the externatilities related to different projects, share the information regarding the stakeholders requirements over the different impacts from the projects. Croiser les vues des acteurs sur différents profils de projets (impacts) and accumulate experience.

(LCMW) Relevance: Coexistence in the region of energy production from biomass taking into better account the externatilities related to different projects

Link:

Website

Attachment

CertiQ (formerly the Green Certificate Body)  Green Certificate Trading Ministry of Economic Affairs 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Green Certificate Trading

Language: English

Summary:

To promote green energy on the national electricity market, the Netherlands in 2001 established a tradable green certificates program. In a green certificate system, the credits function as an accounting system to verify whether demand has been met or, when there is no demand, to measure the amount of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES-E). Secondly, certification facilitates trade: through the establishment of green certificates (GCs) a separate market for the renewable characteristic of the electricity will originate besides the market for physical electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Green Certificate Trading

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Comittee for Environment, Public Health and Food Safety; Comittee for Industry, Research and Energy  European Parliament resolution of 5 February 2014 on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies European Parliament 2013 EU

Title (orig.): European Parliament resolution of 5 February 2014 on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies

Language: English

Link:

European Parliament resolution of 5 February 2014 on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies

Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI  Action plan for coordinated energy research Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI 2013 CH

Title (orig.): Action plan for coordinated energy research

Language: English

Link:

Action plan for coordinated energy research

Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment  Building Renovation Program Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Building Renovation Program

Language: English

Link:

Building Renovation Program

Conrady et. al.  Landscape management without shepherd? – Results based on the pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” Thüringer Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Forsten, Umwelt und Naturschutz 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer? - Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt "Biodiversität und Energieholz"

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” examines the use of wood from landscape management for energy production to maintain the natural value of open habitats with their important biodiversity in cultural landscapes. Since 2009, different methods of timber harvesting have been tested on up to 34 areas in Brandenburg and Thuringia in Germany – with a special focus on cost reduction, economic efficiency and environmental compatibility. The project shows the benefit of combining efforts to maintain open habitats in our cultural landscape with using harvested woody biomass as fuel wood. This benefit was visible already after the first few measures – economically and ecologically.

(LCMW) Relevance: Hederows on banks, nature protection, landscape management

Link:

Download portal for single chapters of conference script "The steppe habitats in Europe - Hazards, conservation measures and protection"

Attachment

PDF Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer (323.30 KB)

Cremer, Tobias  Mobilisation and economical utilization of raw wood from forests and landscape for energy production DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Language: DE

Summary:

The aim of this project was to develop and implement optimised mobilisation, supply and logistic concepts for energy wood from forests and LCMW biomass for a concrete region. Existing and innovative technologies and organisational approaches for the supply of energy wood were further developed and combined. During this process, all affected regional actors were involved.

(LCMW) Relevance: A new approach for the assessment of the potential of LCMW biomass for energetic use was described.

Link:

Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Croatian Energy Market Operator  Croatia Feed in tariff Croatian Energy Market Operator 2011 HR

Title (orig.): Croatia Feed in tariff

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariff. RES-E plant operators, which have been classified as “qualified producers” and have signed a contract with the Croatian Energy Market Operator (HROTE), are paid a fixed price per kWh of electricity supplied.

Moreover the following support schemes are available

HBOR-Loans. The loans granted for the employment of RES-E technologies are part of the “environmental protection” loan scheme by the Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development (HBOR) in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Fund and business banks.

Environmental Fund-Loans. The Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency offers interest-free loans for the promotion of renewable energy sources.

In general, all RES-E technologies are eligible for all incentive schemes

Link:

Tariffs for RES and CHP electricity

Danish Energy Agency  Limiting the use of corn and other feedstocks for the production of biogas Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building 2012 DK

Title (orig.): Begrænsning for brug af majs og andre energiafgrøder til produktion af biogas

Language: Danish

Summary:

Quotation: “Under  the  new  conditions,  the  Danish  biogas  sector  is subject  to  legislation  that  limits  the  quantity  of  purposely  grown energy  crops  that  can  be  used  in  biogas  plants  to  25%  (weight based,  %  of  total  biomass  digested)  by  2017  with  further  reduction  to  12%  by  2020.”

(Meyer, A.K.P., Ehimen, E.A. and Holm-Nielsen, J.B. 2014. Bioenergy production from roadside grass: A case study of the feasibility of using roadside grass for biogas production in Denmark. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2014, 93, pp. 124–133.)

Link:

Begrænsning for brug af majs og andre energiafgrøder til produktion af biogas PDF

DECC and in Northern Ireland: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI)  Renewables Obligation (RO) DECC and in Northern Ireland: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI) 2002 UK

Title (orig.): Renewables Obligation (RO)

Language: English

Summary:

The Renewables Obligation (RO) is one of the main support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects in the UK. Smaller scale generation is mainly supported through the Feed-In Tariff (FITs). The RO came into effect in 2002 in England and Wales, and Scotland, followed by Northern Ireland in 2005. It places an obligation on UK electricity suppliers to source an increasing proportion of the electricity they supply from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects in the UK

Link:

Renewables Obligation (RO)

Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources  Bioenergy action plan Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy action plan

Language: English

Summary:

Comprehensive strategy for the 2007-2013 period to increase the deployment of renewable energy across three key sectors: transport, heat and electricity and aims to cut Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2 million tonnes per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy action plan of Ireland

Link:

Online PDF
Online source

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs  Policy paper Circular economy and waste markets: UK government response to European Commission consultations Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 2015 UK

Title (orig.): Policy paper Circular economy and waste markets: UK government response to European Commission consultations

Language: English

Summary:

The UK government’s response to three Commission consultations on the Circular Economy, barriers to waste markets and changes to waste laws. The UK government chose to submit a joint response for the public consultations on the:

The third consultation, aimed at Member States, asked for detail on the technical workings of existing waste legislation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Politicals strategies on biomass waste management in UK

Link:

Online sources

Department for transport; department of energy & climate change; department for environment, food and rural affairs  UK Bioenergy Strategy 2012 Department for transport; department of energy & climate change; department for environment, food and rural affairs 2012 UK

Title (orig.): UK Bioenergy Strategy 2012

Language: English

Summary:

This strategy sets out the Coalition Government’s approach to securing the benefits of bioenergy. It is the result of extensive analysis by a Cross Government team. In considering how to secure these benefits we have examined the wide range of evidence on the availability of sustainably-produced biomass feedstocks to UK users, the likely carbon impacts of bioenergy compared to possible alternative uses of the biomass resource; and the role of biomass in the energy system compared to other choices for low-carbon energy. The strategy also builds on analysis used for the Committee on Climate Change’s Bioenergy Review and includes the Coalition Government’s response to that review

(LCMW) Relevance: This strategy sets out the approach to securing the benefits of bioenergy

Link:

UK Bioenergy Strategy

Department Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl), works for Dutch governments and European Union  Stimulation of Sustainable Energy Production, SDE+ Department Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl), works for Dutch governments and European Union 2015 NL

Title (orig.): Stimulering duurzame energie, SDE+

Language: English

Summary:

The SDE+ is an incentive for the production of renewable energy in the Netherlands. Renewable energy is generated from clean, inexhaustible sources. In 2015, the SDE+ is open from 31 March from 9 am to 17 December 2015, 5 pm.

The SDE+ scheme grants a premium on top of the market price to the producers of renewable energy in order to compensate for the difference between the wholesale price of electricity from fossil sources and the price of electricity from renewable sources. The SDE+ is aimed at companies and (non-profit) organizations that would like to produce renewable energy.

The sum of the premium, paid on top of the market price, is variable and depends on the annual electricity market price development and is adjusted by a correction value accordingly (art. 13 (5) SDE+). The premium is paid for a period of 5, 12 or 15 years. The support is made available in 6 stages and is allocated on a ‘first come, first serve’ basis. The scheme’s budget was capped at € 3.5 billion for 2014.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

SDE+ Brochure

Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR)  Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff 2 and 3 (REFIT 2 and 3) Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR) 2010 IE

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff 2 and 3 (REFIT 2 and 3)

Language: English

Summary:

Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff (REFIT) scheme in Ireland is split into two programmes: REFIT 2 and REFIT 3. REFIT 2 programme was opened in March 2012 and covers small and large scale onshore wind, biomass landfill gas and small hydro (≤ 5MW). REFIT 3 programme opened in February 2012 and supports anaerobic digestion, biomass with CHP and biomass combustion and co-firing. The REFIT 2 and REFIT 3 competitions are separate schemes with separate terms and conditions in respect to each scheme. Both schemes close down to new applications on 31st December 2015 or if the capacity caps in both programmes will be reached before that date. REFIT capacity cap is 4,000MW and REFIT 3 has an overall limit of 310 MW, differentiated by technology:

  • Anaerobic digestion (including AD CHP): 50MW
  • Biomass CHP: 100MW
  • Biomass combustion (including co-firing with peat): 160MW.

FIT contracts are awarded for period of 15 years (both for REFIT 2 and REFIT 3). Projects benefiting from REFIT programmes must be operational by 2017. The financial support awarded through REFIT will not exceed beyond 31st December 2032.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on biomass production in Ireland

Link:

IEA online

Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources  Green paper: towards a sustainable energy future in Ireland Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Green paper: towards a sustainable energy future in Ireland

Language: English

Summary:

This Green Paper reflects the Government’s goals of ensuring safe and secure energy supplies, promoting a sustainable energy future, and delivering economically efficient prices to Irish consumers. The Government supports the delivery of these objectives through competitive market mechanisms, supplemented by regulatory oversight. The energy system is highly complex, impacting on various aspects of the environment, the transport and built environment sectors. Delivering an effective energy policy requires an integrated programme, which is joined up across all of government.

(LCMW) Relevance: Political strategies for biomass as a part of renewable sources in Ireland

Link:

PDF online

Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources  Green paper on energy policy in Ireland Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources 2014 IE

Title (orig.): Green paper on energy policy in Ireland

Language: English

Summary:

White Paper on Energy Policy in Ireland is all about providing a vision for sustainable energy in Ireland into the future, and a pathway to get there. This Green Paper on Energy Policy in Ireland aims to stimulate a discussion between citizens, policymakers, businesses and stakeholders on such a vision for Irish energy policy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Providing suistanable energy in Ireland

Link:

PDF online

Department of Energy & Climate change  UK Biomass Strategy Department of Energy & Climate change 2012 UK

Title (orig.): UK Biomass Strategy

Language: English

Summary:

This publication was published under the 2010 to 2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government.

This strategy sets out the Coalition Government’s approach to securing the benefits of bioenergy. It is the result of extensive analysis by a Cross Government team. In considering how to secure these benefits have been examined the wide range of evidence on the availability of sustainably-produced biomass feedstocks to UK users, the likely carbon impacts of bioenergy compared to possible alternative uses of the biomass resource; and the role of biomass in the energy system compared to other choices for low-carbon energy. The strategy also builds on analysis used for the Committee on Climate Change’s Bioenergy Review and includes the Coalition Government’s response to that review.

(LCMW) Relevance: Evidence on the availability of sustainably-produced biomass feedstocks to UK users

Link:

UK Bioenergy Strategy

Department of Environment  National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions Ministry of sustainable Development and Infrastructure 2000 LU

Title (orig.): National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

Language: English

Summary:

In May 2000, the government issued a National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions. The report stresses the need to ensure sustainable development and to set up a medium-term plan. The report recommends six categories of actions:

  • To ensure that electricity from renewable energies will amount to at least 10% of final electricity consumption by 2010
  • To improve energy efficiency in energy generation
  • To increase energy savings
  • To set an eco-tax progressively
  • To curb the increase in road transport
  • To rely on flexible mechanism allowed by Kyoto Protocol

On top of that, Plan lists 29 measures, some of which have been already envisaged in the National Plan on Sustainable Development from 1999.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energies

Link:

National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

Department of Environment, Community and Local Government  National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste Department of Environment, Community and Local Government 2006 IE

Title (orig.): National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Improving waste management system is a key challenge that is currently engaging Ireland’s citizens and government. A primary goal in accordance with the EU Landfill Directive is to reduce dependence on landfill in favour of more environmentally sound alternatives. This document outlines Government policy for the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste from landfill, building upon the key objectives established in policy documents Changing Our Ways (1998), Delivering Change – Preventing and Recycling Waste (2002) and Waste Management: Taking Stock and Moving Forward (2004).

(LCMW) Relevance: Diversion of biodegradable waste

Link:

PDF online

Dept of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Dept of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources 2010 IE

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

Ireland’s overall target is 16% of gross final energy consumption to come from renewable sources by 2020 (3.1% in 2005). This 16% target will be made up of contributions from renewable energy in electricity (RES-E), renewable energy in transport (RES-T) and renewable energy for heat and cooling (RES-H). The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) sets out the Government’s strategic approach and concrete measures to deliver on Ireland’s 16% target under Directive 2009/28/EC.

(LCMW) Relevance: National Renewable Energy Action Plan of Ireland

Link:

National action plan online
SEAI online

Deputy Secretariat of State for Green Economy Development and Climate Policy for the Ministry of National Development  Republic of Hungary national renewable energy action plan 2010 - 2020 Hungary, Deputy Secretariat of State for Green Economy Development and Climate Policy for the Ministry of National Development 2010 HU

Title (orig.): Republic of Hungary national renewable energy action plan 2010 - 2020

Language: English

Summary:

The aim of the National Action Plan is to provide the greatest possible benefit to the entire society by drawing on Hungary’s natural, economic, social, cultural and geopolitical assets. The main objective of the utilisation of renewable and alternative energy is to reduce dependency on gas and crude oil imports.

The measures of the present National Action Plan concern the following public tasks:

>> the drafting of a new act on sustainable energy management in 2011;

>> restructuring of the implementation of existing aid schemes and making it more efficient and more simple;

>> launching an independent energy support scheme (cofinanced by the EU) between 2014 and 2020;

>> a comprehensive adaptation of the mandatory off-take scheme for renewable electricity (hereinafter referred

to as green electricity) (the relevant amendment of Act LXXXVI of 2007 on Electricity is currently being submitted

for administrative consultations);

>> examination of the possibilities for subsidising green heat;

>> facilitating a more active participation in direct Community support and other support schemes;

>> review of the incentives incorporated into energy regulations for buildings (in accordance with Directive 2010/31/EC);

>> review of spatial plans, creation of regional energy concepts;

>> establishment of green forms and programmes of financing (green bank);

>> review and simplification of regulatory and authorization systems and procedures;

>> drafting of awareness-raising programmes and information campaigns (integrated information programmes);

>> launching educational and training programmes based on renewable and alternative energy sources and energy efficiency;

>> launching employment programmes in the field of renewable energy sources;

>> launching development programmes for the purpose of developing the related industries;

>> encouraging research and development and innovation incentive programmes;

>> programmes and measures for spreading second generation bio- and alternative fuels;

>> drafting of an agricultural energy programme;

>> preparation of the administrative staff taking part in regulatory and authorisation procedures in relation to renewable energy and related fields.

Link:

Republic of Hungary national renewable energy action plan 2010 - 2020

Directorate General for Energy and Climate  Tax credit for energy transition (CITE) Directorate General for Energy and Climate 2005 FR

Title (orig.): Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Language: English

Summary:

In 2005, the government recalibrated the tax credits for purchases of equipment for primary residences (Article 200 of the General Tax Code) to promote both sustainable development and energy conservation. Specifications regarding equipment covered were modified in 2006 and 2007, to account for technological change. These were modified again in 2009, when the credit was extended to 31 December 2012 (from end of 2009). To be eligible for the tax credits the building in which the equipment is used must be a primary residence and at least two years old; for renewable energy equipment the building can be new or old. The tax credits are as follows: – 15% for purchases of low-temperature boilers; (until 31 December 2008) – 25% for purchases of condensation boilers, thermal insulation and heating regulation devices; This amount increases to 40% if: a) the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners; b) the material was purchased after 1 January 2006. Since 2009, the installation costs for thermal insulation of walls, floors, roofs and ceilings are also covered by the tax credit. – 40% for energy production equipment using renewable energy and heat pumps devoted primarily to heat production; Increased to 50% for renewable energy used for heating as of 1 January 2006. However the credit for heat pumps decreases to 40% in 2009 and 25% in 2010 for biomass or wood boilers, and heat pumps. It remains at 40% if the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners. Air-air heat pumps are excluded as of 1 January 2009. -50% for obtaining an energy audit, when not required by law (as of 1 January 2009, limited to one audit every 5 years); -25% for the purchase of equipment and heating systems drawing the majority of their power from cogeneration or renewable energy sources (as of 1 January 2006); The tax credit is limited to EUR 8000 per person, EUR 16 000 for a couple and EUR 400 for each additional dependent.

Since 2005 and the Programme Law setting the directions of the energy policy (POPE), privateindividuals have been able to benefit from a tax credit for the purchase of the most efficient materials or equipment in terms of saving energy or generating renewable energy.From 1st July 2015, the CIDD will be subject to an eco-conditionality criterion: the work must be performed by installers that hold the quality sign “recognised Grenelle de l’environnement”.Between 2005 and 2011, over 6 million of the 34 million primary residences in metropolitan France benefited from the CIDD at least once.

Link:

Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-Law No. 34/2011 of 8 March - legal framework for RES-E generation by small power installations or plants Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.° 34/2011 de 8 de Março

Language: English

Summary:

This decree-law establishes the legal framework for renewable energy generation by small power installations or plants (miniproduction units). A miniproduction unit is defined as an installation that uses a single production technology and has a capacity of up to 250 kW (art. 1 DL 34/2011). Any entity that has a contract for purchasing electricity with a relevant consumption of electricity can apply to this law, provided that injected power does not exceed 50% of the contracted power. A special tariff is provided to installations with a capacity below 20 kW. For biogas and biomass installations in case of miniproduction, 60% of the reference tariff is provided (art 11(7) DL34/2011). The tariffs are limited to 15 years, the maximum production may not exceed 5 MWh/year and the annual maximum capacity eligible for the tariff is 30 MW in 2013 (art 11). Currently the regime is being discussed by the government.

Link:

Factsheet: RES-E in small power installations

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-Law No. 363/2007 of 2 November - legal framework for renewable electricity generated by ‘microproduction units Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.° 363/2007 de 2 de Novembro

Language: English

Summary:

This decree-law establishes the legal framework for renewable energy generation by ‘microproduction units’. A microproduction unit is defined as an installation that uses a single production technology and a single-phase or three-phase load operating at low voltage and has a capacity of up to 5.75 kW (art. 3 DL 118-A/2010). It provides for a simplified licensing regime for local grid connected, low-voltage, small/residential renewable energy producers. Licensing is conducted through the internet, via the System of Registration of Microproducers (SRM), an electronic platform through which producers register their installations. Micro producers cannot inject more than 50 % of the power mentioned in the purchasing contract, except in the case of installations for condominiums. The tariffs are limited to 15 years, the maximum production may not exceed 4 MWh/year and the annual maximum capacity eligible for the tariff is 11 MW in 2013 (art 1 DL 118-A/2010). Currently the regime is being discussed by the government.

Link:

Factsheet: RE in microproduction units

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-Law No. 189/1988 of 27 May - Feed-in tariff Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.° 189/88 de 27 de Maio - Tarifas feed-in

Language: English

Summary:

Decree-Law No. 189/1988 of 27 May – Feed-in tariff. In Portugal, the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Decree-Law No. 189/88 regulates the generation of renewable electricity. DL 225/2007, DL 33A-2005 and DR 71/2007 amended the provisions on the feed-in tariff for electricity from renewable sources. The guaranteed feed-in tariff is the only promotion mechanism. The amount of incentive is dependent on the energy source. Using a coefficient Z (DL 339-C/2001) the FiT is varied according to the technology used. Currently the regime is being discussed by the government. For biogas (fermentation of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, agricultural and food waste and landfill gas) the support in provided for 15 years, for biomass (forest and animal biomass) the support is provided for 25 years. In case of micro- or miniproduction a separate degree is in force, respectively 363/2007 and 34/2011.

Link:

Factsheet: Feed-in tariff

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-law 23/2010 of 25 March Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2010 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-lei 23/2010 de 25 de Março

Language: English

Summary:

Decree-law 23/2010 introduced the legal framework for cogeneration activities and a remunerative framework for operators. As such it implements the directive 2004/8/EC of February 11 of the European parliament and council on the promotion of cogeneration which amended directive 92/42/EEC of May 21. It aims to increase energy efficiency and security of supply by creating a framework for the promotion and development of high efficiency cogeneration of heat and electricity based on useful heat demand and primary energy savings in the internal energy market. This law regulates the activity of cogeneration, establishing its legal status and remuneration. The tariff is based on two modalities, according to the choice of cogeneration, accessible to efficient cogeneration and high efficiency cogeneration. Incentives are provided based on three criteria: reduction of primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions compared with the separate production of electric and thermal energy; cogeneration production that is efficient and uses renewable resources; and promoting the participation of cogeneration in the electricity market. At least 50% of primary energy consumed must come from renewable resources.

Link:

Factsheet: Cogeneration

Directorate General for Energy and Raw Materials (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning)  Livret de Developpement Durable Directorate General for Energy and Raw Materials (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning) 2007 FR

Title (orig.): Livret de Developpement Durable

Language: English

Summary:

Preferential loans for energy saving measures. On 5 October 2006, the French Government announced the creation of a EUR 10 billion fund for the funding of domestic energy conservation projects with low-interest loans. Available from 1 January 2007, the low-interest loans are based on a previous tax-free savings account known as the CODEVI (Compte pour le Développement Industriel). This savings product allowed banks to finance the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The CODEVI as of 1 January 2007 has been renamed the LDD (Livret de Développement Durable), and banks must use a portion of these funds to offer preferential loans for domestic energy conservation projects. While the CODEVI was capped at EUR 4600 per person, the LDD cap has been raised to EUR 6000 per person to raise additional funds for these loans. As of 2009 the account pays tax-free interest of 2.5% a year. In 2008, banks must dedicate 2% of the funds to energy conservation loans, rising to 5% in 2009 and 10% thereafter. Preferential loans can be awarded to individuals, co-properties and entrepreneurs for the purchase and installation of equipment producing energy from renewable sources; space and water heating equipment using wood or other biomass; heat pumps. Applicants must provide the bank with documents from the equipment installer, certifying that the equipment and installation meets the required criteria.

Link:

Livret de Developpement Durable

Dorottya Hujber and Tamás Szilágyi, ÉMI Non-Profit Limited Liability Company for Quality Control and Innovation in Building  Danube Region Biomass Action Plan ÉMI Non-Profit Limited Liability Company for Quality Control and Innovation in Building 2014 HU

Title (orig.): Danube Region Biomass Action Plan

Language: English

Link:

Danube Region Biomass Action Plan

DZIENNIK USTAW, RZECZYPOSPOLITEJ POLSKIEJ  Renewable Energy Law of Poland DZIENNIK USTAW, RZECZYPOSPOLITEJ POLSKIEJ 2015 PL

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Law of Poland

Language: Polish

Summary:

Renewable Energy Act of Poland

Attachment

PDF (644.80 KB)

Eastern & Midlands Waste Region (EMWR)  Waste Plan for Connacht Ulster Region Connacht Ulster Waste Region 2015 IE

Title (orig.): Waste Plan for Connacht Ulster Region

Language: English

Summary:

The strategic vision of the regional waste plan is to rethink our approach to managing wastes, by viewing our waste streams as valuable material resources can lead to a healthier environment and sustainable commercial opportunities for our economy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Strategy for sustainable regional waste plan

Link:

Waste plan online

EC  Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling EC 2011 EU

Title (orig.): Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling

Language: English

Link:

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling

EC  Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank - A framework strategy for a resilient energy union with a forward-looking climate change policy EC 2015 EU

Title (orig.): Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank - A framework strategy for a resilient energy union with a forward-looking climate change policy

Language: English

Link:

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank - A framework strategy for a resilient energy union with a forward-looking climate change policy

EC  Commission communication on the practical implementation of the EU biofuels and bioliquids sustainability scheme and on counting rules for biofuels EC 2010 EU

Title (orig.): Commission communication on the practical implementation of the EU biofuels and bioliquids sustainability scheme and on counting rules for biofuels

Language: English

Link:

Commission communication on the practical implementation of the EU biofuels and bioliquids sustainability scheme and on counting rules for biofuels

Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04)  Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement) Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04) 2004; 2006; 2009 BE

Title (orig.): Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement)

Language: English

Summary:

Primes Energies 2014: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels Capital region provides energy subsidies for residential, industrial as well as service sector buildings located in the Brussels region. Moreover, energy subsidies can also apply for renovation works in buildings older than 10 years. The energy subsidies are defined each year and apply from 1 January to 31 December.

The energy subsidies of the Brussels Capital region are allocated according to the income level. Three levels of subsidies are thus possible (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014):

  • Base income: > € 60,000 for singles and > € 75,000 for couples
  • Middle income: € 30,000 – 60,000 for singles and € 45,000 – 75,000 for couples
  • Low income: < € 30,000 for singles and < € 45,000 for couples

These income limits are increased by € 5,000 EUR per fiscally irresponsible person and if the applicant is under 35 years old. The subsidy is increased by 10 % for residential buildings situated within a Housing and Renovation Development Area (Espace de Développement Renforcé du Logement et de la Rénovation).

Social real estate agencies, public service real estate agencies as well as the Housing fund of the Brussels region benefit of the subsidies of the low income category. Industrial as well as service sector buildings benefit from the subsidies of the base income category (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014).

Aide à l’investissement: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels-Capital provides investment assistance for companies which develop environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants.

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants

Link:

Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014)
Brussels: Subsidy (Aide à l'investissement)

Ence: Energía & Celulosa  The majority of the forest fires could be avoided through a plan to clean the forests Ence: Energía & Celulosa 2012 ES

Title (orig.): La mayor parte de los incendios serían evitables mediante un plan para la limpieza de las masas forestales

Language: ES

Summary:

The withdrawal of forest biomass surplus allows to decrease the forest fires occurrence 70 %, and in case of fire, and in case of occurrence, allows a faster and most efficient extinction and also a better forest recovery.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: The forests cleaning are an important source of employment and renewable energy.

Link:

La mayor parte de los incendios serían evitables mediante un plan para la limpieza de las masas forestales

ENEA  Italian Action Plan for Energy Efficiency 2014 ENEA 2014 IT

Title (orig.): Piano d'azione per l'efficienza energetica 2014 (PAEE)

Language: Italian

Summary:

The document, drawn up by ENEA, shows the energy efficiency targets set by Italy in 2020 and policy measures to enable their achievement. In particular, the Plan proposes to strengthen the measures and existing instruments and introduce new mechanisms to overcome the problems encountered, particularly in some sectors.Particular attention is devoted to the description of the new measures introduced by Legislative Decree 102/2014, which transposed Directive 2012/27/ EU.

Link:

Piano d'azione per l'efficienza energetica 2014 (PAEE)

Enel Energia  Enel Energia begins work on first mini-biomass plant Biomass magazine 2015 IT

Title (orig.): Enel Energia begins work on first mini-biomass plant

Language: EN

Summary:

Enel Energia has begun construction of an innovative combined-cooling,-heat-and-power (CCHP) mini-biomass plant (capacity of 199 kWe) at the historic Luxottica factory in Agordo, in the Veneto region’s Belluno province of Italy. The plant will be fuelled with solid biomass from the local area, such as woodchips, clippings and pruning by-products.

Link:

Enel Energia begins work on first mini-biomass plant

Energy Technologies Institute  Bioenergy - An insights report by the Energy Technologies Institute Energy Technologies Institute 2015 UK

Title (orig.): "Bioenergy - An insights report by the Energy Technologies Institute"

Language: English

Summary:

The ETI’s Bioenergy Value Chain Model (BVCM) is a comprehensive and flexible toolkit for the modelling and optimisation of fullsystem bioenergy value chains over the next five decades. It has been designed to answer variants of the question: What is the most effective way of delivering a particular bioenergy outcome in the UK, taking into account the available biomass resources, the geography of the UK, time, technology options and logistics networks?

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy Value Chain Model

Link:

PDF online

Environment Agency  Environment Management Guide Environment Agency 2014 UK

Title (orig.): Environment Management Guide

Language: English

Summary:

Environmental management guidance ”Manage waste on land: guidance for land managers” describes how to deal with waste, including hazardous waste, register waste exemptions and apply for environmental permits in UK.

(LCMW) Relevance: Desription how to deal with biomass waste in UK

Link:

Environmental management guidance online

Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region  Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014) Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region 2010; 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

Language: English

Summary:

Energy subsidies are provided by the Walloon Region for the generation of electricity through CHP plants using renewable energy. The energy subsidies for CHP plants were renewed for the year 2014 with the same conditions as for 2013.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from biogas and biomass

Link:

Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

Environment and Energy Management Agency  Act on the Implementation of the Targets Set at the "Grenelle de l’Environnement" Summit, also called „Grenelle 1" - heat fund Environment and Energy Management Agency 2009 FR

Title (orig.): Act on the Implementation of the Targets Set at the "Grenelle de l’Environnement" Summit, also called „Grenelle 1" - heat fund

Language: English

Summary:

The French government introduced in 2008 a heat fund (Fonds Chaleur) in order to support the production of heat through renewable energy plants (Art. 19 §4, Loi n° 2009-967). The budget of the heat fund is divided into two subvention types: on the one hand, a national call for tenders, which is published yearly for large biomass plants, on the other hand the support of other renewable energy projects is administered on a regional level by the regional agencies of the ADEME. The call for tender 2014 will close on 30.01.2014. Only biomass plants with a heat production over 1,000 toe per year are eligible, provided they are submitted for the industrial, agricultural and service sectors. The payment to be awarded is calculated in accordance with the successful tenderer’s finance plan and with consideration of the relation between the amount of support asked for and the amount of renewable heat produced.

Link:

Grenelle 1 - Heat fund
Feed-in tariff

Estonian Govenment  GIS: Extended use of renewable energy sources for the generation of energy and reconstruction of district heating networks I, II Estonian Govenment 2010 EST

Title (orig.): GIS: Extended use of renewable energy sources for the generation of energy and reconstruction of district heating networks I, II

Language: English

Link:

GIS: Extended use of renewable energy sources for the generation of energy and reconstruction of district heating networks I, II

Estonian Government  Investment support for the reconstruction of RES CHP plants Estonian Government 2012 EST

Title (orig.): Investment support for the reconstruction of RES CHP plants

Language: English

Link:

Investment support for the reconstruction of RES CHP plants

Estonian Government  Estonian Waste Act Estonian Government 2004 EST

Title (orig.): Estonian Waste Act

Language: English

Link:

Estonian Waste Act

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)  Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL) European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

Language: English

Summary:

BEERECL has been established to support industrial energy efficiency and small renewable energy projects in the private sector by using funding from the Kozloduy International Fund, which was created by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in May 2002. BEERECL provides grants of up to 20 percent of the disbursed loan principle for RES projects financed prior to 30 September 2009, and up to 15 percent grants for financing received after the latter date. However, eligible Investments in biomass should have installed capacity of less than 5 MW electric output, and Investments in biomass heat only boilers with a thermal input higher than 10 MWth are subject to EBRD approval – No restrictions for biogas plants.

Link:

Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

European Commission  Country Report Sweden 2015 European Commission 2015 SWE

Title (orig.): Country Report Sweden 2015

Language: English

Link:

Country Report Sweden 2015 PDF

European Commission  ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD) European Commission 2015 EU

Title (orig.): ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD)

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive aims to promote transition from conventional (starch-rich energy crops) biofuels (with a risk of ILUC emissions) to advanced biofuels (that deliver substantial greenhouse gas savings and low-ILUC) and encourage a greater market penetration of advanced biofuels by allowing such fuels to contribute more to the targets in the RED than conventional biofuels.

The ILUC Directive sets a cap for biofuels produced from energy crops, however, it promotes a production and use of advanced generation biofuels.

References to the RED and FQD that sets out the sustainability criteria. The overall obejctive of the ILUC Directive is to limit ILUC.

In Recital 7 it is recognised that “advanced biofuels, such as those made from wastes and algae, provide high greenhouse gas emission savings, with low risk of causing indirect land use change, and do not compete directly for agricultural land for the food and feed markets. It is appropriate, therefore, to encourage greater research, development and production of such advanced biofuels as they are currently not commercially available in large quantities”. Recital 15 states that “biofuels made from feedstocks that do not lead to additional demand for land, such as those from waste feedstocks, should be assigned a zero emissions factor.” Article 2(1)(p) establishes that ‘waste’ shall be defined as in Article 3(1) of Directive 2008/98/EC. Article 2(2) explains that when setting policies for the promotion of the production of advanced biofuels, MS “shall have due regard to the waste hierarchy as established in Article 4 of Directive 2008/98/EC, including its provisions regarding life-cycle thinking on the overall impacts of the generation and management of different waste streams”.

Link:

ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD)

European Commission  Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020 European Commission 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

Language: English

Summary:

These European Commission guidelines are new rules on public support for environmental protection and energy to help renewable sources of energy enter the marketplace. Their aim is to support EU countries in reaching their 2020 climate targets while addressing the market distortions that may result from subsidies granted to renewable energy sources.

Art 3.2.5.1.For measures supporting integrated projects such as integrated energy-efficiency measures, or biogas projects, the counterfactual scenario can be difficult to establish. Where a counterfactual scenario cannot credibly

be established, the Commission is amenable to consider the total costs of a project as an alternative, which may imply lower aid intensities to reflect the different eligible cost calculation. Art 3.3.2.3. A i d f o r e x i s t i n g b i o m a s s pl a n t s a f t e r p l a n t d e p r e c i a t i o n (132) Unlike most other renewable sources of energy, biomass requires relatively low investment costs but higher operating costs. Higher operating costs may prevent a biomass    *(2) plant from operating even after depre ciation of the installation as the operating costs can be higher than the revenues (the market price). On the other hand, an existing biomass plant may operate by using fossil fuel instead of biomass as an input source if the use of fossil fuel as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass. To preserve the use of biomass in both cases, the Commission may find operating aid to be compatible with the internal market even after plant depreciation.

(133) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that the operating costs borne by the beneficiary after plant depreciation are still higher than the market price of the energy concerned and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary and the market price; and

(c) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify whether the operating costs borne are still higher than the market price of energy. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated production cost information and take place at least on an annual basis.

(134) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that, independent from the market price of the energy concerned, the use of fossil fuels as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary from biomass compared to the alternative fossil fuel input;

(c) credible evidence is provided that without the aid a switch from the use of biomass to fossil fuels would take place within the same plant; and

(d) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify that the use of fossil fuels is more beneficial than the use of biomass. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated cost information and take place at least on an annual basis   Annex 2 Typical State Intervention Biogas production which is upgraded to a level of natural gas: If the aid is limited to the upgrading of biogas, the counterfactual

constitutes the alternative use of these biogas (including burning). Biofuels and biogas used for transport:  In principle the extra investment cost compared to that of a normal

refinery should be chosen, but the Commission can accept alternative counterfactuals if duly justified.

Targets are:

— greenhouse gas emissions 20 % (or even 30 %, if the conditions are right) lower than 1990 levels;

— 20 % of energy from renewables; and

— 20 % increase in energy efficiency.

Link:

Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

European Commission  Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC European Commission 2009 EU

Title (orig.): Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive sets environmental criteria for fossil fuel components such as petrol and diesel. It also determines the permitted level of emissions derived from fossil fuels and includes GHG emission reduction target.

The FQD determines permitted GHG emissions level and reduction targets from fuels. It also sets a sustainability criteria and describes mass-balance system (same as the RED).

Art. 7b sets out sustainability criteria for all biofuels produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they guarantee real GHG savings and protects biodiversity. Art. 7b.1 defines that biofuels produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria in relation to the GHG savings. (Same as the RED).

Art. 7c defines a mass balance system, which allows consignments of raw material or biofuel with differing sustainability characteristics to be mixed and requires information about the sustainability characteristics and sizes of the consignments. (same as the RED)

Art. 7a.2 sets a requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the GHG intensity of energy supplied for road transport by up to 10 % by 2020 (Low Carbon Fuel Standard). This reduction shall consist of: (1) 6 % by 2020 with the intermediate targets: 2 % by 2014 and 4 % 2017; (2) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through: “the supply of energy for transport supplied for use in any type of road vehicle, non-road mobile machinery (including inland waterway vessels), agricultural or forestry tractor or recreational craft” and/or “the use of any technology (including carbon capture and  storage) capable of reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy from fuel or energy supplied”; (3) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through the use of credits purchased through the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, under the conditions set out in Directive 2003/87/EC.

Link:

Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

European Commission  Renewable Energy Directive European Commission 2009 EU

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Directive

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive establishes an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU.

The RED sets a mandatory RES target in overall energy consumption and in transport fuels and GHG emission reduction target (which could be achieved through use of the RES such as biomethane). It establishes sustainability criteria for biofuels and describes mass-balance system.

Mandatory national targets for the overall share of energy from renewable sources. Rules relating to the national renewable energy action plans, joint projects between Member States and with third countries, guarantees of origin, administrative procedures, information and training, and access to the electricity grid for energy from renewable sources. Sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids.

Art. 3.1 sets binding national targets to create 20% of energy consumption from renewables, increase energy efficiency by 20% and reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020.  Art. 3.4 obliges all Member States to ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020.

Art. 17 sets out sustainability criteria for all biofuels and bioliquids produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they guarantee real GHG savings and protects biodiversity.  Art. 17.1 defines that biofuels and bioliquids produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria in relation the GHG savings. Art. 21(2) establishes the “double-counting” system, i.e. the contribution made by biofuels produced from wastes, residues, non-food cellulosic material, and lingo-cullulosic material is considered to be twice that made by other biofuels.

As a sustainability criteria, Art. 17(2) establishes 35% GHG emission reduction level. It will be raised up to at least 50% from 2017 and at least 60% from 2018. Art. 19 provides a calculation of GHG emissions.

Link:

Renewable Energy Directive

European Environment Agency  IEA: Energy support schemes - country profile Estonia European Environment Agency 2012 EST

Title (orig.): IEA: Energy support schemes - country profile Estonia

Language: English

Link:

IEA: Energy support schemes - country profile Estonia

European Parliament & Council  Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives European Parliament & Council 2008 EU

Title (orig.): Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives

Language: English

Link:

Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives

European Parliament & Council  Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure European Parliament & Council 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Language: English

Link:

Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

European Unions Community Support Framework (POE)  Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) 2000 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME. In 2000, a new programme in support of economic development activities under the European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) was prepared. It set out new regulations related to incentives for energy efficiency and energy diversification (renewables) projects.

Link:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME

Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation  Federal Energy Law/Energy Act Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation 2014 CH

Title (orig.): Federal Energy Law/Energy Act

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Energiegesetz (EnG)

Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation  Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation 2015 CH

Title (orig.): Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment

Language: English

Link:

Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment

Federal Council  Energy Strategy 2050 Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2011 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Strategy 2050

Language: English

Link:

Energy Strategy 2050

Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC)  Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) 2007 CH

Title (orig.): Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Link:

Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Federal Environment Ministry  Market Premium Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Market Premium

Language: English

Summary:

2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act EEG

Link:

Market Premium

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Renewable Energy Sources Act Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG)

Language: English

Summary:

Crucial law for the development of renewable energies in Germany is the “2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act –EEG” supporting energy production from renewable sources. The objective of the EEG is to continue steady deployment of renewable energy in Germany in a cost efficient manner by fostering the integration of renewable energy sources into the market. The act aims to increase the gross consumption of electricity produced by renewable energies to 40%-45% by 2025 and to 55% – 60% by 2035. One mean to reach this goal is, among others, to rise the installed performance of biomass energy plants up to 100 MW per year (gross) (EEG, § 3(4)).

Mandatory direct marketing:

In order to better integrate renewable energy into the market, operators of new renewable energy plants are obliged to market their generated electricity directly, either independently or through a direct marketer. The EEG 2014 contains two ways of direct marketing:

  1. direct marketing with the purpose of receiving a market premium (subsidised direct marketing) or
  2. direct marketing without receiving a subsidy (other direct marketing).

The payment of the market premium requires that the energy is direct marketed. The Market Premium consists of the fixed statutory tariff of the respective renewable energy plant minus its technology-specific monthly market value.

Following plants are exempted from obligatory direct marketing:

  • Plants with a capacity no larger than 500 kW commissioned before 1st January 2016 and
  • Plants with a capacity no larger than 100  kW commissioned before 31st December 2015.

RES generators with a capacity up to 500 kW commissioned before 1st of January 2016 are supported via fixed feed-in tariffs. Plant operators may switch on a monthly basis between feed-in tariffs and a market premium or may benefit proportionately from the feed-in tariffs or the market premium.

In connection with the EEG the specifications for the energetic use of biomass are described in the Biomass Ordinance (BiomasseV). The Ordinance regulates for the scope of the EEG which materials are classified as biomass, what technical procedures for power production from biomass apply for the EEG and what environmental requirements have to be met when producing power with biomass (BiomasseV, § 1). In paragraph 2 the Biomass Ordinance defines, among others, organic waste as biomass according to § 2 Nr. 1 of the Ordinance for Organic Waste (BioAbfV). Here material from landscape and maintenance work without the main purpose of nature conservation is categorized as organic waste (BioAbfV, Annex 1) and the energetic use e.g. in biogas plants oblige different permission and must meet many requirements.

For detailed information on the exact requirements for the singe renewable energy sources, the given tariff amounts (Euros/kWh) and the particular regression rates see second link bellow.

Link:

2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act -EEG-
Feed-in tariff (EEG feed-in tariff)

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  CHP Agreements with Industry Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2012 DE
Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWärmeG) Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Erneuerbare-Energien-Wärmegesetz

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Erneuerbare-Energien-Wärmegesetz

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Biomass Regulation Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2005 DE

Title (orig.): Biomass Regulation

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomasse-Verordnung