A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

WMW (Waste Management World)  Babcock & Wilcox Vølund lands order on second generation multi-fuel plant. New multi-fuel fired CHP plant in Landskronaa WMW (Waste Management World). Multi-fuel fired plant 2010 SE

Title (orig.): Babcock & Wilcox Vølund lands order on second generation multi-fuel plant. New multi-fuel fired CHP plant in Landskronaa

Language: EN

Summary:

The new facility in Landskrona, Sweden is part of a new generation of plants capable of burning a wide range of biomass and sorted waste fuels. Multi-fuel fired combined heat and power plants will cover the future need for advanced technology to exploiting all resources. New fuels, ranging from sorted industrial waste to wood chips, will contribute towards meeting the EU requirements for a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases.

Wiehe, Julia  Energetic utilisation of wood from landscape maintenance: Hedgerows on banks as heat source for the county Grafschaft Bentheim Inaugural Dissertation at the University Hanover 2003 DE

Title (orig.): Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege - Wallhecken als Wärmequelle für den Landkreis Grafschaft Bentheim

Language: German

Summary:

In this diploma thesis it was investigated if in the German county Grafschaft Bentheim and the neighboring Dutch province of Overijssel poorly preserved hedgerows on banks can be used as a renewable energy source for heat generation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Utilisation of hedgerows on banks

Link:

Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege

Waste serv ltd.  Electricity Production from waste treatment plant Waste serv ltd. 2011 MT

Title (orig.): Electricity Production from waste treatment plant

Language: English

Summary:

The new Sant’ Antnin Waste Treatment Plant includes a biological treatment plant for the production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable municipal solid waste.

The biogas produced is to be used for the generation of electricity by combustion in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant, and any excess electricity will be fed to the grid

Link:

Electricity Production from waste treatment plant

von der Mühlen & Dietrich  Landscape Management Plan County Friesland Landkreis Friesland 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landkreis Friesland Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplans: Biotopkartierung, Erhebung der gesetzlichen geschützen Biotope, Überprüfen der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung

Language: German

Summary:

Im Juni 2011 wurde durch den Landkreis Friesland die Biotoptypenkartierung auf der Grundlage einer Luftbildinterpretation, die Erfassung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope sowie die Überprüfung der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung von 1987 / 88 in Auftrag gegeben. Auftrag war es, eine für das Kreisgebiet flächendeckende Biotoptypenkarte unter Berücksichtigung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope (§ 30 BNatSchG) als Grundlage für die Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplanes des Landkreis Friesland zu erstellen. Vorgehensweise und Ergebnisse der Bestandserhebungen werden in diesem Fachbeitrag beschrieben.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ressource used for Biomass Assessment of the LCMW type Hedge Rows on Banks (D5.2)

Link:

Landkreis Friesland

Attachment

Landschaftsrahmenplan Landkreis Friesland (2.84 MB)

Velázquez-Martí B. , Sajdak M., López-Cortés I. , Callejón-Ferre A.J.  Wood characterization for energy application proceeding from pruning Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. in urban areas Renewable Energy (vol. 62, issue C, pages 478-483) 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Wood characterization for energy application proceeding from pruning Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. in urban areas

Language: EN

Summary:

Pruning urban forests generates significant amounts of lignocellulosic biomass every year. The energy potential of this biomass is unclear. The aim of this research was direct analysis of the gross calorific value (GCV), elemental composition and moisture content of Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica  Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. by means of laboratory equipment.

(LCMW) Relevance: The gross calorific value and other analysis proved these residues to be an interesting source of bioenergy.

Link:

Wood characterization for energy application proceeding from pruning Morus alba L., Platanus hispanica Münchh. and Sophora japonica L. in urban areas

Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland  Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland - DE

Title (orig.): Wallhecken Landkreis Friesland

Language: German

Summary:

The brochure gives an introduction what defines hedgerows on bank (Wallhecken, Knicks) and shows their occurence in the county Friesland in the North of the German state Lower Saxony. Further, the history and ecological importance of hedgerows on banks is explained and what factors threatens their preservation. Finally, the brochure lists the measures necessary to protect and maintain these landscape structures and informs about the availalbe financial support for owners.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ecological, legal, treatment and financial information on hedgerows on banks

Link:

General information on hedgerows on bank on the homepage of the Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland

Attachment

PDF Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland (14.27 MB)

Umbria region Government  R.R. n°. 7 29/07/2011 - Umbria Region Umbria region Government 2014 IT

Title (orig.): Biomassa: La tecnologia che utilizza la biomassa 29/07/2011 - Umbria Region

Language: Italian

Summary:

Technology that uses biomass:The term biomass is understood to mean the organic material (mainly of plant origin), in which the solar energy has accumulated through the process of photosynthesis that can liberate and exploit through thermo-chemical or biochemical processes. These substances are available as direct products or residues of agriculture and forestry, as by-products or waste from the agro-food waste and how the chain of distribution and final consumption.

Associated with the term biomass, and now commonly used in renewable energy concept bio-fuel, which generally means any organic substance other than oil, natural gas, coal or from their derivatives, used as fuel.The most important types of biomass are:

  • Biomass forestry: forest residues, wood processing industry waste (wood chips, sawdust, etc.)
  • Agricultural Biomass: scraps of farms
  • Biogas derived from animal waste, waste from livestock farms, waste, algae and aquatic crops, municipal solid waste

For more information on the domestic use of biomass read the following guide. The administrative procedureThe administrative procedures for authorizing the installation and operation of biomass plants are the subject of rrn 7 of 29 July 2011. These procedures are defined in Annex A of RR 7/2011, which vary according to certain parameters (installed electric capacity, location and type of plant, the existing constraints in the area), and are as follows:

  • COMMUNICATION
  • enabler SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE
  • AUTHORIZATION ONLYIn the case of installations outside buildings and with an output exceeding 50 kW must meet the general criteria of location and design in Annex B and consider unsuitable areas listed in Annex C of the RR 7/2011

Link:

Biomassa: La tecnologia che utilizza la biomassa 29/07/2011 - Umbria Region

Umbria region Government  SEAR Regional Environmental Energy Strategy 2014-2020 - Umbria Region Umbria region Government 2014 IT

Title (orig.): SEAR Strategia Energetico Ambientale Regionale

Language: Italian

Summary:

After the Regional Energy Plan approved in 2004 and the regional strategy for the production of energy from renewable sources 2011-2013 approved in 2011 , the region has embarked on a new policy paper as a tool to monitor and govern the development of the region by supporting and promoting energy chain .

The preliminary document it was approved the preliminary document of the Regional Environmental Energy Strategy 2014 – 2020

The path of consultation , which began last February 6 , includes a series of meetings with associations and public bodies

It was adopted the proposed Regional Environmental Energy Strategy 2014 – 2020

Link:

SEAR Strategia Energetico Ambientale Regionale

Umbria region Government  Rural Development 2014-2020 - Umbria Region Umbria region Government 2014 IT

Title (orig.): Rural Development 2014-2020 - Umbria Region

Language: Italian

Summary:

This  Plan is the regional financial instrument for the development and improvement of rural sector in Umbria. FEASR finances this plan and the thematic objectives of European rural policy.

Support for investments in the creation, improvement or expansion of all types of small infrastructures , including investments in renewable energy and energy saving . Intervention 7.2.2 Support for investment in renewable energy and in energy saving.

Support for cooperation for the supply of biomass for energy production and industrial processes

Link:

Rural Development 2014-2020 - Umbria Region

Umbria Region  Regional Law 14 of 2010 Umbria Region 2010 IT

Title (orig.): Legge Regionale 14 del 2010: Disciplina degli istituti di partecipazione alle funzioni delle istituzioni regionali (Iniziativa legislativa e referendaria, diritto di petizione e consultazione)

Language: Italian

Summary:

With the Regional Law n. 14 of the 16th of February 2010, the Region of Umbria introduces new rules over the administrative and political participation of civil society in decision-making procedures within the competence of the regional institutions. Four instruments are designed to provide the participation of stakeholders: the legislative initiative, the referendum question initiative, the right to petition and finally the consultation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of governance and acceptance for bioenergy related projects

Link:

Online

UK Government  UK Green Deal UK Government 2010 UK

Title (orig.): UK Green deal

Language: English

Summary:

The Green Deal provides a framework of accredited market participants, through which people pay for some of the cost of improving their homes and businesses using a type of loan that is paid back with the savings they can expect to make on their fuel bills. Prior to signing a Green Deal Plan, an assessor will recommend improvements that are appropriate for a property and indicate whether they can be expected to pay for themselves through reduced energy bills.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on homes and businesses use of sustainable energy

Link:

UK Green Deal

UK Government  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) UK Government 2010 UK

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, member countries of the European Union were obliged to draft, and submit to the European Commission, National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathways that will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy targets.

The UK Government believes that climate change is one of the gravest threats we face, and that urgent action at home and abroad is required. We need to use a wide range of levers to decarbonise the economy. The development of renewable energy sources, alongside nuclear power and the development of carbon capture and storage, will also enable the UK to play its full part in international efforts to reduce the production of harmful greenhouse gases.

(LCMW) Relevance: UK 2020 renewable energy targets

Link:

National action plans online

UK Government  Second Progress Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources for the United Kingdom (2009) UK Government 2013 UK

Title (orig.): "Second Progress Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources for the United Kingdom (2009)"

Language: English

Summary:

The UK Government strongly supports renewable energy as part of a diverse low-carbon and secure energy mix. Alongside gas and low-carbon transport fuels, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage (CCS), renewable energy brings energy security, decarbonisation of our economy and green growth. UK Government committed to achieving the UK’s challenging and legally binding target of 15% renewables by 2020 in a cost effective and sustainable way, minimising the impact on consumer bills. All parts of the UK are playing a part in delivering this commitment, with the Devolved Administrations setting themselves challenging targets for the level of renewable electricity and heat consumption by 2020.

(LCMW) Relevance: Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources for the United Kingdom

Link:

PDF online

UK Government  Renewable Energy Strategy 2009 UK Government 2009 UK

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Strategy 2009

Language: English

Summary:

The UK Renewable Energy Strategy 2009 is a white paper outlining how the UK will meet its legally-binding target to ensure 15% of energy comes from renewable energy sources by 2020.

Under the 2008 Climate Change Act, the UK must meet legally binding carbon “budgets”, committing the UK to cuts its emissions by 34% by 2020 and 80% by 2050. The Strategy comprises three primary 2020 targets:

  • Over 30% of electricity to be generated from renewable energy sources, mostly from wind power, with biomass, hydro, wave and tidal power playing important roles;
  • 12% of heat to be generated from renewable energy sources, from a large range of sources (biomass, biogas, solar, heat pumps);
  • 10% of transport energy to come from renewable energy sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Target to get over 30% of electricity to be generated from renewable energy sources, mostly from wind power, with biomass, hydro, wave and tidal power playing important roles

Link:

The UK Renewable Energy Strategy 2009

UK Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC)  Climate Change Act 2008 UK Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Climate Change Act 2008

Language: English

Summary:

On 26 November 2008, the Climate Change Act became law. The Act aims to improve carbon management, help the transition toward a low-carbon economy, and demonstrate strong international UK leadership. Major provisions of the Act include the setting of legally binding targets, the establishment of a carbon budgeting system, and the creation of a Committee on Climate Change. The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) is an independent body designed to recommend targets, advise on the level of carbon budgets, as well as to monitor and report progress towards targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: The Act aims to improve carbon management and related increase of renewable energy (as the biomass energy)

Link:

Report: The Carbon Plan - reducing greenhouse gas emissions
CCC websites
Climate Change Act 2008

UE and Regional Government  Rural Development Programme 2014 - 2020 UE and Regional Government 2014 SI

Title (orig.): Rural Development Programme 2014 - 2020

Language: English

Summary:

Support for rural development by the Fund of European Agricultural for Rural Development (FEASR).

Link:

Factsheet on 2014-2020 Rural Development Programme for Slovenia

UE  Reg. (EU) N.1305/2013 UE 2013 IT

Title (orig.): REGOLAMENTO (UE) N. 1305/2013 DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO

Language: Italian

Summary:

Support for rural development by the Fund of European Agricultural for Rural Development (FEASR)

Link:

REGOLAMENTO (UE) N. 1305/2013 DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO

Tuscany Region  Regional Law 46 of 2013 (Tuscany): promotion of citizen participation in the processes of construction of regional and local policies Regione Toscana 2013 IT

Title (orig.): Legge Regionale 46 del 2013. Dibattito pubblico regionale e promozione della partecipazione alla elaborazione delle politiche regionali e locali

Language: Italian

Summary:

At the end of 2007 the Region of Tuscany approved Law no. 69 defining the rules on the Promotion of Participation in the Formulation of Regional and Local Policies. The new regional law on participation (LR 46/2013), follows and reinforces the positive experiences started in Tuscany in recent years due to the previous regional law (LR 69/2007) which represented, in many ways, a pilot case in Italy. This was an innovative legal provision explicitly aimed at pro-actively promoting citizen engagement in local and regional decision making: by incorporating features explicitly derived from deliberative theory, it institutionalizes citizen participation; that is, the involvement through group dialogue of citizens and stakeholders in decision-making about problems or issues of public interest. The results from this laboratory are of relevance to scholars, practitioners and politicians who are interested in such democratic innovations. The law was updated by the Law 46/2013 which instituted as compulsory the public regional debate for the investments over 50 million euro and as discretionary for investments above 10 million (which are anyway considered at regional level).

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of governance and acceptance for bioenergy related projects

Link:

Online

Tischew, S., Heck, P.  Establishing an example of a regional energy cycle with biomass from LCMW in the natural park Unteres Saaletal with special consideration of a GIS- assessment on the long-term availability of the biomass potential DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Etablierung eines beispielhaften regionalen Energiekreislaufs mit Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Naturpark Unteres Saaletal unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einer GIS-gestützten Abschätzung des langfristig zur Verfügung stehenden Biomassepotenzials

Language: DE

Summary:

1) Analyse status quo – classification of the research area with areal photos and existing data to select LCMW areas
2) Determination and definition of use- and maintenance- categories based on aims of nature protection
3) Establish 18 test areas to verify height classes, perform a biomass collection (harvest) and record data on vegetation and habitat.
4) Develop a procedure based on GIS to assess the biomass potential
5) Selection of several representative forest stands and record of random samples to derive forest stand types
6) Calculation of the biomass stock of the selected stands and calculation of the wood stock of the single stand types
7) Derive the actual useable biomass potential of all LCMW areas
8) Develop a regional concept for the use of wood from LCMW for a heating site in the primary school Wettin and make a cost calculation for the heating system

(LCMW) Relevance: Method for a comprehensive determination of the available standing woody biomass potential from LCMW

Link:

Etablierung eines beispielhaften regionalen Energiekreislaufs mit Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Naturpark Unteres Saaletal unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einer GIS-gestützten Abschätzung des langfristig zur Verfügung stehenden Biomassepotenzials

The Parliament of the Republic of Latvia  Waste Management Act Latvian Govenment 2014 LV

Title (orig.): Waste Management Act

Language: English

Link:

Waste Management Act

The Parliament of the Republic of Latvia  Sustainable Development Strategy of Latvia until 2030 Latvian Government 2010 LV

Title (orig.): Sustainable Development Strategy of Latvia until 2030

Language: English

Attachment

PDF (2.30 MB)

The Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic  The promotion of renewable energy sources and high-efficiency cogeneration and some changes to certain laws The Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic 2009 SK

Title (orig.): The promotion of renewable energy sources and high-efficiency cogeneration and some changes to certain laws

Language: Slovak

Link:

Zákon o podpore obnoviteľných zdrojov energie a vysoko účinnej kombinovanej výroby a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov

The government (Venstre and De Konservati ve [Venstre, the Danish Liberal Party and The Danish Conservative Party]) and Dansk Folkeparti [The Danish Peoples’ Party]  Green Growth Agreement 2010-2012 Danish Government 2009 DK

Title (orig.): Green Growth Agreement 2010-2012

Language: English

Link:

Green Growth Agreement 2010-2012

The French National Research Agency  Investments for the Future programme The French National Research Agency 2009 FR

Title (orig.): Investments for the Future programme

Language: English

Summary:

Launched in 2009 by the French Government, the Investments for the Future programmes are strategic initiatives which aim to boost French competitiveness by investing in research, higher education and vocational training, in industry and SMEs, in sustainable development and in expanding sectors such as digital technology, biotechnology and nuclear energy. Drawing on ANR know-how and expertise, the French Government has entrusted the agency with management of the research and higher education component of the programmes. The aim is to massively invest over the long-term in innovative S&T projects which will eventually be a source of growth and progress for the French economy.

ANR’s activities aim at:

-Developing science and technology

-Rallying teams around societal and S&T challenges

-Speeding up knowledge creation and transfer, and fostering academic-industry partnerships

-Promoting collaborative work and interdisciplinary dialogue

-Preparing a new generation of talents

-Facilitating European and international collaborations

Link:

Investments for the Future programme

The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances)  Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies) The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances) 1992 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Arrêté royal d'exécution du Code des impôts sur les revenus 92 du 27 Août 1993, lequel est dénommé, en abrégé, “AR/CIR 92” / Koninklijk Besluit Tot Uitvoering Van Het Wetboek Van De Inkomstenbelastingen 1992, Afgekort Als "Kb/Wib 92

Language: English

Summary:

Entitled companies may reduce their taxable profit by a fixed percentage of their investment in renewable energy installations.  The regions are responsible for determining whether renewable energy installations are eligible or not (Art. 49 AR/CIR 92 referring to Annex II). The categories of eligible investments are listed within the appendix 1 of the form CEB 2 available in each region and referring to Annex II of AR/CIR 92.

The tax deduction amounts to 14,5% of the investment value for the fiscal year 2014 (Avis relatif à la déduction pour investissement).

  • Tax deductions on investments costs can be claimed through the tax return.
  • A certificate regarding investments for energy saving devices is necessary. The certificate is delivered by the regions, according to the investment location. The competent administration departments of the regions are to be found in the notice of the federal tax administration regarding the tax deduction on investments.

Link:

National: Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies)

The Danish parliament  Feed-in premium tariffs for renewable power (included in Promotion of Renewable Energy Act) Danish Government 2009 DK

Title (orig.): Feed-in premium tariffs for renewable power (included in Promotion of Renewable Energy Act)

Language: English

Link:

Feed-in premium tariffs for renewable power (included in Promotion of Renewable Energy Act)

The Danisch parliament  Promotion of Renewable Energy Act 2009 Danish Government 2009 DK

Title (orig.): Promotion of Renewable Energy Act 2009

Language: English

Link:

Promotion of Renewable Energy Act 2009

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE  SwissEnergy Programme Energieschweiz 2001 CH

Title (orig.): SwissEnergy Programme

Link:

SwissEnergy Programme

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE  Feed-in remuneration at cost for renewable energy sources Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Kostendeckende Einspeisevergütung (KEV)

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariff at cost is an instrument that was developed by the federal government for the purpose of promoting electricity production from renewable energy sources. It covers the difference between the production cost and the market price, and guarantees producers of electricity from renewable sources a price that corresponds to their production costs. Feed-in tariff at cost is available for the following technologies: hydropower (installed capacity up to 10 megawatts), photovoltaics (installed capacity from 10 kilowatt), wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass and biological waste. Contributions are made to the associated fund by all electricity consumers, who pay a fee per consumed kilowatt hour.

The tariffs for power from renewable sources are specified on the basis of reference power plants for each technology and output category. The tariff is applicable for 20 years (10 years for biomass infrastructure power plants). In view of technological progress and the increasing degree of market maturity of new technologies, the tariff rates are subject to a regular review. Reductions only apply to new production facilities that are put into operation.

New facilities can be registered with the national network operator, Swissgrid. Due to the great demand, there is a long waiting list. Owners of small photovoltaic power plants (from 2 up to 30 kilowatt) can ask a unique capital subsidy. For more details, see the Swissgrid website.

For detailed information on the amount of base payments and wood bonus (Swiss Francs/kWh) see third link bellow.

Link:

Feed-in remuneration at cost for renewable energy sources

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Pilot and Demonstration Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Pilot and Demonstration Program

Language: English

Link:

Pilot and Demonstration Program

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Energy Research Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Research Program

Language: English

Link:

Energy Research Program

Swiss Federal Council  Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) Swiss Federal Council 2016 CH

Title (orig.): Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC)

Language: English

Link:

Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC)

Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment  Tax regulation mechanisms Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment 1990-2010 SWE

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms

Language: English

Summary:

  • Tax reductions for households. Act No. 2009:194 sets rules for the tax-deduction of RES-related installation works in households. The installation of renewable energy devices and the replacement of conventional heating sources with renewable ones may be deducted from tax.
  • Energy and carbon dioxide taxes. In Sweden, energy and carbon dioxide taxes are levied on the supply, import and production of fossil fuels for heating purposes. Renewable energy sources are exempt from these taxes. The biogas must be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598. Biomass must also be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598.
  • Nitrous oxide tax. The producers of heat are obliged to pay a tax according to their nitrous oxide emissions. Heat producers using renewable energy sources are exempt from this obligation.

All renewable energy technologies are exempt from the tax obligations.

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms

Swedish Government  Quota system for renewable energies Swedish Government 2003 FIN

Title (orig.): Quota system for renewable energies

Language: English

Summary:

Act No. 2011:1200 obliges electricity suppliers, certain electricity consumers and energy-intensive companies to annually acquire renewable energy certificates in due proportion to their electricity sales and their consumption by a set date (Chapter 4 §§ 1 and 4 Act No. 2011:1200). Furthermore, the Act stipulates the conditions in which owners of renewable energy generation plants may acquire electricity certificates (Chapter 2 §§ 1-13 Act No. 2011:1200).

In general, all renewables, including biogas generated from biomass, are eligible for the quota system (Chapter 1 § 2 No. 2 Act No. 2011:1200). One certificate is issued for every MWh of electricity produced, regardless of the generation technology employed (Chapter 3 § 2 Act No. 2011:1200). Obligated persons that fail to satisfy their quota obligation shall pay a quota obligation fine.

During the past few years, certificate prices ranged between 15 and 40 €/MWh.

A change introduced in 2006 was the extension of the validity of the certificates from 2010 to 2030 in order to improve long-term investment security.

According to the Swedish Energy Agency, Sweden and Norway introduced a common electricity certificate market on 1 January 2012. The producers of RES electricity receive certificates in their own country. These certificates can be traded on both the Swedish and Norwegian markets (Chapter 1 § 5 Act No. 2011:1200).

The Swedish RES quota system has led to an increase of the share of RES electricity from 51.2% in 2004 to 60% in 2012. During the first few years, mainly biomass power plants (and to a smaller degree hydro-power) benefitted from the scheme while in recent years, the share of wind energy has been steadily increasing.

Link:

Energypedia: Quota system for renewable energies
Quota system for renewable energies

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland  Bioenergy roadmap Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland 2010 IE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy roadmap

Language: English

Summary:

In 2010 a Bioenergy Roadmap for Ireland was developed and published to outline the growth potential of bioenergy in Ireland to 2050 such as:

  • Annual abatement of over 11Mt of CO2
  • Bioenergy is highly suitable for inclusion in a national distributed energy network
  • Over 3,500Ktoe of indigenous resources are available for the bioenergy supply chain by 2050
  • bioenergy in transport should meet 27% of total transport  primary energy demand
  • biomass in electricity generation should meet 28% of total electricity demand
  • biomass should meet 40% of  total heat demand
  • reach 80% emissions reduction

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy Roadmap for Ireland

Link:

Bioenergy roadmap PDF online
SEAI online

Straub, Christoph  Assessment of the energy wood potential and its availability in the forest and in the open country with new remote sensing methods Inaugural Dissertation at the Albert Ludwigs University in Freiburg in Breisgau 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Erfassung des Energieholzpotentials und seiner Verfügbarkeit im Wald und im Offenland mit neuen Fernerkundungsmethoden

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The aim of this thesis was to develop new methods to provide detailed information regarding the spatial distribution of biomass and those components that can be used for energy production using modern remote sensing techniques. An important aspect was the development of automated procedures with appropriate software solutions.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass assessment with remote sensing

Stegner, Jan  Framework for energetic utilization of biomass from landscape management in Saxony - Final Report Sächsischen Staatsministeriums für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Rahmenkonzept zur energetischen Verwertung von Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Freistaat Sachsen – Abschlussbericht

Language: DE

Summary:

Following topics are assessed:

  • Political and legal framework for energy recovery from biomass from landscape management
  • Volume of landscaping material in Saxony
  • Determination of energetic utilization demand for biomass from landscape management
  • Technical solutions for utilizing biomass from landscape management
  • Analysis and presentation of technological deficiencies and uncertainties exploitation potential
  • Regionalized analysis of acceptance for plant operators and farms with regard to their willingness to energetic utilization of biomass from landscape management
  • Suitable recycling methods and technologies for the energy use of landscaping material

Under the current technical and technological and politico-economic conditions, the energetic use of landscape material via biogas and combustion in small and medium combustion plants or large combustion plants are appropriate ways. Both pathways require further procedural and logistical improvement.

The energetic use of landscape material is currently in Saxony barely realized. Especially in biogas plants, energy use with small technical changes would be possible. However, the political and economic conditions contradict such use.

(LCMW) Relevance: The political and economic conditions contradict the utilization of this biomass type.

Link:

Rahmenkonzept zur energetischen Verwertung von Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Freistaat Sachsen

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA) State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

Language: English

Summary:

Grid connection. Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Based on the regulations of the Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources and Biofuels Act, electricity distribution companies are obliged to purchase the electricity generated from geothermal and solar energy for 25 years, whereas from the other sources of RES, including biomass, the offtake obligation is fixed at 15 years. End suppliers are obliged to offtake the electricity produced by RES. Failure to do so will result in a penalty amounting to between BGN 7,000 (appr. EUR 3,600) and BGN 20,000 (appr. EUR 10,225).

Link:

Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources (2011 last updated 2015). Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Producers that own power plants can sell the electricity with regulated prices (feed-in tariff), differentiated on the basis of type of technology (biomass-biogas), plant size and type of fuel (biomass waste, organic fraction of MSW, sewage sludge, agricultural biomass)

Link:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources

State Energy and Water Regulation Commission  Bulgaria feed-in tariff State Energy and Water Regulation Commission 2011 BG

Title (orig.): Bulgaria feed-in tariff

Language: English

Summary:

In Bulgaria, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Producers of electricity from renewable sources are contractually entitled against the grid operator to the purchase and payment of electricity at a guaranteed price. The connection of renewable energy plants to the grid is subject to the provisions of the general legislation on energy. Renewable energy is not given priority access. The use of renewable energy for heating and cooling is promoted through a subsidy from the European Regional Development Fund, several loan schemes and through an exemption for building owners from property tax. In Bulgaria, the main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing petrol or diesel to ensure that biofuels make up a defined percentage of their annual fuel sales. Furthermore, biofuels are supported through a fiscal regulation mechanism. The following policies aim at promoting the development, installation and usage of RES-installations in Bulgaria: There is a professional training programme for RES-installers as wells as a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and for the exemplary role of public authorities. eNERGY ACT 2013 (last amended mid-2015)

Link:

Bulgaria feed-in tariff

SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable  Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable 2005; 2010 BE

Title (orig.): Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Language: English

Summary:

As of 2006, the Walloon government awarded grants for the installation of micro-cogeneration systems and high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers. Households, entreprises, self-employed workers and private entities were all eligible to receive grants. Every year, the programme is reviewed, taking into account the evolution of technology.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grants for the installation of high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers

Link:

Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Šipkovs et. al.  Article: Biomass Utilization Strategies and Policies in Latvia (2012) Riga Technical University 2012 LV

Title (orig.): Publikācija: Biomass Utilization Strategies and Policies in Latvia

Language: Latvian

Link:

Publikācija: Biomass Utilization Strategies and Policies in Latvia

Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM)  Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP) Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM) 2002 BE

Title (orig.): Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Language: English

Summary:

In April 2000, the federal government decided that all generators of electricity from renewable sources will become progressively free to choose their own electricity supplier if they use more electricity than they are able to generate. Consumers who buy a significant amount of their electricity from renewable sources are also eligible to choose their electricity supplier. When coordinating the call to electricity suppliers, the transport-grid manager, taking into account the needed supply security, gives priority to plants using renewable energy sources for power production, or to cogeneration units. The Flemish Parliament approved the decree regarding the liberalisation of the electricity market and marked the following categories as eligible:

  • Producers using quality CHP installations or renewables for electricity generation (up to a certain ceiling)
  • Consumers of renewables-generated electricity by means of a CHP unit (for a certain amount of electricity) or consumers using heat from CHP units or renewables
  • Consumers using heat from a supplier who generates this heat by means of CHP units or renewables (for a maximum of 500 kWh electricity per GJ heat)

In Wallonia, a corresponding decree was approved and aims to gradually open the market for producers using CHP and/or renewables for electricity generation, as well as consumers using renewable electricity and/or electricity generated by means of a CHP unit, or using heat from CHP units or renewables.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland  The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland 1994 UK

Title (orig.): The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Language: English

Summary:

The Secretary of State for the Environment as respects England, the Secretary of State for Wales as respects Wales and the Secretary of State for Scotland as respects Scotland, being Ministers designated(1) for the purposes of section 2(2) of the European Communities Act 1972(2) in relation to measures relating to the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution of water and the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers conferred on them by section 2(2) of that Act, sections 30(4) and 104(1) of the Control of Pollution Act 1974(3), sections 1(3)(a), 2, 8(2) and 9(1)(4) of the Control of Pollution (Amendment) Act 1989(5), sections 29(10), 33(3), 35(6), 36(1), 39(3), 40(3), 43(8), 45(3), 50(3), 54(14), 64(1), (4) and (8), 74(6), 75(8) and 156 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990(6) (having in particular had regard in exercising their powers under section 33(3) of that Act to the matters specified in section 33(4) of that Act) and of all other powers enabling them in that behalf hereby make the following Regulations:

(1S.I. 1989/2393 and 1992/2870.
(4) See the definition of “prescribed”.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy on reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers

Link:

The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Schonhoff, Andreas; Berger, Florian; Khalsa, Jan Hari Arti; Lenz, Volker; Teltewskaja, Gundula; Werner, Hans  Final report of the customized concept for municipal energy carriers Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Schlussbericht für das Verbundvorhaben Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept (IbeKET)

Language: German

Summary:

Endbericht des Verbundvorhaben “Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept” (IbeKET). Zu den konzeptionellen Zielen gehörten die Erarbeitung eines übertragbaren Konzeptes zur Beschaffung, Aufbereitung und energetische Nutzung von Biomasse wie Laub, Grünschnitt und Gewässepflegematerial, sowie das Anstreben einer Umsetzung am Standort der LUTRA GmbH. In technischer Hinsicht sollte grundsätzlich die energetische Nutzung der genannten Reststoffbiomassen unter Einhaltung der gegebenen Rahmenbedingungen ermöglicht werden.

Link:

Dokumentinformation

Sandija Zēverte-Rivža  Article: Promotion of biogas production in Latvia (2014) Energetika 2014 LV

Title (orig.): Article: Promotion of biogas production in Latvia (2014)

Language: English

Link:

Promotion of biogas production in Latvia

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)  Bioenergy: a burning issue Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) 2012 UK

Title (orig.): Bioenergy: a burning issue

Language: English

Summary:

The UK is currently witnessing a major rush to build large-scale electricity-only biomass plants as well as seeing an increase in biomass used in co-firing. The scale of proposed power plant development dwarfs the planned use of domestic fuel resource. Instead, many of these new plants are expected to be dependent on imported biomass. They are generally being built on the UK coast near port facilities with expected sources of feedstock from Canada, the US, Russia and the Baltic States, among others. Furthermore, new plants are often being sited in locations where it is either not possible or not economic to capture the substantial quantities of heat produced, significantly reducing their efficiency and therefore their ability to deliver greenhouse gas emissions reductions.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass plants in UK

Link:

Bioenergy: a burning issue

Rosenberg, Alexander  Assessment of energy wood potential from roadside maintenance in the county Rotenburg (Wümme) Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen, Chamber of Agriculture Lower Saxony 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Einschätzung des Energieholzpotenzials aus Straßenbegleitgrün im Landkreis Rotenburg (Wümme)

Language: German

Summary:

This report describes the assessment of the biomass potential from roadside maintenance in the German county Rotenburg (Wümme) in the course of the EU INTERREG Baltic Sea Region project Bioenergy Promtion. The author describes the methodology of measuring hedge- and treerows along county roads and illustrates the estimation of vegetation type structures and maintenance urgency. Among other he also names options for efficient planing and implementation of the LCMW in this region.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from roadside maintenance in the pilot region Rotenburg (Wümme)

Attachment

PDF Report Bioenergy Promotion (1.24 MB)

Rösch, Christine  Intercomparison of Approaches to Biowaste and Green Waste Utilization for Material and Energy Production with Particular Consideration of the Situation in Baden- Württemberg Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 1996 DE

Title (orig.): Vergleich stofflicher und energetischer Wege zur Verwertung von Bio- und Grünabfällen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verhältnisse in Baden-Württemberg

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

In this work helpful tools were developed for decision making in policy, administration and economy, starting from systems analytical comparison of different approaches of biowaste and green waste treatment with a view to material and energy production. The methods included in the comparison are composting in the backyard, on agricultural fields, in special plants treating only green waste or biowaste and green waste, biowaste treating in biofermentation plants as well as the utilization of green waste and crop residues as biofuel in biomass power plants.

Link:

Download on Homepage of the Karlsruher Institute for Technology

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

Regional Waste Coordinator (Ireland)  Southern Region Waste Management Plan 2015-2021 Southern Region Waste Management 2015 IE

Title (orig.): Southern Region Waste Management Plan 2015-2021

Language: English

Summary:

10 local authorities in the Southern Region of Ireland have been set a number of key targets in relation to waste prevention activities under a new plan that was launched on the 14th May 2015 – Southern Region Waste Management Plan 2015-2021.

(LCMW) Relevance: Management plan on utilization of biomass waste

Link:

Southern Waste Region

Attachment

Regional Networks for the Development of a Sustainable Market for Bioenergy in Europe  Report: Biomass Action Plan for Salacgrīva Region in Latvia Bioregions. 2012 LT

Title (orig.): Report: Biomass Action Plan for Salacgrīva Region in Latvia

Language: English

Summary:

This document represents one of the five biomass action plans developed within BioRegions project. Action plans set framework for the promotion of renewable energy production and use in five European regions. The action plan for Salacgrīva region (Latvia) was developed by Ekodoma Ltd. in collaboration with Salacgrīva municipality and Salacgrīva Tourism information centre. The aim of the action plan is to create framework for the support of concrete biomass projects in the target region, as well as to develop a wider strategy for regional energy supply with maximum utilization of the regions’ biomass potential. The content of the action plan is following, in Chapter 2 a general description of the region is given, followed by a description of the biomass situation in Chapter 3 and then followed by SWOT analysis in Chapter 4. This is followed by determination of regional bioenergy targets in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 lists concrete actions that should be undertaken to reach these targets, including short to long term actions. Chapter 7 lists the possible impacts of the actions taken and ends with a proposal of monitoring and evaluation of the progress of the actions in the action plan.

(LCMW) Relevance: Creation of framework for the support of concrete biomass projects in the target region

Presenters at the conference  Script of the conference "Biomass to Power and Heat" 1. - 2. 6. 2016 Zittau University of Zittau/Görlitz 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Tagungsband - Beiträge zum Fachkolloquium "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Language: German and English

Summary:

The script of the conference „Biomass to Power and Heat“ 2016 includes the summaries of the 15 expert presentations of this year´s event. The contributions focus on practical introduction, and scientific and economic support for decentralized supply approaches and power generation of wood-like biomass in cogeneration. Accordingly, the presentations cover topics as:

  • biomass from agroforestry
  • new technologies for producing and using pellets
  • spontaneous reactions when storing biomass
  • combined heat and power units with Stirling motor
  • regulation- and monitoring systems for pollution emissions
  • biogas production
  • biochar
  • syngas
  • regional energy markets
  • experiences with different combustibles.

The aims and work of the greenGain project were introduced as well and are summarised in the according chapter of the conference script.

(LCMW) Relevance: Technologies, experiences and new findings in the field of biomass firings. Aline Clalüna from COALS (Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen), partner of the greenGain project, had a presentation at the conference dedicated to the greenGain project (see p. 9 - 13).

Link:

Homepage on conference "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Attachment

Conference script "Biomass to Power and Heat" (22.01 MB)
Flyer with program of the conference (518.18 KB)

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 178/2006 on waste management Portuguese Environmental Agency 2009 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.o 178/2006

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree, composed of 81 articles divided in five titles, introduces in the national legal order the Directives no. 2006/12/EC on waste and Council and No. 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste. It defines the general system for waste management, including collection, transport, storage, disposal, treatment, valorization and elimination. Moreover, it rules on soil decontamination. Finally, the Decree-Law rules on licensing, registration and control procedures. Among the principles undergoing waste management is worth mentioning: self-sufficiency, management responsibility, prevention and reduction, hierarchy of waste management operations and citizens’ responsibility.

Link:

Factsheet: Waste management Decree

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 233/2004 ruling on greenhouse gas trading license system Portuguese Environmental Agency 2010 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.o 233/2004

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, composed of 38 Articles and five Chapters, introduces into the national legal system the European Parliament and Council Directive No. 2003/87/CE ruling on greenhouse gas trading licenses within the European Community. In particular, the Decree-Law rules on competent bodies, trading licenses systems, national licenses plan, monitoring and information communication, controlling procedures, and penalties.

Link:

Factsheet: Greenhouse gas emission trading system

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 171/2009 creating the Fund for the Nature and Biodiversity Protection and Conservation Portuguese Environmental Agency 2010 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.º 171/2009 de 3 de Agosto

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, consisting of 10 articles, creates the Fund for the Nature and Biodiversity Protection and Conservation. It establishes composition, duties and competencies of this institution, the aim of which is the conservation, management, research and a sustainable development of the Portuguese biodiversity. The objectives of this Fund are the following: support biodiversity, endangered species and nature conservation projects; promote research and projects contributing to the extension of the protected areas included into the RFCN, etc.

Link:

Factsheet: Fund for biodiversity protection

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Regional Legislative Decree No. 16/2005/A implementing Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances Portuguese Environmental Agency 2005 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto Legislativo Regional n. 16/2005/A de 20 de Julho Transpõe a Directiva n.o 286/278/CEE, do Conselho, de 12 de Junho, referente à utilização das lamas de depuração na agricultura

Language: English

Summary:

Regional Legislative Decree No. 16/2005/A implementing Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances included in List I of the Annex to Directive 76/464/EEC. This Decree, composed of 14 articles, introduces in the Azores Regional legal system the Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances within agricultural activities. In particular, the Decree regulates discharges’ characteristics, soil requirements, protection areas, licensing procedures, information duties, control and monitoring procedures and the required reporting system.

Link:

Factsheet: Decree on discharge of dangerous substances in agriculture

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 351/2007 on air quality Portuguese Environmental Agency 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.º 140/99

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law is composed of eight articles and five annexes. It introduces in the national legal order Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. In particular, it rules on assessment of air concentrations and on related communication procedures. Annexes provide: standards and methods for concentration assessment; reference values of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; quality objectives.

Link:

Factsheet: Decree on biodiversity protection

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Government Resolution No. 65/2006 on the National Plan for Forest Protection against fires PNDFCI Portuguese Environmental Agency 2007 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.º 351/2007

Language: English

Summary:

This Resolution is composed of one article and one Annex. It approves the National Plan for Forest Protection against fires PNDFCI. The Plan defines the general objectives, the main axes of intervention and the Plan’s continuous monitoring. Moreover, it provides Municipal Operative Plans (POM) and related monitoring indicators. The Plan also contains as appendix an historical perspective of forests in Portugal.

Link:

Factsheet: Air quality Decree

Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division  Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division 2001 MT

Title (orig.): Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division

Language: English

Summary:

The Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division (PPCD) was established to ensure the efficient absorption and management of European assistance, both EU and Bi-lateral through effective co-ordination across government departments, authorities, agencies and other stakeholders.

Among others, PPCD offers financial funds to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency projects (public and private).

Link:

Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges  Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges 2003 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

Language: English

Summary:

The Royal Decree on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources was adopted in July 2002 and came into force 1 July 2003. It addresses two fundamental issues: first, it sets the conditions for issuing green certificates by the federal regulator (CREG) for offshore wind energy production, and second, it states that the grid operator is obliged to buy green certificates issued anywhere in Belgium at minimum prices of:

  • EUR 107/MWh for offshore wind energy (for installations with a financial close before 1/5/2014) for energy produced by first installed capacity up to 216 MW for each concession, and EUR 90/MWh for additional capacity, and at minimum prices equal to LCOE – [reference price of electricity – correction factor] for installations with a financial close after 1/5/2014, with LCOE = 138 EUR/MWh;
  • EUR 20/MWh for ocean energy (namely wave and tidal).

Other obligations related to buying green certificates have been deleted by the Royal Decree of 21/12/2012. Only green certificates delivered to PV installations commissioned before 1/8/2012 can benefit from a minimum purchase price obligation of up to 150 EUR/MWh.

By virtue of a Royal Decree of 20 December 2000, last modified by the Royal Decree of 20 March 2014, the Minister for Energy from now on can deliver domanial concessions for the construction and the exploitation of installations of electricity production, generated from water, currents or winds, in the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone of Belgium. The decree in question determinates precisely the zone where the installations may be set up. It also specifies the criteria of granting and the procedure by which the concessions are being issued.

The Programme law of July 2005 called for the mandatory contribution by national transmission service operators (TSO) of up to EUR 25 million worth of undersea cables for each concession. An imbalance costs regime for offshore wind production has been put in place by the Royal Decree of 30/3/2009. Imbalance refers to when the electricity producer produces too much or too little electricity, and must pay the difference to the Regulator. The new policy provides a 10% price reduction on the daily market price for the imbalance cost, for output gaps up to 30 %, or has to be compensated by the producer for imbalances above 30 %, based on the TSO’s tariff for the compensation of imbalances or according to the market conditions for imbalance energy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources

Link:

Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

Pehlken, Alexandra , et al.   Forming stakeholder alliances to unlock alternative and unused biomass potentials in bioenergy regions Journal of Cleaner Production. 2015, 110, pp. 66–77 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Forming stakeholder alliances to unlock alternative and unused biomass potentials in bioenergy regions

Language: English

Summary:

The Story: Potential of alternative biomass types for energy recovery in two regions in the context of German renewable energy regulation (EEG) was addressed. Two selected regions were represented by two biogas plant operators interested in reducing the amount of maize as biogas substrate in their plants due to the new EEG regulation. In the Dornum region, the mayor, the water association, the biogas producer and citizens of Dornum came together to discuss and define the bioenergy solution for their region. During the discussion, it became clear, how advantageous it is to discuss the situation with the wide spectrum of actors and that there are benefits out of it for all the participants. Similar was the situation in the Ihausen region. Although there were some doubts of using some materials, the biogas plant operator made it clear based on his experience.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of not dedicated cultures for biogas production

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (2.51 MB)

Pat Howes, Judith Bates, Mike Landy, Susan O’Brien, AEA, Rhys Herbert, Oxford Economics and Robert Matthews and Geoff Hogan, Forest Research  UK and Global Bioenergy Resource - Final report AEA 2011 UK

Title (orig.): UK and Global Bioenergy Resource - Final report

Language: English

Summary:

This report examines potential biomass supply in the UK between 2010 and 2030, given current constraints and the potential to address some of these constraints. It examines the supply side issues only and does not consider constraints on the conversion and use of biomass. The analysis examined the situation to 2030, based on forward estimates of potential biomass supply and included three international development scenarios: business as usual; high investment; and low development. The resource estimated for 2030 is not available now in many cases; a significant proportion of the supply in 2030 would require considerable investment to become available.

(LCMW) Relevance: This report examines potential biomass supply in the UK.

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Energy Act (Act No 458/2000 Coll., on business conditions and public administration in the energy sectors) Collection of Laws of the Czech Republic 2000 CZ

Title (orig.): Zákon č. 458/2000 Sb., o podmínkách podnikání a o výkonu státní správy v energetických odvětvích a o změně některých zákonů (energetický zákon)

Language: CS

Link:

Energy Act (English translation)
Energy Act (original)

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.) Parliament of the Czech Republic 2001 CZ

Title (orig.): Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.)

Language: English

Link:

Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.)

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.) Parliament of the Czech Republic 2005 CZ

Title (orig.): Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.)

Language: English

Link:

Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.)

Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association  Wood heating for hotels and industry Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association 2016 AT

Title (orig.): Holzwärme für Hotels und Gewerbe

Language: German

Summary:

This flyer presents best practice projects in which Austrian hotel companies – from small inns to luxury 5-star wellness hotels – have switched from oil to wood heating. It describes how the change took place, the motivation of the hotel operators and the economic effects of the measure.

Link:

Online Shop of the Austrian Biomass Association to download flyer

Norman Dandy  Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees "The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission" 2010 UK

Title (orig.): "Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees"

Language: English

Summary:

There are two main elements of the report – a review of the social and cultural values associated with street trees (Section 2) and a review of the governance affecting the presence and absence of street trees in the urban environment (Section 3). These relate to Milestone M1 of Work Package 5 within the Climate Change & Street Trees project plan. Funding for further work on this Work Package has been withdrawn.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanance of urban trees

Link:

Report online

Netherlands Enterprise Agency  Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme) Ministry of Economic Affairs 2014 NL

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme)

Language: English

Summary:

This tax benefit enables entrepreneurs based in the Netherlands to write off investments in renewable energy plants against tax (art. 3.42 Wet IB 2001). The eligibility criteria are extensively described in the Energy List. The level of funding depends, among other things, on the source of energy and the type of plant used. Investments of less than 450 Euros are ineligible (art. 3.45 (1) (a) Wet IB 2001). Furthermore, a total of at least 2,300 € (and at most €116 million) must be invested in eligible projects within one year (art. 3.42 Wet IB 2001).

(LCMW) Relevance: Regulation of investments in renewable energy plants

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme)

Netherlands Enterprise Agency  Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace Ministry of Economic Affairs 2016 NL

Title (orig.): Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace

Language: Dutch

Summary:

In the Netherlands, the provinces are responsible for nature conservation. They act as a field director in rural areas and bring the parties together to provide the policy and the implementation of nature and landscape. The provinces also determine where they want to achieve the targets and allocation of resources for this purpose.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy and the implementation of nature and landscape

Link:

Over het Subsidiestelsel

National Government Decree  Legislative Decree 28/2011 - authorization procedures National Government Decree 2011 IT

Title (orig.): DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 3 marzo 2011 , n. 28

Language: Italian

Summary:

It defines a new system of incentives for biomass plants renewable, differentiated by size of theplant. With regard to biogas, the decree provides, among other things, that the incentive to take account of traceability and the origin of the raw material and that it’s finalized Also to promote the efficient use of waste and by-products.concerning the promotion of energy from renewable sources, the Decree includes in the definition of ‘biomass’ even’ the cuttings and prunings from the public and private green.

Link:

DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 3 marzo 2011 , n. 28

National Government Decree  Legislative Decree 307/2003 National Government Decree 2003 IT

Title (orig.): Decreto Ministeriale 307/2003

Language: Italian

Summary:

As part of the management of transactions in the Electricity Market, GME was also assigned with the task of organising venues for the trading of Green Certificates (art. 6, Ministerial Decree of 24 Oct. 2005) and of Energy Efficiency Certificates (articles 10, Ministerial Decrees of 20 Jul. 2004, as subsequently amended and supplemented by the Ministerial Decree of 21 Dec. 2007). Legislative Decree 387/03 (as subsequently amended and supplemented), implementing Directive 2001/77/EC on promotion of electricity generation from renewables in the internal electricity market, contains additional provisions on Green Certificates.

Link:

Il Piano di Azione Nazionale (PAN)

National Agency for Housing  Decree of 2 April 2012 regarding the regulation of the fund for the support of the thermal renovation of private housings National Agency for Housing 2012 FR

Title (orig.): Decree of 2 April 2012 regarding the regulation of the fund for the support of the thermal renovation of private housings

Language: English

Summary:

The French government has introduced a national programme to support modest households in the thermal renovation of their buildings in order to decrease energy losses called “habiter mieux”. This subsidy is given in form of a lump sum, which can only be granted in addition to a subsidy of the National Agency for Housing, provided the renovation works improve the energetic performance of the housing unit by at least 25% (compared to the conventional energy consumption) (Annex, Décret n° 2012-447). Moreover, the district where the housing unit is located shall be signatory of a local commitment agreement against fuel poverty (Annex, Décret n° 2012-447). Biogas is eligible, as well as wood fuelled burners, heat-accumulation stoves, pellet stoves and wood-burning stoves are eligible under certain conditions regarding the capacity and output of the plant (Art. 41-44, Arrêté du 3 mai 2007) The subsidy amounts to € 1,600 per household. However the applicant may receive an additional support of the local authorities where the building is located, in which case the National Agency for Housing commits itself to increase the subsidy by the same amount up to € 500. The maximum amount of the subsidy allocated by the National Agency for Housing cannot exceed € 2,100 (Annex, Décret n° 2012-447). From 2013, the amount of the subsidy shall be revised on 1 January of each year.

Link:

Fund for thermal renovation of private housings
Feed-in tariff

Municipality of Salas  Interreg - Salas Interreg 2009 CZ

Title (orig.): Interreg - Salaš

Language: Czech

Summary:

The Interreg IIIA project was supported to use environmentally clean heating biomass – wood, along with the use of solar collectors for domestic hot water. The basic idea is to utilize local sources of wood (contract with Lesy Czech Republic) for heating houses also reducing emissions from transport. The result of the project is the creation of one job associated with the organization of harvesting, handling, record keeping and billing itself individual participants in the project.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of environmentally clean biomass for heating.

Link:

Interreg - Salas

Müller S., Steensen T., Büscher O., Jandewerth M.  Preparation of a biomass potential map BIS-Verlag, Oldenburg (EnviroInfo Conference 2014) 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Preparation of a biomass potential map

Language: EN

Summary:

Proceedings of the 28th EnviroInfo 2014 Conference, Oldenburg, Germany (September 10-12, 2014)

Normally, there are no reliable data sources that give information about the objects of interest like hedges and vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins. There is a great demand for an inventory of these biomass sources which could be answered by applying remote sensing technology. To generate that kind of spatial information, satellite imagery is used in combination with area-wide available GIS and elevation data.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass potential map of hedges and vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins.

Link:

Preparation of a biomass potential map (PDF)

Morgenroth, Andreas  The energy transition at the cemetery - production and use of renewable energies in cemetery open spaces Aeternitas e.V. - Verbraucherinitiative Bestattungskultur 2006 DE

Title (orig.): Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof - Erzeugung und Nutzung regenerativer Energien auf Friedhofsfreiflächen

Language: DE

Summary:

Landscape architect Andreas Morgenroth describes the benefits and shows how to use renewable energy in cemeteries. He constitutes the framework of the energy transition and explains sustainability aspects of cemetery management, taking into account the special cemetery cultural concerns. On German cemeteries approximately 15,000 hectares are no longer needed for burials. The trend is towards small urn graves. Morgenroth explains several options of production and use of renewable energies and describes cemetery open spaces as predestined.

(LCMW) Relevance: Potential of landscape material from cemeteries for incineration and digestion.

Link:

Pressemitteilung: Friedhöfe könnten Energie erzeugen
Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof (PDF)

Ministry of the Environment, Departement of Financial Aid  Subsidies for investments in renewable electricity generation Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2013 LU

Title (orig.): Subsidy I (Regime d'aides pour la promotion de l'utilisation rationnelle de l'énergie et la mise en valeur des énergies renouvelables)

Language: English

Summary:

Investments in renewable electricity generation are subsidised by the state, which awards investment grants up to a certain maximum. New support conditions were introduced from 1 January 2013 for investments made between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016. According to the new regulation, only PV installations with a maximum capacity of up to 30 kWp are eligible for subsidy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Investments in renewable electricity generation

Link:

Subsidy I (Regime d'aides pour la promotion de l'utilisation rationnelle de l'énergie et la mise en valeur des énergies renouvelables)

Ministry of the Environment and Minister of Treasury and Budget  Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2001 LU

Title (orig.): Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources

Language: English

Summary:

This legislation provided incentives in form of financial grants for the installation of renewable systems.

Eligibility criteria:

  • Only private owners were eligible to benefit from the scheme when installing renewable energy installation
  • Two classes of grants depending on electricity generation capacity: 1) 1 kWp – 4 kWp, and 2) > 4 kWp – 50 kWp
  • Systems had to be installed within the private property of the owner
  • Off-grid and connected to the grid installations were eligible for the support

Grant characteristics:

  • One-time financial grant on installation costs
  • Max. EUR 4000 per kWp per beneficiary
  • Owners benefiting from this scheme could also benefit from the  VAT reduction

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial grants for the installation of renewable systems

Link:

Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources

Ministry of the Environment  CO2 Reduction Action Plan Ministry of the Environment 2006 LU

Title (orig.): CO2 Reduction Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

The CO2 Reduction Action Plan was presented on 3 May 2006 by the Minister of Environment, introducing multi-sectoral measures targeting emissions reductions.

The measures elaborated in the Plan are to be tracked and progress measured regularly, while the plan is to evolve as necessary. Implementation and monitoring of the Plan is to be done through a taskforce, supervised by the Ministry of Environment, but which brings together various Ministries (Agriculture, Finance, Housing, Interior, Transport and Public Services).

(LCMW) Relevance: Supporting use of cogeneration and biomass

Link:

CO2 Reduction Action Plan

Ministry of the Environment  Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE) Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Language: English

Summary:

The Fund for Environmental Protection (“Fonds pur la Protection de l’Environment (FPE)”) was established on 25th November 1999. The goals of the Fund are:

  • Prevention and fight with air pollutions, noise and climate change
  • Prevention and waste management
  • Protection of the environment and environmental heritage
  • Rehabilitation of waste disposal sites and their management
  • Rehabilitation of contaminated areas
  • Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency
  • Deployment of renewable energies

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency; Deployment of renewable energies

Link:

Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Ministry of the Environment  National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg) Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Language: English

Summary:

In the context of the Rio Conference, the Luxembourgish Government approved in 1999 the National Plan for a Sustainable Development. The main objectives of the Plan are the search and the application of political, economic and social policies thus enhancing the sustainable development of the Luxembourgish economy and society, reducing the use of natural resources and preserving the quality of the environment.
The Plan aims at identifying the priority domains of intervention for a sustainable development, at formulating concrete objectives and at proposing actions and tools supporting its implementation and monitoring.

(LCMW) Relevance: Protection of natural and human environment as well as of natural resources

Link:

National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Ministry of the Environment  Energy Tax Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Energy Tax

Language: English

Summary:

The Energy tax was established by the National Plan on Suistainable Development from 1999. The tax was introduced in order to unify legislative framework in the energy sector to the measures outlined in the EU Directives 2003/55/EC and 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning Common Rules for the Internal Market in Natural Gas and Electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Unification of the legislative framework in the energy sector

Link:

Energy Tax

Ministry of the Environment  Act of 21 March 2012 on the management of waste and amending Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2012 LU

Title (orig.): Loi du 21 mars 2012 relative à la gestion des déchets, et modifiant

Language: Luxembourgish

Summary:

Act of 21 March 2012 on the management of waste and amending:

  • A law of 31 May 1999 on the establishment of a fund for environmental protection
  • The law of 25 March 2005 on the operation and financing of the action SuperDrecksKëscht
  • The law of 19 December 2008 a) on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators b) amending the amended Law of 17 June 1994 on the prevention and management of waste
  • The law of 24 May 2011 on services in the internal market

(LCMW) Relevance: Management of waste and amending

Link:

Loi du 21 mars 2012 relative à la gestion des déchets, et modifiant

Ministry of the Environment  Nature protection Law Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2015 LU

Title (orig.): Nature protection Law

Language: French

Link:

Protection De La Nature Et Des Ressources Naturelles

Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI)  Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables. Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007 Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI) 2007 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007, revised the feed-in tariffs established by the previous Decree Law No. 33 A/2005. The Law covers a wide variety of renewable energy sources, and tariffs vary by source and by capacity. Different tariffs are provided for small (below 5 MW) and large (above 5MW) installations. Wind Below 5 MW: EUR 75/MWh; above 5 MW: EUR 74/MWh Hydro Below 5 MW: EUR 77/MWh; between 5 and 10 MW: EUR 75/MWh Photovoltaic Up to 5 kW: EUR 450/MWh 5 kW to 5 MW: EUR 317/MWh Above 5 MW: EUR 310/MWh micro-generation photovoltaic Under 5 kW: EUR 470/MWh Between 5 and 150 kW: EUR 355/MWh Bioenergy Biomass : EUR 104-109/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102-107/MWh above 5 MW (depending on source) Biogas from anaerobic digestion of waste biomass: EUR 117/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR115/MWh above 5 MW Landfill gas: EUR 104/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102/MWh above 5 MW Municipal Sold Waste (incineration): EUR 54/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 53/MWh above 5 MW Waste-derived fuel (incineration): EUR 76/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 74/MWh above 5 MW Wave power Demonstration wave power up to 4 MW: EUR 260/MWh Pre-commercial wave power from 5 MW up to 20 MW: EUR 191/MWh Commercial wave power above 5 MW: EUR 131/MWh for the first 100 MW; EUR 101/MWh for the subsequent 150 MW; EUR 76/MWh thereafter On 13 September 2007, the Portuguese government approved new incentives for the micro-generation of renewable electricity. This refers to electricity produced primarily for personal consumption, with any excess production available for distribution to third parties or the national grid, up to a limit of 150 kW. The revised rules set a micro-generation tariff of EUR 650 per megawatt hour (MW/h) for an initial five-year period, with payment via electricity bills. An electronic registration platform for micro-generation has been established to manage the new incentive programme, and a simplified licensing and registration procedure has been put in place.

Link:

Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables

Ministry of the Economy  Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1993 LU

Title (orig.): Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Language: English

Summary:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 provides the legal basis for deployment and renewable energy usage in Luxembourg. The Law sets out energy savings and renewable energy objectives and measures.

The Law provides for research and demonstration activities on renewable energy sources and/or energy conservation to benefit from public assistance, particularly in the form of pilot projects. It establishes that electricity produced from small-scale renewable energy sources and cogeneration are to be connected to public networks, and that feed-in tariffs are to be established for these sources. It also provides the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration obligations to be set, for buildings requiring large amounts of energy and those in industry.

The Law establishes mandatory energy use norms and standards for buildings. Building owners must undertake energy performance evaluation. They must also undertake energy-saving improvements in insulation, heating and cooling components, should heating needs exceed 600 kW, cooling needs exceed 300 kW or transformer capacity exceed 500 kW.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: Providing the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration

Link:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Ministry of Middle Class and Ministry of Budget  Subsidies for companies for investing in renewable electricity generation II Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2005 LU

Title (orig.): Subsidy II (Régime d'aide à la protection de l'environnement et à l'utilisation rationnelle des ressources naturelles)

Language: English

Summary:

Companies investing in renewable electricity generation are eligible for investment grants.

Grants may cover up to 45% of the additional costs arising from the use of renewable energy as compared to non-renewable sources. The grant may increase by 20 percentage points for small enterprises and by 10 percentage points for medium-sized enterprises (Art. 8 Loi du 18 février 2010).

Applications shall be submitted to the Ministry of Economy before the investment is made (Art. 11 Loi du 18 février 2010). Art. 11 contains a list of the required documents. Subsidies are awarded by joint decision of the Ministries of Economy and Finance.

(LCMW) Relevance: Companies investing in renewable electricity generation including the biomass

Link:

Subsidy II (Régime d'aide à la protection de l'environnement et à l'utilisation rationnelle des ressources naturelles)

Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning  National energy efficiency action plan 2014 – 2020 Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning 2015 SI

Title (orig.): National energy efficiency action plan 2014 – 2020

Language: English

Summary:

The measures contained in the plan are divided by sector: households, the public sector, commerce and  transport. Most of the measures are already in place and being implemented, with the intermediate targets  having so far been met. Some of th e measures are new, chiefly those in the public sector, where there is a  requirement to meet an obligation to renovate 3% of the total floor area of central government buildings every year. There are also additional measures in the commercial sector: efficient energy consumption is becoming an ever more important factor in improving economic competitiveness. The plan include co-financing programme for the construction of district heating systems using wood biomass.

Link:

National energy efficiency action plan 2014 – 2020

Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning  Decree on Support for Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy Sources Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning 2002 (last amended 2012) SI

Title (orig.): Uredba o podporah električni energiji, proizvedeni iz obnovljivih virov energije – neuradno prečiščeno besedilo NPB7, PisRS)

Language: English

Summary:

A decree law passed in 2002 paved the way for establishing prices and premiums for purchasing electricity from qualified producers. Qualified producers are those that produce electricity from renewable energy sources, or in facilities with higher than average efficiency for combined heat and power.

Under the scheme producers can choose to receive either fixed feed-in tariffs or premium feed-in tariffs from the network operators. A Purchase Agreement is concluded, valid for 10 years. According to the Law on Energy, the uniform annual prices and premiums are set at least once a year. Feed-in tariffs and premiums are differentiated in terms of both technology and size. In 2006, the size differentiation was removed for solar energy, and increased the tariff and premium for biomass. Producers can also choose to adhere to a double tariff system, whereby either the tariff or premium amount varies according to season and time of day. This system is advantageous to producers that can adapt their production.

As of January 2012, new rates for the feed-in premium allocated to renewable power producers on top of the electricity price for technologies have been adjusted. Premiums for all technologies and for plants smaller than 5 MW were increased, except for biomass and CHP. Tariffs for solar PV projects greater than 5 MW were reduced and increased for biomass and CHP. Due to a change in legislation (Off. Gazette, 43/2011) biogas plants connected to the grid after 1. 7. 2012 that use 40% or more of primary agricultural produce (e.g. corn) are not entitled to receive support. If they use less than 40% but more than 25%, then the variable part of the reference costs are set at 70 %.The variable part of feed in tariff in case of solid biomass shall be adjusted in line with changes to the prices of wood biomass (contained in the forecast published by the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia).

Link:

Decree on Renewable Electricity support

Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment  Renewables for Government Buildings Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Renewables for Government Buildings

Language: English

Summary:

Under Dutch implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, a scheme for joint purchasing of energy for government buildings is effective. The objective is to arrive at a climate neutral supply of energy for government structures by 2012. In the period 2002-2004, a mandate required that 50% of the consumption of electricity of all government buildings to be derived from renewable energy sources.

Under Dutch implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, a scheme for joint purchasing of energy for government buildings is effective. The objective is to arrive at a climate neutral supply of energy for government structures by 2012. In the period 2002-2004, a mandate required that 50% of the consumption of electricity of all government buildings to be derived from renewable energy sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Renewables for Government Buildings

Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic  State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic (2014 update) Ministry of Industry and Trade 2014 CZ

Title (orig.): Aktualizace státní energetické koncepce České republiky

Language: CS

Summary:

The document sets a strategic task for the development of Czech energy for another 25 years. The mission of National Energy Policy of the Czech Republic is to provide reliable, safe and environmentally friendly energy supply for the needs of the population and national economy, and also to ensure that the Czech Republic will have a steady supply of energy in case of crisis situations.

The main reason for the approval of the State Energy Policy is needed to clearly articulate priorities and strategic objectives of the state within the energy sector and provide stability to investors, citizens and government in today’s turbulent and dynamic period.

National Energy Concept identifies strategic priorities, which should contribute to the fulfillment of top targets.

Link:

State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic (PDF)
Aktualizace státní energetické koncepce České republiky (ZIP)

Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic  National Action Plan for Renewable Energy (2012 update) Ministry of Industry and Trade 2012 CZ

Title (orig.): Národní akční plán pro energii z obnovitelných zdrojů

Language: CS

Summary:

The National Action Plan for energy from renewable sources sets a national target for the share of energy from renewable sources by 2020 in electricity, heating, cooling and transport. The publication describes the set and projected trajectory of achieving the sets objectives.

Link:

Národní akční plán České republiky pro energii z obnovitelných zdrojů

Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment  Net-Metering Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment 2013 NL

Title (orig.): Net-Metering

Language: English

Summary:

Net-metering applies to clients who are at the same time producer of electricity, which are connected to the electricity grid through a connection with a throughput value smaller than or equal to 3*80A. Clients need to apply for an offer from the responsible grid operator for injecting electricity to the grid and are required to pay a grid use charge (art. 95(a) and (c) in conjunction with art. 31(c) Electricity Act). For small scale clients, energy taxes only apply to the net electricity consumption, defined as the difference between electricity obtained from and fed-in to the grid (art. 50 (1) and (2) WBM).

(LCMW) Relevance: Net-metering clients (producers of electricity)

Link:

Net-Metering

Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment  Tax regulation mechanisms I (Reduction of environmental protection tax) Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment 2012 NL

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms I (Reduction of environmental protection tax)

Language: English

Summary:

In the Netherlands, the consumption of electricity and natural gas is subject to the Act on the Environmental Protection Tax (art. 48 (1) in conjunction with art. 50 (1) WBM). A given consumer is exempt from this tax if the electricity consumed is electricity from renewable energy sources and was generated by the consumer himself (own consumption clause) (art. 64 (1) in conjunction with art. 50 (4), (5) WBM).

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on renewable energy sources

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms I (Reduction of environmental protection tax)

Ministry of Finance  Law on Excise Duties (Tax regulation mechanism) Latvian Government 2013 LV

Title (orig.): Law on Excise Duties (Tax regulation mechanism)

Language: English

Link:

Tax regulation mechanism (Law on Excise Duties)

Ministry of Finace  Law on the Value Added Tax (Tax regulation mechanism) Latvian Government 2014 LV

Title (orig.): Law on the Value Added Tax (Tax regulation mechanism)

Language: English

Link:

Law on the Value Added Tax (Tax regulation mechanism)

Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change 2010 GR

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

This political document  has been translated in institutional reform and policy measures that include:The establishment of a new Ministry for the Environment, Energy and Climate Change (MEECC),The formal acknowledgment of the priority given to achieving the targets set by Directive 2009/28/EC and by international commitments of the country for theprotection of the environmentù; The recent adoption by Parliament of Law L3851/2010 which came into effect on 4th June 2010 and in which ambitious national targets for RES (namely 20% on final energy consumption, 2% above the mandatory level of 18%.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change  Law L3851/2010 - Accelerating the development of Renewable Energy Sources to deal with climate change and other regulations addressing issues under the authority of the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change 2010 GR

Title (orig.): Law L3851/2010 - Accelerating the development of Renewable Energy Sources to deal with climate change and other regulations addressing issues under the authority of the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change

Language: English

Summary:

Accelerating the development of Renewable Energy Sources to deal with  climate change and other regulations addressing issues under the authority  of the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change.                 The Law distinguishes biogas from other biomass feedstocks

Link:

Law L3851/2010

Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change  Feed-in tariff from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA) Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change 2006 GR

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariff from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

Language: English

Summary:

Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Producers that own power plants can sell the electricity with regulated prices (feed-in tariff), differentiated on the basis of type of technology (biomass-biogas), plant size and type of fuel (biomass waste, organic fraction of MSW, sewage sludge, agricultural biomass)

Link:

Feed-in tariff from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)