A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth  Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012 Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth 2012

Title (orig.): Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Summary:

Green Electricity Act 2012

Link:

Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth 2010 AT

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

4.6 Specific measures for the promotion of the use of energy from biomass

4.6.2 Measures to increase biomass availability, taking into account other biomass users (agriculture and forest-based sectors)

Measures to encourage unused arable land, degraded land, etc. to be used for energy purposes

The cultivation of land for food products and the production of bioresources are not in competition in Austria according to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture.

Unused raw material potential arises primarily from the use of grassland for biogas production. Until a few years ago grassland was still hardly used, however in the near future it will be a very interesting source material for various types of usage (fibre, lactic acid, etc.) and subsequent biogas production.

Strategy to promote the production and use of biogas

Biogas is currently still mainly produced for generating sets which produce green electricity and heat. Because biogas is, besides stored hydropower, the only storable renewable energy source, biogas technology may be used for daily production right up to the peak electricity production in the future. Treated biogas has the same chemical composition as natural gas. Therefore the targets aimed at for the future are the integration of treated biogas into the natural gas grid as well as the sale of biogas to filling stations. According to the Biogas and Compost Association, the use of biogas as fuel is possible through the steady spreading of natural gas powered vehicles and natural gas filling stations (Biogas and Compost Association).

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics  National Energy strategy Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics AT

Title (orig.): National Energy strategy

Language: English

Link:

Federal Ministry of Science Websites

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Electricity act (ElWOG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2010 AT

Title (orig.): Electricity act (ElWOG)

Language: English

Link:

Electricity act (ElWOG)

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Natural gas act (GWG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2015 AT

Title (orig.): Natural gas act (GWG)

Language: English

Link:

Natural gas act (GWG)

Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association  Wood heating for hotels and industry Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association 2016 AT

Title (orig.): Holzwärme für Hotels und Gewerbe

Language: German

Summary:

This flyer presents best practice projects in which Austrian hotel companies – from small inns to luxury 5-star wellness hotels – have switched from oil to wood heating. It describes how the change took place, the motivation of the hotel operators and the economic effects of the measure.

Link:

Online Shop of the Austrian Biomass Association to download flyer

Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER  BELGIUM National renewable energy action plan Plan Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER 2010 BE

Title (orig.): D’action national en matière d'énergies renouvelables; Nationaal actieplan voor hernieuwbare energie

Language: English

Summary:

Belgian authorities pursue a sustainable energy policy that takes into account the economic and social interests of the energy sector as well as the exhaustion of fossil resources and environmental concerns. In this context, renewable energy sources contribute to achieving the following targets:

  • reducing consumption of energy from fossil sources to safeguard future reserves
  • reducing greenhouse gas emissions; – reducing the country’s dependence on energy imports
  • minimising the impact of price fluctuations for energy from other sources
  • creating employment in the framework of an innovative economy
  • diversifying the available range of energy to improve the functioning of the energy market

In the field of electricity generation, Belgium has set up a scheme of green certificates and guaranteed minimum prices to support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources

Link:

Belgium National Action Plan

PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges  Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges 2003 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

Language: English

Summary:

The Royal Decree on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources was adopted in July 2002 and came into force 1 July 2003. It addresses two fundamental issues: first, it sets the conditions for issuing green certificates by the federal regulator (CREG) for offshore wind energy production, and second, it states that the grid operator is obliged to buy green certificates issued anywhere in Belgium at minimum prices of:

  • EUR 107/MWh for offshore wind energy (for installations with a financial close before 1/5/2014) for energy produced by first installed capacity up to 216 MW for each concession, and EUR 90/MWh for additional capacity, and at minimum prices equal to LCOE – [reference price of electricity – correction factor] for installations with a financial close after 1/5/2014, with LCOE = 138 EUR/MWh;
  • EUR 20/MWh for ocean energy (namely wave and tidal).

Other obligations related to buying green certificates have been deleted by the Royal Decree of 21/12/2012. Only green certificates delivered to PV installations commissioned before 1/8/2012 can benefit from a minimum purchase price obligation of up to 150 EUR/MWh.

By virtue of a Royal Decree of 20 December 2000, last modified by the Royal Decree of 20 March 2014, the Minister for Energy from now on can deliver domanial concessions for the construction and the exploitation of installations of electricity production, generated from water, currents or winds, in the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone of Belgium. The decree in question determinates precisely the zone where the installations may be set up. It also specifies the criteria of granting and the procedure by which the concessions are being issued.

The Programme law of July 2005 called for the mandatory contribution by national transmission service operators (TSO) of up to EUR 25 million worth of undersea cables for each concession. An imbalance costs regime for offshore wind production has been put in place by the Royal Decree of 30/3/2009. Imbalance refers to when the electricity producer produces too much or too little electricity, and must pay the difference to the Regulator. The new policy provides a 10% price reduction on the daily market price for the imbalance cost, for output gaps up to 30 %, or has to be compensated by the producer for imbalances above 30 %, based on the TSO’s tariff for the compensation of imbalances or according to the market conditions for imbalance energy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources

Link:

Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market  Flanders: Net-Metering (Mécanisme de compensation) Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market 2012; 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Flanders: Net-Metering (Mécanisme de compensation)

Language: English

Summary:

Flanders supports electricity from renewable energy sources by means of a quota system, an ecological premium and a net-metering scheme. Regarding heating and cooling from renewable energy resources, the Flemish support scheme provides for a quota system. Grid operators and municipalities are responsible for setting up premium schemes. The access of electricity from renewable energy sources to the grid is regulated by the basic legislation on energy market and technical regulations by the Flemish Electricity and Gas Regulator (VREG). Electricity from renewable energy sources is given priority in both connection to and use of the grid. Distribution grid operators are obliged to finance grid expansion. Diverse policies are currently under discussion. The level of implementation differs. On 28 September 2012, the Energy Regulation has been revised transposing the building obligations for heat from renewable energy into Flemish law.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Flanders: Net-Metering

Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region  Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014) Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region 2010; 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

Language: English

Summary:

Energy subsidies are provided by the Walloon Region for the generation of electricity through CHP plants using renewable energy. The energy subsidies for CHP plants were renewed for the year 2014 with the same conditions as for 2013.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from biogas and biomass

Link:

Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market  Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support) Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support)

Language: English

Summary:

Enterprises that make certain ecological professional investments in Flanders, can benefit from ecological aid in the form of an investment grant. The application for the ecology premium is made entirely electronically through the Internet.

In general, companies are stimulated to invest in environmental friendly and energy efficient technologies via a subsidy scheme consisting of the Ecologic Premium Plus (EP-PLUS) and Strategic Ecologic Support (EP-STRES).  An ecologic premium plus (EP-PLUS) is paid to technologies registered within a limited technology list (LTL) compiled and revised by the Ministry on the basis of proposals made by VITO (Independent Research Centre). Technologies not singled out in LTL may apply for strategic ecologic support (EP-STRES).The subsidy is paid to companies that operate in the Flemish region (Art. 10 Decree on Economic Aid). For both, the support cannot be combined with green electricity certificates (Art. 17 6° Decree on Ecological Investment). Projects are selected on a call for project basis 3 times per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Investment in environmental friendly and energy efficient technologies

Link:

Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support)

Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04)  Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement) Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04) 2004; 2006; 2009 BE

Title (orig.): Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement)

Language: English

Summary:

Primes Energies 2014: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels Capital region provides energy subsidies for residential, industrial as well as service sector buildings located in the Brussels region. Moreover, energy subsidies can also apply for renovation works in buildings older than 10 years. The energy subsidies are defined each year and apply from 1 January to 31 December.

The energy subsidies of the Brussels Capital region are allocated according to the income level. Three levels of subsidies are thus possible (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014):

  • Base income: > € 60,000 for singles and > € 75,000 for couples
  • Middle income: € 30,000 – 60,000 for singles and € 45,000 – 75,000 for couples
  • Low income: < € 30,000 for singles and < € 45,000 for couples

These income limits are increased by € 5,000 EUR per fiscally irresponsible person and if the applicant is under 35 years old. The subsidy is increased by 10 % for residential buildings situated within a Housing and Renovation Development Area (Espace de Développement Renforcé du Logement et de la Rénovation).

Social real estate agencies, public service real estate agencies as well as the Housing fund of the Brussels region benefit of the subsidies of the low income category. Industrial as well as service sector buildings benefit from the subsidies of the base income category (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014).

Aide à l’investissement: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels-Capital provides investment assistance for companies which develop environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants.

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants

Link:

Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014)
Brussels: Subsidy (Aide à l'investissement)

FPS Public health - environment  Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances FPS Public health - environment 2011 BE

Title (orig.): Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances

Language: English

Summary:

The Royal Decree of 5/4/2011 on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances establishes sustainability and physico-chemicals requirements for wood pellets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Wood pellets

Link:

Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances

SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable  Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable 2005; 2010 BE

Title (orig.): Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Language: English

Summary:

As of 2006, the Walloon government awarded grants for the installation of micro-cogeneration systems and high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers. Households, entreprises, self-employed workers and private entities were all eligible to receive grants. Every year, the programme is reviewed, taking into account the evolution of technology.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grants for the installation of high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers

Link:

Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM)  Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP) Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM) 2002 BE

Title (orig.): Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Language: English

Summary:

In April 2000, the federal government decided that all generators of electricity from renewable sources will become progressively free to choose their own electricity supplier if they use more electricity than they are able to generate. Consumers who buy a significant amount of their electricity from renewable sources are also eligible to choose their electricity supplier. When coordinating the call to electricity suppliers, the transport-grid manager, taking into account the needed supply security, gives priority to plants using renewable energy sources for power production, or to cogeneration units. The Flemish Parliament approved the decree regarding the liberalisation of the electricity market and marked the following categories as eligible:

  • Producers using quality CHP installations or renewables for electricity generation (up to a certain ceiling)
  • Consumers of renewables-generated electricity by means of a CHP unit (for a certain amount of electricity) or consumers using heat from CHP units or renewables
  • Consumers using heat from a supplier who generates this heat by means of CHP units or renewables (for a maximum of 500 kWh electricity per GJ heat)

In Wallonia, a corresponding decree was approved and aims to gradually open the market for producers using CHP and/or renewables for electricity generation, as well as consumers using renewable electricity and/or electricity generated by means of a CHP unit, or using heat from CHP units or renewables.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances)  Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies) The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances) 1992 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Arrêté royal d'exécution du Code des impôts sur les revenus 92 du 27 Août 1993, lequel est dénommé, en abrégé, “AR/CIR 92” / Koninklijk Besluit Tot Uitvoering Van Het Wetboek Van De Inkomstenbelastingen 1992, Afgekort Als "Kb/Wib 92

Language: English

Summary:

Entitled companies may reduce their taxable profit by a fixed percentage of their investment in renewable energy installations.  The regions are responsible for determining whether renewable energy installations are eligible or not (Art. 49 AR/CIR 92 referring to Annex II). The categories of eligible investments are listed within the appendix 1 of the form CEB 2 available in each region and referring to Annex II of AR/CIR 92.

The tax deduction amounts to 14,5% of the investment value for the fiscal year 2014 (Avis relatif à la déduction pour investissement).

  • Tax deductions on investments costs can be claimed through the tax return.
  • A certificate regarding investments for energy saving devices is necessary. The certificate is delivered by the regions, according to the investment location. The competent administration departments of the regions are to be found in the notice of the federal tax administration regarding the tax deduction on investments.

Link:

National: Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies)

Bulgarian Ministry of Finance  Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act Bulgarian Ministry of Finance 2013 BG

Title (orig.): Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

Language: English

Summary:

Tax regulation mechanism: A reduced rate of excise duty is applied to unleaded petrol or gas oil if a share of 4 to 5% of bioethanol or biodiesel has been added.

Link:

Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)  Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL) European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

Language: English

Summary:

BEERECL has been established to support industrial energy efficiency and small renewable energy projects in the private sector by using funding from the Kozloduy International Fund, which was created by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in May 2002. BEERECL provides grants of up to 20 percent of the disbursed loan principle for RES projects financed prior to 30 September 2009, and up to 15 percent grants for financing received after the latter date. However, eligible Investments in biomass should have installed capacity of less than 5 MW electric output, and Investments in biomass heat only boilers with a thermal input higher than 10 MWth are subject to EBRD approval – No restrictions for biogas plants.

Link:

Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA) State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

Language: English

Summary:

Grid connection. Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Based on the regulations of the Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources and Biofuels Act, electricity distribution companies are obliged to purchase the electricity generated from geothermal and solar energy for 25 years, whereas from the other sources of RES, including biomass, the offtake obligation is fixed at 15 years. End suppliers are obliged to offtake the electricity produced by RES. Failure to do so will result in a penalty amounting to between BGN 7,000 (appr. EUR 3,600) and BGN 20,000 (appr. EUR 10,225).

Link:

Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources (2011 last updated 2015). Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Producers that own power plants can sell the electricity with regulated prices (feed-in tariff), differentiated on the basis of type of technology (biomass-biogas), plant size and type of fuel (biomass waste, organic fraction of MSW, sewage sludge, agricultural biomass)

Link:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources

Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism 2010 BG

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

Bulgaria 2020 renewable energy targets:

  • Overall target: 16% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumptions;
  • Heating and Cooling: 24% of heat consumption met by renewable energy sources;
  • Electricity: 21% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 8% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources;
  • Measures to promote the use of energy from renewable energy source that will facilitate achievement of above enlisted targets:
  • Feed-in tariff system
  • Obligatory connection of RES plant to the network;
  • Long-term power purchase agreements (25 years for electricity purchased from geothermal and solar plants, 15 years from hydropower plants up to 10MW and from any other type of renewable plant);
  • Obligatory purchase of the electricity from renewable energy producers;
  • Guarantees of origin;
  • Compulsory blending of biofuels;
  • Zero rate of excise duty for pure biofuels;
  • Short and long-term programmes aiming at development of renewables.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

State Energy and Water Regulation Commission  Bulgaria feed-in tariff State Energy and Water Regulation Commission 2011 BG

Title (orig.): Bulgaria feed-in tariff

Language: English

Summary:

In Bulgaria, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Producers of electricity from renewable sources are contractually entitled against the grid operator to the purchase and payment of electricity at a guaranteed price. The connection of renewable energy plants to the grid is subject to the provisions of the general legislation on energy. Renewable energy is not given priority access. The use of renewable energy for heating and cooling is promoted through a subsidy from the European Regional Development Fund, several loan schemes and through an exemption for building owners from property tax. In Bulgaria, the main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing petrol or diesel to ensure that biofuels make up a defined percentage of their annual fuel sales. Furthermore, biofuels are supported through a fiscal regulation mechanism. The following policies aim at promoting the development, installation and usage of RES-installations in Bulgaria: There is a professional training programme for RES-installers as wells as a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and for the exemplary role of public authorities. eNERGY ACT 2013 (last amended mid-2015)

Link:

Bulgaria feed-in tariff

Baumgartner, Hansjakob  Also in meadows grows energy wood Federal Office for Environment (CH), Magazine "Umwelt" 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

Meadows enrich the landscape among other also by providing important habitats for animals and plants. To fulfil this function on a long term regular maintenance work is necessary. The resulting woody biomass has a high potential to contribute to a climate neutral energy potential.

(LCMW) Relevance: In the city of Bern, biomass coming from LCMW is nearly completely used for energetic purposes. Description of the use of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Aktionsplan Holz: Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Madlener R., Vögtl S.  Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: socio-economic analysis of the planned Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel CEPE Working Paper 2006 CH

Title (orig.): Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: socio-economic analysis of the planned Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel

Language: EN

Summary:

The municipal utilities of Basel (IWB) are in the process of building a 30 MW wood-fired CHP plant in the city of Basel, a project idea that was initially propelled by visionaries from the forest sector. The plant is attractive both politically and from a business perspective, as several goals related to the increased use of renewable energy can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, significant woody biomass resources are awaiting further exploitation in the Basel region, which could help to improve markedly the cost effectiveness of forest maintenance. In this paper we study the history and some of the characteristics of the planned project from a socio-economic perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Socio-economic analysis of diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas.

Link:

Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: socio-economic analysis of the planned Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel

Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU) & Bundesamt für Energie (BFE)  Energy wood potentials outside of the forest in Switzerland Ernst Basler + Partner AG 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

The aim of this study is to assess the potential amount of meadow wood (= wood growing on areas outside of forests) in Switzerland, how it is currently used and what gains and costs occur. The authors defined five sources for meadow wood (along roads, along rivers and lakes, urban green, hedgerows and agricultural areas). They used a GIS-model and conducted expert interviews for the data collection. The study showed that on 10 % of Switzerland’s area meadow wood is growing (400 000 ha) and that 420 000 t TS per year can be sustainably used. Over 80 % of the meadow wood is on urban or agricultural are and mostly in the region of the Swiss midland. Of today’s use only 54 % are used for energetic purposes, 39 % are left on the site and 7 % is used for material production. The profits and costs differ strongly between the regions. In some regions, the same material is sold and in others, disposal charges have to be paid.

(LCMW) Relevance: Broad overview of the situation of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes (PDF)
Holzenergie (website)

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Pilot and Demonstration Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Pilot and Demonstration Program

Language: English

Link:

Pilot and Demonstration Program

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Energy Research Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Research Program

Language: English

Link:

Energy Research Program

Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation  Federal Energy Law/Energy Act Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation 2014 CH

Title (orig.): Federal Energy Law/Energy Act

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Energiegesetz (EnG)

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE  SwissEnergy Programme Energieschweiz 2001 CH

Title (orig.): SwissEnergy Programme

Link:

SwissEnergy Programme

Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC)  Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) 2007 CH

Title (orig.): Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Link:

Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE  Feed-in remuneration at cost for renewable energy sources Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Kostendeckende Einspeisevergütung (KEV)

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariff at cost is an instrument that was developed by the federal government for the purpose of promoting electricity production from renewable energy sources. It covers the difference between the production cost and the market price, and guarantees producers of electricity from renewable sources a price that corresponds to their production costs. Feed-in tariff at cost is available for the following technologies: hydropower (installed capacity up to 10 megawatts), photovoltaics (installed capacity from 10 kilowatt), wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass and biological waste. Contributions are made to the associated fund by all electricity consumers, who pay a fee per consumed kilowatt hour.

The tariffs for power from renewable sources are specified on the basis of reference power plants for each technology and output category. The tariff is applicable for 20 years (10 years for biomass infrastructure power plants). In view of technological progress and the increasing degree of market maturity of new technologies, the tariff rates are subject to a regular review. Reductions only apply to new production facilities that are put into operation.

New facilities can be registered with the national network operator, Swissgrid. Due to the great demand, there is a long waiting list. Owners of small photovoltaic power plants (from 2 up to 30 kilowatt) can ask a unique capital subsidy. For more details, see the Swissgrid website.

For detailed information on the amount of base payments and wood bonus (Swiss Francs/kWh) see third link bellow.

Link:

Feed-in remuneration at cost for renewable energy sources

Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment  Building Renovation Program Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Building Renovation Program

Language: English

Link:

Building Renovation Program

Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI  Action plan for coordinated energy research Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI 2013 CH

Title (orig.): Action plan for coordinated energy research

Language: English

Link:

Action plan for coordinated energy research

Federal Council  Energy Strategy 2050 Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2011 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Strategy 2050

Language: English

Link:

Energy Strategy 2050

Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment  Biomass Strategy Switzerland Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Biomass Strategy Switzerland

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomassestrategie Schweiz legt übergeordnete Ziele fest

Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation  Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation 2015 CH

Title (orig.): Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment

Language: English

Link:

Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment

Swiss Federal Council  Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) Swiss Federal Council 2016 CH

Title (orig.): Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC)

Language: English

Link:

Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Government  Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat Government 2006 CY

Title (orig.): Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Link:

Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism  Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism 2003 CY

Title (orig.): Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Summary:

Grant scheme for the promotion of electricity generation using wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic systems and the utilization of biomass – The minimum selling price of electrical energy that will be produced by utilizing biomass-landfill and fed to the transmission / distribution grid is 117.9 -97.4 Eur/MWh for the first 20 years. The grant, paid from the Special Fund for RES will result from the difference between the total selling price and the purchase price of electricity from renewable sources, by the electricity distributor as it is periodically determined by CERA. Note that if the purchase price kWh from the supplier surpass total selling price, then the supplier will pay the excess amount to the Special Fund for RES and RUE.

Link:

Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Government  National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Of Cyprus Government 2014 CY

Title (orig.): National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Of Cyprus

Language: English

Summary:

Cuprus is a small and isolated system (an island country) without any interconnections to European or other energy networks (electricity, petroleum, natural gas) at present, Cyprus attaches great importance to energy efficiency aiming, inter alia, to improve energy supply security, increase competitiveness and ensure sustainable development/environmental protection. A set of Regulations published in January 2014, provides for the creation of a registry of certified installers of small RES systems for the f Installers of biomass boilers and heating appliances.

Link:

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Of Cyprus

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and tourism  National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Ministry of Commerce, Industry and tourism 2010 CY

Title (orig.): National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan – The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism in cooperation with all others competent bodies, considered various scenarios regarding development plans for projects implementing renewable energy sources technologies in the sectors of electricity, heating/cooling and transport and selected the best scenario for Cyprus. The selection was based on the following criteria:

  • the obligation of the Republic of Cyprus to achieve the targets set by Directive 2009/28/•C for both the share of energy from renewable sources in the final consumption of energy and the rate of renewable sources consumed in transport;
  • the domestic renewable energy potential per technology;
  • the cost, maturity, efficiency, potential, development and social acceptance of each technology;
  • the cost and most efficient utilisation of the Special Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Fund revenue;
  • safe network operation and the potential of each technology with respect to stocks.

Link:

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic  State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic (2014 update) Ministry of Industry and Trade 2014 CZ

Title (orig.): Aktualizace státní energetické koncepce České republiky

Language: CS

Summary:

The document sets a strategic task for the development of Czech energy for another 25 years. The mission of National Energy Policy of the Czech Republic is to provide reliable, safe and environmentally friendly energy supply for the needs of the population and national economy, and also to ensure that the Czech Republic will have a steady supply of energy in case of crisis situations.

The main reason for the approval of the State Energy Policy is needed to clearly articulate priorities and strategic objectives of the state within the energy sector and provide stability to investors, citizens and government in today’s turbulent and dynamic period.

National Energy Concept identifies strategic priorities, which should contribute to the fulfillment of top targets.

Link:

State Energy Policy of the Czech Republic (PDF)
Aktualizace státní energetické koncepce České republiky (ZIP)

Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic  National Action Plan for Renewable Energy (2012 update) Ministry of Industry and Trade 2012 CZ

Title (orig.): Národní akční plán pro energii z obnovitelných zdrojů

Language: CS

Summary:

The National Action Plan for energy from renewable sources sets a national target for the share of energy from renewable sources by 2020 in electricity, heating, cooling and transport. The publication describes the set and projected trajectory of achieving the sets objectives.

Link:

Národní akční plán České republiky pro energii z obnovitelných zdrojů

Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic  Action Plan for Biomass in the Czech Republic for the period 2012-2020 Ministry of Agriculture 2012 CZ

Title (orig.): Akční plan pro biomasu v ČR na období 2012–2020

Language: CS

Summary:

Biomass Action Plan in the Czech Republic for the period 2012-2020 presents an analysis of the biomass use in the Czech Republic for energy purposes, and proposes appropriate measures for sustainable agro-energy interconnections till the year 2020.

The material includes information on key areas of energy use of biomass, including the use of solid biomass for direct combustion to produce heat and electricity, biogas production and liquid biofuels and proposes appropriate measures for the sustainability of the biomass field by 2020.

Biomass Action Plan presents real potential of various types of biomass for efficient energy utilization.

The Biomass Action Plan is built on a previous similar document prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture for years 2009-2011, which indicated the possibility of biomass energy utilization.

Link:

Akční plan pro biomasu v ČR na období 2012–2020 (PDF)

Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic  Energy options of biomass use Ministry of Agriculture 2013 CZ

Title (orig.): Možnosti energetického využití biomasy

Language: CS

Summary:

This publication tries to indicate the possibility of biomass energy utilization, set up appropriate support mechanisms and the direction of development of technology for biomass utilization.

The booklet helps to zoom on the Biomass Action Plan 2012 – 2020 for citizens, to describe the potential of biomass, and discovers in detail the possibility of using biomass for wider public.

The publication is thus divided into three thematic sections, according to whom it is addressed, practical application of knowledge of Biomass Action Plan 2012-2020:

  • possibilities of cultivation and utilization of biomass energy in agriculture
  • possibilities of energy use of biomass in the municipalities
  • possibilities of energy use of biomass in households.

Link:

Možnosti energetického využití biomasy (PDF)

Havlíčková, K. et al.  Analysis of the biomass potential in the Czech Republic The Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening (RILOG) 2010 CZ

Title (orig.): Analýza potenciálu biomasy v České republice

Language: CS

Summary:

This publication presents the outcomes of the MŽP SP/3G/24/07 project implemented by the The Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening (RILOG), (in original Výzkumný ústav Silva Taroucy pro krajinu a okrasné zahradnictví, v.v.i. (VÚKOZ)). The book consists of eight chapters dealing mainly with determining the biomass potential of arable land and economy of energy from biomass There are 26 colored graphic attachments at the end of the publication, which display various map outputs describing the resource maps and the attachment. Potential of forest harvest residues by age levels is also indicated in this attachment.

Link:

Website of the project
Homepage of the institute

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Energy Act (Act No 458/2000 Coll., on business conditions and public administration in the energy sectors) Collection of Laws of the Czech Republic 2000 CZ

Title (orig.): Zákon č. 458/2000 Sb., o podmínkách podnikání a o výkonu státní správy v energetických odvětvích a o změně některých zákonů (energetický zákon)

Language: CS

Link:

Energy Act (English translation)
Energy Act (original)

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Community composting Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Kompostujeme na území MAS Ploštin (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

The citizens have the possibility to borrow the composter for home composting; The municipalities can borrow the composter for processing of biomass from public areas.

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste sent to composting

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Collective treatment of organic waste Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Biologicky rozložitelný odpad (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

Collective purchase of composters for organic residues from public areas and households (288 composters, volume of 900 liter each; 12 composters for public areas, volume of 5100 liter each).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste collectively composted

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Municipality of Salas  Interreg - Salas Interreg 2009 CZ

Title (orig.): Interreg - Salaš

Language: Czech

Summary:

The Interreg IIIA project was supported to use environmentally clean heating biomass – wood, along with the use of solar collectors for domestic hot water. The basic idea is to utilize local sources of wood (contract with Lesy Czech Republic) for heating houses also reducing emissions from transport. The result of the project is the creation of one job associated with the organization of harvesting, handling, record keeping and billing itself individual participants in the project.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of environmentally clean biomass for heating.

Link:

Interreg - Salas

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.) Parliament of the Czech Republic 2001 CZ

Title (orig.): Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.)

Language: English

Link:

Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.)

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.) Parliament of the Czech Republic 2005 CZ

Title (orig.): Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.)

Language: English

Link:

Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.)

Kirsten Graulich  Energy Transition - Do it yourself Tagesspiegel Potsdamer Neueste Nachrichten 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energiewende selber Machen

Language: DE

Summary:

The German regions Teltow, Kleinmachnow and Stahnsdorf lack sufficient biomass for a biomass facility. But now there is the idea of using leaf-fall for energy production. The local citizens should take part on this project.

Link:

Energiewende selber Machen

Tischew, S., Heck, P.  Establishing an example of a regional energy cycle with biomass from LCMW in the natural park Unteres Saaletal with special consideration of a GIS- assessment on the long-term availability of the biomass potential DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Etablierung eines beispielhaften regionalen Energiekreislaufs mit Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Naturpark Unteres Saaletal unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einer GIS-gestützten Abschätzung des langfristig zur Verfügung stehenden Biomassepotenzials

Language: DE

Summary:

1) Analyse status quo – classification of the research area with areal photos and existing data to select LCMW areas
2) Determination and definition of use- and maintenance- categories based on aims of nature protection
3) Establish 18 test areas to verify height classes, perform a biomass collection (harvest) and record data on vegetation and habitat.
4) Develop a procedure based on GIS to assess the biomass potential
5) Selection of several representative forest stands and record of random samples to derive forest stand types
6) Calculation of the biomass stock of the selected stands and calculation of the wood stock of the single stand types
7) Derive the actual useable biomass potential of all LCMW areas
8) Develop a regional concept for the use of wood from LCMW for a heating site in the primary school Wettin and make a cost calculation for the heating system

(LCMW) Relevance: Method for a comprehensive determination of the available standing woody biomass potential from LCMW

Link:

Etablierung eines beispielhaften regionalen Energiekreislaufs mit Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Naturpark Unteres Saaletal unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einer GIS-gestützten Abschätzung des langfristig zur Verfügung stehenden Biomassepotenzials

Stegner, Jan  Framework for energetic utilization of biomass from landscape management in Saxony - Final Report Sächsischen Staatsministeriums für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Rahmenkonzept zur energetischen Verwertung von Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Freistaat Sachsen – Abschlussbericht

Language: DE

Summary:

Following topics are assessed:

  • Political and legal framework for energy recovery from biomass from landscape management
  • Volume of landscaping material in Saxony
  • Determination of energetic utilization demand for biomass from landscape management
  • Technical solutions for utilizing biomass from landscape management
  • Analysis and presentation of technological deficiencies and uncertainties exploitation potential
  • Regionalized analysis of acceptance for plant operators and farms with regard to their willingness to energetic utilization of biomass from landscape management
  • Suitable recycling methods and technologies for the energy use of landscaping material

Under the current technical and technological and politico-economic conditions, the energetic use of landscape material via biogas and combustion in small and medium combustion plants or large combustion plants are appropriate ways. Both pathways require further procedural and logistical improvement.

The energetic use of landscape material is currently in Saxony barely realized. Especially in biogas plants, energy use with small technical changes would be possible. However, the political and economic conditions contradict such use.

(LCMW) Relevance: The political and economic conditions contradict the utilization of this biomass type.

Link:

Rahmenkonzept zur energetischen Verwertung von Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Freistaat Sachsen

Cremer, Tobias  Mobilisation and economical utilization of raw wood from forests and landscape for energy production DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Language: DE

Summary:

The aim of this project was to develop and implement optimised mobilisation, supply and logistic concepts for energy wood from forests and LCMW biomass for a concrete region. Existing and innovative technologies and organisational approaches for the supply of energy wood were further developed and combined. During this process, all affected regional actors were involved.

(LCMW) Relevance: A new approach for the assessment of the potential of LCMW biomass for energetic use was described.

Link:

Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Müller S., Steensen T., Büscher O., Jandewerth M.  Preparation of a biomass potential map BIS-Verlag, Oldenburg (EnviroInfo Conference 2014) 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Preparation of a biomass potential map

Language: EN

Summary:

Proceedings of the 28th EnviroInfo 2014 Conference, Oldenburg, Germany (September 10-12, 2014)

Normally, there are no reliable data sources that give information about the objects of interest like hedges and vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins. There is a great demand for an inventory of these biomass sources which could be answered by applying remote sensing technology. To generate that kind of spatial information, satellite imagery is used in combination with area-wide available GIS and elevation data.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass potential map of hedges and vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins.

Link:

Preparation of a biomass potential map (PDF)

Morgenroth, Andreas  The energy transition at the cemetery - production and use of renewable energies in cemetery open spaces Aeternitas e.V. - Verbraucherinitiative Bestattungskultur 2006 DE

Title (orig.): Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof - Erzeugung und Nutzung regenerativer Energien auf Friedhofsfreiflächen

Language: DE

Summary:

Landscape architect Andreas Morgenroth describes the benefits and shows how to use renewable energy in cemeteries. He constitutes the framework of the energy transition and explains sustainability aspects of cemetery management, taking into account the special cemetery cultural concerns. On German cemeteries approximately 15,000 hectares are no longer needed for burials. The trend is towards small urn graves. Morgenroth explains several options of production and use of renewable energies and describes cemetery open spaces as predestined.

(LCMW) Relevance: Potential of landscape material from cemeteries for incineration and digestion.

Link:

Pressemitteilung: Friedhöfe könnten Energie erzeugen
Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof (PDF)

Britton, Renée Bradford  The potential for CO2 reduction of energetically used landscape conservation materials and green waste in the county Marburg - Biedenkopf, Germany Kassel University, Kassel, Germany and Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (Master thesis) 2013 DE

Title (orig.): The potential for CO2 reduction of energetically used landscape conservation materials and green waste in the county Marburg - Biedenkopf, Germany

Language: EN

Summary:

The goal of this thesis is to ascertain the annual average amount of green waste available from LCMW and to determine the potential of its energetic use and its positive contribution to the climate targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Key messages and data for greenGain Approaches: Bio-waste management analysis in Marburg-Biedenkopf Literature review on relevant energy-conversion technology Overview on green waste in Germany, key stakeholders of the energetic use Importance of logistic for the use of green residues Determining the potential of the green residues for the energy utilisation (yield of methane) Tool for modelling CO2 emissions Case scenario for Marburg-Biedenkopf: coal vs. grass plant Transferability of the concept to Jamaican context.

Link:

Thesis
Presentation

BAFU & BFE  Energy potencial of wood outside the forest: Study commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment and the Federal Office of Energy BAFU & BFE 2009 DE

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale ausserhalb des Waldes; Studie im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Umwelt BAFU und des Bundesamtes für Energie BFE

Language: German

Summary:

In der Schweiz steigt die Nachfrage nach Energieholz. Aus diesem Grund wird auch ausserhalb des Waldes anfallendes Holz vermehrt genutzt. Bisher liegen kaum Informationen darüber vor, wie viel Holz ausserhalb des Waldes nachwächst und wie dieses Flurholz verwertet wird. Die vorliegende Studie trägt dazu bei, diese Lücke zu schliessen. Ein wichtiger Aspekt ist dabei die Potenziale an Flurholz in der Schweiz abzuschätzen. Weiter wurde untersucht, wie Flurholz verwertet wird und mit welchen finanziellen Aufwendungen und Erträgen die Bewirtschaftung von Flurgehölzen verbunden ist.

(LCMW) Relevance: Study on energy potencial of wood outside the forest.

Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde  Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings (green cuttings, leaves, wood) in the bioenergy region Ludwigsfelde RegioFutur 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Endbericht „Potentiale und Möglichkeiten der energetischen Verwertung von kommunalem Begleitgrün (Grünschnitt, Laub, Holz) in der Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde Plus+

Language: German

(LCMW) Relevance: Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings.

Bioenergy Promotion  Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance Bioenergy Promotion 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance

Language: English

Summary:

Rotenburg (Wümme) County supports renewable energy mainly from biogas and woody resources through a strategy which was founded in 2007 and acts as a platform for commuication and information among related actors. This strategy is supported by addressing renwable energy in all mandatory publc planning like the Regional Development Plan (under renewal in 2014), the Regional Landscape Plan and the Concept for Climate Protection. Moreover, forestry-related, mostly EU-co-financed support schemes like site mapping, forest inventory and investment support provide good opportunities for assessment and utilisation of woody biomass, taking sustainability principles into account. A close cooperation exists between three local forest owners associations, which can form a basis for resliable supply of wood as an energy carrier.

(LCMW) Relevance: Project partner - greenGain.

BMU & UBA  Ecologically sensible recycling of biowaste; Suggestions for municipal decision makers BMU & UBA 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Ökologisch sinnvolle Verwertung von Bioabfällen; Anregungen für kommunale Entscheidungsträger

Language: German

Summary:

Die Bundesregierung will bis spätestens 2020 die Emission treibhausrelevanter Gase in Deutschland um 40 Prozent gegenüber 1990 reduzieren. Ziele, die sich nur durch eine nachhaltige Energiewirtschaft – der Einsparung von Energie, der regenerativen Energieerzeugung und einen effizienteren Energieeinsatz – erreichen lassen. Angesichts dieser hochgesteckten Ziele ist zu prüfen, welchen Beitrag die Abfallwirtschaft, und hierbei auch die Bioabfälle zur Erreichung
der Ressourcen-, Energie- und Klimaziele, künftig zusätzlich noch leisten kann.

(LCMW) Relevance: Recycling of biowaste.

Pehlken, Alexandra , et al.   Forming stakeholder alliances to unlock alternative and unused biomass potentials in bioenergy regions Journal of Cleaner Production. 2015, 110, pp. 66–77 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Forming stakeholder alliances to unlock alternative and unused biomass potentials in bioenergy regions

Language: English

Summary:

The Story: Potential of alternative biomass types for energy recovery in two regions in the context of German renewable energy regulation (EEG) was addressed. Two selected regions were represented by two biogas plant operators interested in reducing the amount of maize as biogas substrate in their plants due to the new EEG regulation. In the Dornum region, the mayor, the water association, the biogas producer and citizens of Dornum came together to discuss and define the bioenergy solution for their region. During the discussion, it became clear, how advantageous it is to discuss the situation with the wide spectrum of actors and that there are benefits out of it for all the participants. Similar was the situation in the Ihausen region. Although there were some doubts of using some materials, the biogas plant operator made it clear based on his experience.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of not dedicated cultures for biogas production

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (2.51 MB)

Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Renewable Energy Sources Act Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG)

Language: English

Summary:

Crucial law for the development of renewable energies in Germany is the “2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act –EEG” supporting energy production from renewable sources. The objective of the EEG is to continue steady deployment of renewable energy in Germany in a cost efficient manner by fostering the integration of renewable energy sources into the market. The act aims to increase the gross consumption of electricity produced by renewable energies to 40%-45% by 2025 and to 55% – 60% by 2035. One mean to reach this goal is, among others, to rise the installed performance of biomass energy plants up to 100 MW per year (gross) (EEG, § 3(4)).

Mandatory direct marketing:

In order to better integrate renewable energy into the market, operators of new renewable energy plants are obliged to market their generated electricity directly, either independently or through a direct marketer. The EEG 2014 contains two ways of direct marketing:

  1. direct marketing with the purpose of receiving a market premium (subsidised direct marketing) or
  2. direct marketing without receiving a subsidy (other direct marketing).

The payment of the market premium requires that the energy is direct marketed. The Market Premium consists of the fixed statutory tariff of the respective renewable energy plant minus its technology-specific monthly market value.

Following plants are exempted from obligatory direct marketing:

  • Plants with a capacity no larger than 500 kW commissioned before 1st January 2016 and
  • Plants with a capacity no larger than 100  kW commissioned before 31st December 2015.

RES generators with a capacity up to 500 kW commissioned before 1st of January 2016 are supported via fixed feed-in tariffs. Plant operators may switch on a monthly basis between feed-in tariffs and a market premium or may benefit proportionately from the feed-in tariffs or the market premium.

In connection with the EEG the specifications for the energetic use of biomass are described in the Biomass Ordinance (BiomasseV). The Ordinance regulates for the scope of the EEG which materials are classified as biomass, what technical procedures for power production from biomass apply for the EEG and what environmental requirements have to be met when producing power with biomass (BiomasseV, § 1). In paragraph 2 the Biomass Ordinance defines, among others, organic waste as biomass according to § 2 Nr. 1 of the Ordinance for Organic Waste (BioAbfV). Here material from landscape and maintenance work without the main purpose of nature conservation is categorized as organic waste (BioAbfV, Annex 1) and the energetic use e.g. in biogas plants oblige different permission and must meet many requirements.

For detailed information on the exact requirements for the singe renewable energy sources, the given tariff amounts (Euros/kWh) and the particular regression rates see second link bellow.

Link:

2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act -EEG-
Feed-in tariff (EEG feed-in tariff)

Federal Environment Ministry  Market Premium Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Market Premium

Language: English

Summary:

2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act EEG

Link:

Market Premium

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  CHP Agreements with Industry Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2012 DE
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)  Law on Energy and Climate Fund Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) 2011 DE

Title (orig.): Law on Energy and Climate Fund

Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research  Sixth Energy Research Programme Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research 2011 DE

Title (orig.): 6.Energieforschungsprogramm - Forschung für eine umweltschonende, zuverlässige und bezahlbare Energieversorgung

Language: English

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)  National Energy Action Plan Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), European Comission 2010 DE

Title (orig.): National Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

Measures in Germany are the EEG, Combined Heat and Power Act and Market Incentive Program (all also separately listed)

Bundesregierung  Energy Concept Bundesregierung 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Language: Deutsch

Summary:

Energy and Climate Fund

Link:

Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation)  KfW Renewable Energies Program Standard KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation) 2014 DE

Title (orig.): KfW Renewable Energies Program Standard

Language: English

Link:

KfW Renewable Energies Program Standard

KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation)  Loan (KfW Financing Initiative Energiewende) KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation) 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Loan (KfW Financing Initiative Energiewende)

Link:

Loan (KfW Financing Initiative Energiewende)

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWärmeG) Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Erneuerbare-Energien-Wärmegesetz

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Erneuerbare-Energien-Wärmegesetz

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Bio Waste Regulation Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 1996 DE

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Bioabfallverordnung

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Biomass Regulation Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2005 DE

Title (orig.): Biomass Regulation

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomasse-Verordnung

KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation)  KfW-Program Energy-Efficient Rehabilitation (Energieeffizient Sanieren) KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation) 2009 DE

Title (orig.): KfW-Program Energy-Efficient Rehabilitation (Energieeffizient Sanieren)

Language: English

Link:

KfW-Program Energy-Efficient Rehabilitation (Energieeffizient Sanieren)

Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour  Eco-Tax Reform Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour 1999 DE

Title (orig.): Eco-Tax Reform

KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation)  Market Incentive Programme KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau = Reconstruction Loan Corporation) 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Marktanreizprogramm

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Federal Emissions Protection Ordinances (BImSchV) Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2015 DE

Title (orig.): 1. BImSchV: Verordnung über kleine und mittlere Feuerungsanlagen

Language: Deutsch

Link:

1. BImSchV: Verordnung über kleine und mittlere Feuerungsanlagen

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Federal Act for the Protection of Nature and Landscape Management Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Gesetz über Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Gesetz über Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege

Presenters at the conference  Script of the conference "Biomass to Power and Heat" 1. - 2. 6. 2016 Zittau University of Zittau/Görlitz 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Tagungsband - Beiträge zum Fachkolloquium "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Language: German and English

Summary:

The script of the conference „Biomass to Power and Heat“ 2016 includes the summaries of the 15 expert presentations of this year´s event. The contributions focus on practical introduction, and scientific and economic support for decentralized supply approaches and power generation of wood-like biomass in cogeneration. Accordingly, the presentations cover topics as:

  • biomass from agroforestry
  • new technologies for producing and using pellets
  • spontaneous reactions when storing biomass
  • combined heat and power units with Stirling motor
  • regulation- and monitoring systems for pollution emissions
  • biogas production
  • biochar
  • syngas
  • regional energy markets
  • experiences with different combustibles.

The aims and work of the greenGain project were introduced as well and are summarised in the according chapter of the conference script.

(LCMW) Relevance: Technologies, experiences and new findings in the field of biomass firings. Aline Clalüna from COALS (Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen), partner of the greenGain project, had a presentation at the conference dedicated to the greenGain project (see p. 9 - 13).

Link:

Homepage on conference "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Attachment

Conference script "Biomass to Power and Heat" (22.01 MB)
Flyer with program of the conference (518.18 KB)

von der Mühlen & Dietrich  Landscape Management Plan County Friesland Landkreis Friesland 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landkreis Friesland Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplans: Biotopkartierung, Erhebung der gesetzlichen geschützen Biotope, Überprüfen der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung

Language: German

Summary:

Im Juni 2011 wurde durch den Landkreis Friesland die Biotoptypenkartierung auf der Grundlage einer Luftbildinterpretation, die Erfassung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope sowie die Überprüfung der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung von 1987 / 88 in Auftrag gegeben. Auftrag war es, eine für das Kreisgebiet flächendeckende Biotoptypenkarte unter Berücksichtigung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope (§ 30 BNatSchG) als Grundlage für die Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplanes des Landkreis Friesland zu erstellen. Vorgehensweise und Ergebnisse der Bestandserhebungen werden in diesem Fachbeitrag beschrieben.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ressource used for Biomass Assessment of the LCMW type Hedge Rows on Banks (D5.2)

Link:

Landkreis Friesland

Attachment

Landschaftsrahmenplan Landkreis Friesland (2.84 MB)

Höner, G.  Heating with hedge rows Forstmagazin Top Agrar Online 2017 DE

Title (orig.): Heizen mit Hecken

Language: German

Summary:

In der Ausgabe 2012/2012 des Forstmagazins Topagrar.com wird das Management der Wallheckenpflege durch den Heckenkoordinator im Münsterland beschrieben. Dabei werden die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Heckeneigentümer und Lohnunternehmer, die regionale Vermarktung der Hackschnitzel und der maschinelle Einsatz im Kreis Steinfurt genauer betrachtet.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ressource used for Biomass Assessment of the LCMW type Hedge Rows on Banks (D5.2)

Link:

Onlineartikel Heizen mit Hecken

Butler Manning, David; Bemann, Albrecht; Bredemeier, Michael; Lamersdorf, Norbert; Ammer, Christian  Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas Wiley-VCH 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas

Language: English

Summary:

This book shows the major reasearch foundings of the projects AgroForNet: Linking the Producers and Consumers of Woodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas and BEST: Strengthening Bioenergy Regions. In stand-alone scientific research papers the latest knowledge on cultivation of dendromass for bioenergy purposes in Germany is presented in the context of international research. Different aspects are covered, among other i) environmental constraints, landscape functions, ecosystem services; ii) evaluating, managing and enhancing the supply of dendromass; and iii) socio-economic and legal aspects fo dendromass for bioenergy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Examples of frameworks for the development of woodfuel-based service systems and supply chains

Schonhoff, Andreas; Berger, Florian; Khalsa, Jan Hari Arti; Lenz, Volker; Teltewskaja, Gundula; Werner, Hans  Final report of the customized concept for municipal energy carriers Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Schlussbericht für das Verbundvorhaben Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept (IbeKET)

Language: German

Summary:

Endbericht des Verbundvorhaben “Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept” (IbeKET). Zu den konzeptionellen Zielen gehörten die Erarbeitung eines übertragbaren Konzeptes zur Beschaffung, Aufbereitung und energetische Nutzung von Biomasse wie Laub, Grünschnitt und Gewässepflegematerial, sowie das Anstreben einer Umsetzung am Standort der LUTRA GmbH. In technischer Hinsicht sollte grundsätzlich die energetische Nutzung der genannten Reststoffbiomassen unter Einhaltung der gegebenen Rahmenbedingungen ermöglicht werden.

Link:

Dokumentinformation

Anders, Kenneth; Fischer, Lars  Woody roads into a new landscape? Aufland Verlag 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Holzwege in eine neue Landschaft? - Perspektiven für holzige Biomasse aus der Sicht von Akteuren

Language: German

Summary:

Within the scope of the AgroForNet research network, the Landscape Communication Agency has conducted extensive surveys on short-term plantations, material from landscape maintenance and forestry residuals as well as other uses of woody biomass in German landscapes between 2010 and 2013. These were supplemented by research on historical agroforest systems, middle and low forests. From this material, the authors compiled a reading book, which supports the question of the future of these land use forms with the existing practices. The book is a snapshot of high landscape dynamics and a catalog of diverse possibilities to shape one’s own landscape and to create new value-creating relationships.

(LCMW) Relevance: Best practice examples of roles of stakeholders when using LCMW biomass

Link:

Purchase book

Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas; Graven, Thomas; Bergs, Claus-Gerhard; Hermann, Tim  Ecologically sustainable recovery of bio-waste Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Ecologically sustainable recovery of bio-waste - Suggestions for policy-makers at local authorities

Language: English, German

Summary:

In order to provide guidance in optimising bio-waste collection and use especially for local policy-makers, this booklet sets out the potential in bio-waste and the technical processes currently available for using the various categories of bio-waste. Furthermore, with the aid of a checklist local policy-makers can estimate whether optimising bio-waste recovery is practical in terms of increasing the amounts collected or the quantity of energy generated on site.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass assessment, energetic and material utilisation, economic and ecologic aspects

Link:

Download of booklet on homepage of BMU

Attachment

Booklet ecologically sustainable recovery of bio-waste (6.56 MB)

Conrady et. al.  Landscape management without shepherd? – Results based on the pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” Thüringer Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Forsten, Umwelt und Naturschutz 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer? - Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt "Biodiversität und Energieholz"

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” examines the use of wood from landscape management for energy production to maintain the natural value of open habitats with their important biodiversity in cultural landscapes. Since 2009, different methods of timber harvesting have been tested on up to 34 areas in Brandenburg and Thuringia in Germany – with a special focus on cost reduction, economic efficiency and environmental compatibility. The project shows the benefit of combining efforts to maintain open habitats in our cultural landscape with using harvested woody biomass as fuel wood. This benefit was visible already after the first few measures – economically and ecologically.

(LCMW) Relevance: Hederows on banks, nature protection, landscape management

Link:

Download portal for single chapters of conference script "The steppe habitats in Europe - Hazards, conservation measures and protection"

Attachment

PDF Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer (323.30 KB)

Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland  Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland - DE

Title (orig.): Wallhecken Landkreis Friesland

Language: German

Summary:

The brochure gives an introduction what defines hedgerows on bank (Wallhecken, Knicks) and shows their occurence in the county Friesland in the North of the German state Lower Saxony. Further, the history and ecological importance of hedgerows on banks is explained and what factors threatens their preservation. Finally, the brochure lists the measures necessary to protect and maintain these landscape structures and informs about the availalbe financial support for owners.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ecological, legal, treatment and financial information on hedgerows on banks

Link:

General information on hedgerows on bank on the homepage of the Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland

Attachment

PDF Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland (14.27 MB)

Rosenberg, Alexander  Assessment of energy wood potential from roadside maintenance in the county Rotenburg (Wümme) Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen, Chamber of Agriculture Lower Saxony 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Einschätzung des Energieholzpotenzials aus Straßenbegleitgrün im Landkreis Rotenburg (Wümme)

Language: German

Summary:

This report describes the assessment of the biomass potential from roadside maintenance in the German county Rotenburg (Wümme) in the course of the EU INTERREG Baltic Sea Region project Bioenergy Promtion. The author describes the methodology of measuring hedge- and treerows along county roads and illustrates the estimation of vegetation type structures and maintenance urgency. Among other he also names options for efficient planing and implementation of the LCMW in this region.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from roadside maintenance in the pilot region Rotenburg (Wümme)

Attachment

PDF Report Bioenergy Promotion (1.24 MB)

Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas; Funda, Karsten; Lootsma, Auke; Hofmann, Hubertus  Costs and benefits of an optimized bowaste utilisation in regard to energy efficiency, climate- and resource protection Umweltbundesamt, German environmental protection agency 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Aufwand und Nutzen einer optimierten Bioabfallverwertung hinsichtlich Energieeffizienz, Klima- und Ressourcenschutz

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Separately collected organic wastes in Germany are currently predominately composted and subsequently recycled for soil improvement and fertilization. Usage of the immanent energy potential of the organic wastes is just emerging. With special emphasis on organic wastes from households, parks and gardens as well as landscape management, the study analyses key questions on an improved material flow management.

(LCMW) Relevance: Management possibilities for LCMW material

Link:

Download on the homepage of the German environmental protection agency

Straub, Christoph  Assessment of the energy wood potential and its availability in the forest and in the open country with new remote sensing methods Inaugural Dissertation at the Albert Ludwigs University in Freiburg in Breisgau 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Erfassung des Energieholzpotentials und seiner Verfügbarkeit im Wald und im Offenland mit neuen Fernerkundungsmethoden

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The aim of this thesis was to develop new methods to provide detailed information regarding the spatial distribution of biomass and those components that can be used for energy production using modern remote sensing techniques. An important aspect was the development of automated procedures with appropriate software solutions.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass assessment with remote sensing

Rösch, Christine  Intercomparison of Approaches to Biowaste and Green Waste Utilization for Material and Energy Production with Particular Consideration of the Situation in Baden- Württemberg Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 1996 DE

Title (orig.): Vergleich stofflicher und energetischer Wege zur Verwertung von Bio- und Grünabfällen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verhältnisse in Baden-Württemberg

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

In this work helpful tools were developed for decision making in policy, administration and economy, starting from systems analytical comparison of different approaches of biowaste and green waste treatment with a view to material and energy production. The methods included in the comparison are composting in the backyard, on agricultural fields, in special plants treating only green waste or biowaste and green waste, biowaste treating in biofermentation plants as well as the utilization of green waste and crop residues as biofuel in biomass power plants.

Link:

Download on Homepage of the Karlsruher Institute for Technology

Wiehe, Julia  Energetic utilisation of wood from landscape maintenance: Hedgerows on banks as heat source for the county Grafschaft Bentheim Inaugural Dissertation at the University Hanover 2003 DE

Title (orig.): Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege - Wallhecken als Wärmequelle für den Landkreis Grafschaft Bentheim

Language: German

Summary:

In this diploma thesis it was investigated if in the German county Grafschaft Bentheim and the neighboring Dutch province of Overijssel poorly preserved hedgerows on banks can be used as a renewable energy source for heat generation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Utilisation of hedgerows on banks

Link:

Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege

Baur, Frank; Faßbender, Beate; Frantzen, Jörg; Speck, Mike; Springer, Mikael; Trapp, Manuel; Weiler, Katja; Wern, Bernhard; Ziegler, Claudia; Gebhard, Ralf  Biomass potential analysis for the Saarland Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Verkehr des Saarlands 2011 DE

Title (orig.): Biomasse-Potenzialanalyse für das Saarland - Der Teilplan Biomasse zum Masterplan Neue Energie

Language: German

Summary:

A master plan “New Energy” has been developed in the German Saarland in order to describe the path to a sustainable energy supply, including the possibilities and necessary measures to be taken. The plan based, inter alia, on the regional potential for expansion of renewable energies. To this end, a range of potential analyses were carried out, the results of which are presented for the biomass sector as part of this report.

Link:

Download on homepage of the Institut for Future Energy Systems

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services