A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics  National Energy strategy Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics AT

Title (orig.): National Energy strategy

Language: English

Link:

Federal Ministry of Science Websites

Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland  Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland Untere Naturschutzbehörde Friesland, Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland - DE

Title (orig.): Wallhecken Landkreis Friesland

Language: German

Summary:

The brochure gives an introduction what defines hedgerows on bank (Wallhecken, Knicks) and shows their occurence in the county Friesland in the North of the German state Lower Saxony. Further, the history and ecological importance of hedgerows on banks is explained and what factors threatens their preservation. Finally, the brochure lists the measures necessary to protect and maintain these landscape structures and informs about the availalbe financial support for owners.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ecological, legal, treatment and financial information on hedgerows on banks

Link:

General information on hedgerows on bank on the homepage of the Lower Nature Protection Agency Friesland

Attachment

PDF Brochure hedgerows on banks in Friesland (14.27 MB)

IDAE, Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy  The Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (IDAE) IDAE, Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy 1974 ES

Title (orig.): El Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE)

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy, IDAE, is a part of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism agency, through the Ministry of Energy, which oversees organically. Contribute to achieving the objectives that have acquired our country in terms of improving energy efficiency, renewable energy and other low carbon technologies is the strategic framework of their activity. In this sense, the IDAE conducts dissemination and training, technical support, development of specific programs and funding technological innovation projects and replicable character. Also, the Institute is leading an intense international activity within the framework of various European programs and cooperation with third countries.

Link:

El Instituto para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía (IDAE)

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Pilot and Demonstration Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Pilot and Demonstration Program

Language: English

Link:

Pilot and Demonstration Program

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Energy Research Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Research Program

Language: English

Link:

Energy Research Program

Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Forest Code Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 1979 FR

Title (orig.): Forest Code

Language: English

Summary:

The French forest code is a collection of regulations and legislation concerning the protection and management of forests in France, including public forests. Sustainable forest management ensures their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant economic, ecological and social functions, at local, national and international level without causing damage to other ecosystems.

Link:

Forest Code

Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 1987 FR

Title (orig.): Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks

Language: English

Summary:

The law covers provisions relating to the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks. It consists of 53 articles divided into 2 parts, namely: Organisation of civil security, establishing the conditions for the preparation of safeguard measures and the implementation of means to deal with major risks and disasters, in order to protect people, property and the environment against accidents, disasters and catastrophes (I); Forest protection against fire and prevention of major risks, bearing dispositions on the right of citizens to information on the major risks to which they are subject to the control of urbanization, forest defense against the fire, the prevention of natural and technological risks (II). The Act amends various previous laws and, in particular, it adds three tracks to Act No. 65-498 of 29 June 1965 on the transport of chemicals by pipeline.

Link:

Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks

Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment  Tax regulation mechanisms Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment 1990-2010 SWE

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms

Language: English

Summary:

  • Tax reductions for households. Act No. 2009:194 sets rules for the tax-deduction of RES-related installation works in households. The installation of renewable energy devices and the replacement of conventional heating sources with renewable ones may be deducted from tax.
  • Energy and carbon dioxide taxes. In Sweden, energy and carbon dioxide taxes are levied on the supply, import and production of fossil fuels for heating purposes. Renewable energy sources are exempt from these taxes. The biogas must be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598. Biomass must also be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598.
  • Nitrous oxide tax. The producers of heat are obliged to pay a tax according to their nitrous oxide emissions. Heat producers using renewable energy sources are exempt from this obligation.

All renewable energy technologies are exempt from the tax obligations.

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms

The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances)  Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies) The Federal Ministry of Finance (Service Public Fédéral des Finances) 1992 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Arrêté royal d'exécution du Code des impôts sur les revenus 92 du 27 Août 1993, lequel est dénommé, en abrégé, “AR/CIR 92” / Koninklijk Besluit Tot Uitvoering Van Het Wetboek Van De Inkomstenbelastingen 1992, Afgekort Als "Kb/Wib 92

Language: English

Summary:

Entitled companies may reduce their taxable profit by a fixed percentage of their investment in renewable energy installations.  The regions are responsible for determining whether renewable energy installations are eligible or not (Art. 49 AR/CIR 92 referring to Annex II). The categories of eligible investments are listed within the appendix 1 of the form CEB 2 available in each region and referring to Annex II of AR/CIR 92.

The tax deduction amounts to 14,5% of the investment value for the fiscal year 2014 (Avis relatif à la déduction pour investissement).

  • Tax deductions on investments costs can be claimed through the tax return.
  • A certificate regarding investments for energy saving devices is necessary. The certificate is delivered by the regions, according to the investment location. The competent administration departments of the regions are to be found in the notice of the federal tax administration regarding the tax deduction on investments.

Link:

National: Tax regulation mechanism (tax deduction on investments costs for companies)

Ministry of the Economy  Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1993 LU

Title (orig.): Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Language: English

Summary:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 provides the legal basis for deployment and renewable energy usage in Luxembourg. The Law sets out energy savings and renewable energy objectives and measures.

The Law provides for research and demonstration activities on renewable energy sources and/or energy conservation to benefit from public assistance, particularly in the form of pilot projects. It establishes that electricity produced from small-scale renewable energy sources and cogeneration are to be connected to public networks, and that feed-in tariffs are to be established for these sources. It also provides the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration obligations to be set, for buildings requiring large amounts of energy and those in industry.

The Law establishes mandatory energy use norms and standards for buildings. Building owners must undertake energy performance evaluation. They must also undertake energy-saving improvements in insulation, heating and cooling components, should heating needs exceed 600 kW, cooling needs exceed 300 kW or transformer capacity exceed 500 kW.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: Providing the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration

Link:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland  The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland 1994 UK

Title (orig.): The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Language: English

Summary:

The Secretary of State for the Environment as respects England, the Secretary of State for Wales as respects Wales and the Secretary of State for Scotland as respects Scotland, being Ministers designated(1) for the purposes of section 2(2) of the European Communities Act 1972(2) in relation to measures relating to the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution of water and the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers conferred on them by section 2(2) of that Act, sections 30(4) and 104(1) of the Control of Pollution Act 1974(3), sections 1(3)(a), 2, 8(2) and 9(1)(4) of the Control of Pollution (Amendment) Act 1989(5), sections 29(10), 33(3), 35(6), 36(1), 39(3), 40(3), 43(8), 45(3), 50(3), 54(14), 64(1), (4) and (8), 74(6), 75(8) and 156 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990(6) (having in particular had regard in exercising their powers under section 33(3) of that Act to the matters specified in section 33(4) of that Act) and of all other powers enabling them in that behalf hereby make the following Regulations:

(1S.I. 1989/2393 and 1992/2870.
(4) See the definition of “prescribed”.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy on reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers

Link:

The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland  Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland 1996 FIN

Title (orig.): Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Language: English

Summary:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry (1094/1996, amendments up to 112/2003 included) contains 9 chapters:

  • Chapter 1 – General provisions
  • Chapter 2 – Ensuring the sustainability of timber production
  • Chapter 3 – Support for maintaining the biological diversity in forests
  • Chapter 4 – Forest ecosystem management
  • Chapter 5 – Other promotion measures
  • Chapter 6 – Application, granting and payment as well as recovery and legal consequences
  • Chapter 7 – Steering and supervision
  • Chapter 8 – Miscellaneous provisions
  • Chapter 9 – Entry into force and transitional provisions

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial support on maintenance of forest biomass

Link:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Bio Waste Regulation Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 1996 DE

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Bioabfallverordnung

Rösch, Christine  Intercomparison of Approaches to Biowaste and Green Waste Utilization for Material and Energy Production with Particular Consideration of the Situation in Baden- Württemberg Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 1996 DE

Title (orig.): Vergleich stofflicher und energetischer Wege zur Verwertung von Bio- und Grünabfällen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verhältnisse in Baden-Württemberg

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

In this work helpful tools were developed for decision making in policy, administration and economy, starting from systems analytical comparison of different approaches of biowaste and green waste treatment with a view to material and energy production. The methods included in the comparison are composting in the backyard, on agricultural fields, in special plants treating only green waste or biowaste and green waste, biowaste treating in biofermentation plants as well as the utilization of green waste and crop residues as biofuel in biomass power plants.

Link:

Download on Homepage of the Karlsruher Institute for Technology

Government  Law 54/1997 of 27 November, on the Electricity Sector Government 1997 ES

Title (orig.): Ley 54/1997, de 27 de noviembre, del Sector Eléctrico

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The Electricity Sector Law 54/1997, of November 27, whose main objective is to regulate the activities of the special regime for power generation from renewable energies, power less than 50MW, granting powers to the Autonomous Communities for authorization. This Act is repealed, except the additional provisions 6,7,21 and 23, by repealing 1.a of law 24/2013 of December 26. BOE-A-2013-13645, subject to the provisions of the final disposition 3 of the act. However, the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of art. 38 and 2, 3 and 4 of Art.42, will remain in force until the art. 33 of the Act applies, as provided transitional provision 7.

Link:

Ley 54/1997, de 27 de noviembre, del Sector Eléctrico

Ministry of the Environment  Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE) Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Language: English

Summary:

The Fund for Environmental Protection (“Fonds pur la Protection de l’Environment (FPE)”) was established on 25th November 1999. The goals of the Fund are:

  • Prevention and fight with air pollutions, noise and climate change
  • Prevention and waste management
  • Protection of the environment and environmental heritage
  • Rehabilitation of waste disposal sites and their management
  • Rehabilitation of contaminated areas
  • Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency
  • Deployment of renewable energies

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency; Deployment of renewable energies

Link:

Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Ministry of the Environment  National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg) Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Language: English

Summary:

In the context of the Rio Conference, the Luxembourgish Government approved in 1999 the National Plan for a Sustainable Development. The main objectives of the Plan are the search and the application of political, economic and social policies thus enhancing the sustainable development of the Luxembourgish economy and society, reducing the use of natural resources and preserving the quality of the environment.
The Plan aims at identifying the priority domains of intervention for a sustainable development, at formulating concrete objectives and at proposing actions and tools supporting its implementation and monitoring.

(LCMW) Relevance: Protection of natural and human environment as well as of natural resources

Link:

National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Ministry of the Environment  Energy Tax Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Energy Tax

Language: English

Summary:

The Energy tax was established by the National Plan on Suistainable Development from 1999. The tax was introduced in order to unify legislative framework in the energy sector to the measures outlined in the EU Directives 2003/55/EC and 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning Common Rules for the Internal Market in Natural Gas and Electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Unification of the legislative framework in the energy sector

Link:

Energy Tax

Finish Ministry of the Environment  Land Use and Building Act (Finish) Ministry of the Environment 1999 FI

Title (orig.): Land Use and Building Act

Language: English

Summary:

The objective of this Act is to ensure that the use of land and water areas and building activities on them create preconditions for a favourable living environment and promote ecologically, economically, socially and culturally sustainable development.

The Act also aims to ensure that everyone has the right to participate in the preparation process, and that planning is high quality and interactive, that expertise is comprehensive and that there is open provision of information on matters being processed.

Link:

Land Use and Building Act

Attachment

Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour  Eco-Tax Reform Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour 1999 DE

Title (orig.): Eco-Tax Reform

Government  Renewable Energy Purchasing Conditions Government 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Purchasing Conditions

Language: English

Summary:

This policy provided the enabling conditions for EdF to purchase electricity produced from renewable sources such as hydro, co-generation, waste incineration and photovoltaics.

Link:

Renewable Energy Purchasing Conditions

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Wood Energy Programme Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Wood Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

For domestic heating, the programme seeks to maintain the same national wood consumption by 2006 and to improve the energy and environmental efficiency of wood combustion. It includes a communication plan for supporting best practices in wood combustion for public/privates operators. Quality labels have been established with manufacturers for wood devices.

Link:

Wood Energy Programme

Ministere de leconomie, des finances  District Heating Classification Ministere de leconomie, des finances 1999 FR

Title (orig.): District Heating Classification

Language: English

Summary:

A decree on 5 May 1999 introduced a simplified procedure for classifying district heating using renewable energy or cogeneration, allowing local authorities to obligate new buildings in specified zones to be connected to the district heating grid.

Link:

District Heating Classification

French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)  Renewable energy market development (support for demonstration and diffusion) French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Renewable energy market development (support for demonstration and diffusion)

Language: English

Summary:

In addition to available grants for surveys, pre-feasibility and feasibility studies, ADEME provides support for demonstration projects and diffusion in the renewable energy sector. Grants for demonstration projects can go up to 30 to 40% of project costs depending on the energy source and targeted sector. Assistance can also be provided for market diffusion of demonstrated technologies/projects, grants can reach 15 to 30% of the costs depending on sector they can also be calculated on the basis of avoided CO2-equivalent emissions (up to 400 Euro/t avoided carbon). Support is also available to increase market diffusion of mature and validated innovative technologies which still need to overcome cost barriers. The programme covers wood-energy for industrial boilers, collective and individual household heating; biogas recovery for energy production, electricity from renewables, geothermal heat and ground source heat pumps as well as solar energy.

Link:

Renewable energy market development (support for demonstration and diffusion)

Government  Tax Reduction for Renewable Energy Equipment Government 1999 PT

Language: English

Summary:

New budget provisions allow purchasers of renewable energy equipment, such as solar panels for residential use, to benefit from a reduced VAT of 5%. Investment costs in renewable end-use technology were deductible from the income tax with a limit to the deduction set at PTE 50 000 in 2000. Beginning in 1999, investors in equipment using solar energy are entitled to claim a depreciation rate of 25% (previously set at 7.14%).

Link:

Tax Reduction for Renewable Energy Equipment

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Energy Act (Act No 458/2000 Coll., on business conditions and public administration in the energy sectors) Collection of Laws of the Czech Republic 2000 CZ

Title (orig.): Zákon č. 458/2000 Sb., o podmínkách podnikání a o výkonu státní správy v energetických odvětvích a o změně některých zákonů (energetický zákon)

Language: CS

Link:

Energy Act (English translation)
Energy Act (original)

Department of Environment  National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions Ministry of sustainable Development and Infrastructure 2000 LU

Title (orig.): National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

Language: English

Summary:

In May 2000, the government issued a National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions. The report stresses the need to ensure sustainable development and to set up a medium-term plan. The report recommends six categories of actions:

  • To ensure that electricity from renewable energies will amount to at least 10% of final electricity consumption by 2010
  • To improve energy efficiency in energy generation
  • To increase energy savings
  • To set an eco-tax progressively
  • To curb the increase in road transport
  • To rely on flexible mechanism allowed by Kyoto Protocol

On top of that, Plan lists 29 measures, some of which have been already envisaged in the National Plan on Sustainable Development from 1999.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energies

Link:

National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)  Survey and Pre-feasibility Assistance French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) 2000 FR

Title (orig.): Survey and Pre-feasibility Assistance

Language: English

Summary:

Disposition Général des Aides à la Décision. Starting in 2000, ADEME provided surveys and pre-feasibility studies in the areas of renewables, energy efficiency, waste management, pollution. – Surveys (conseil dorientation, prédiagnostique) are used to identify and prioritise possible solutions to resource mismanagement. Over a two-day period, certified experts audit and diagnose a situation, for a total cost of 2 300 euros. -“Conseils dorientation” are used for complex sites and can cost up to 75000 Euro (ceilings for residential and transport projects are regionally set). A maximum of 70% of the costs for both technical studies are supported by ADEME. – Diagnostics and feasibility studies are used to go to a further level of detail. Diagnostics can cost up to 30 000 Euro for industry and agriculture, ceilings for residential and transport projects are locally set. Feasibility studies can cost up to 75 000 Euro in industry, maximum support levels are 50% of costs. In 2000, ADEME provided assistance to 540 projects in industry, 2240 buildings and 110 000 households.

Link:

Survey and Pre-feasibility Assistance

Government  Electricity Law 2000 Government 2000 FR

Title (orig.): Electricity Law 2000

Language: English

Summary:

One part of the Energy Law of 10 February 2000, addresses the obligatory purchase of electricity from renewable sources and cogeneration at fixed feed-in tariffs. The law regulates the free access of independent energy producers to the grid and lays the foundation for higher feed-in tariffs for electricity production from renewables and a new tender scheme for renewable energy production capacity. These tariffs have subsequently been updated in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007 (see separate database entries).

Link:

Electricity Law 2000

Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs  Malta Resources Authority Act (MRA) Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs 2000 MT

Title (orig.): Malta Resources Authority Act (MRA)

Language: English

Summary:

Article 4 of the MRA establishes the functions of the Authority and gives wide ranging responsibilities essentially involving regulation of practices, operations and activities in the energy, water and minerals Industrial enterprises exploiting resources such as oil exploration, quarry owners and abstractors of groundwater;sectors. This broadly can be considered to incorporate the regulation of: The national utilities and service providers for energy and water namely Enemalta Corporation and the Water Services Corporation and their subsidiary companies; Retailers and operators in the regulated sectors including: operators of petrol stations, gas and kerosene delivery entities, offshore bunkering companies, private operators of desalination plants and operators of road tankers; Tradesmen such as electricians.

The Authority is also responsible for oil exploration and climate change, as well as having the function to promote energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy.

and gives wide ranging responsibilities essentially involving regulation of practices, operations and activities in the energy, water and minerals Industrial enterprises exploiting resources such as oil exploration, quarry owners and abstractors of groundwater;sectors. This broadly can be considered to incorporate the regulation of: The national utilities and service providers for energy and water namely Enemalta Corporation and the Water Services Corporation and their subsidiary companies; Retailers and operators in the regulated sectors including: operators of petrol stations, gas and kerosene delivery entities, offshore bunkering companies, private operators of desalination plants and operators of road tankers; Tradesmen such as electricians. The Authority is also responsible for oil exploration and climate change, as well as having the function to promote energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy

Link:

Malta Resources Authority Act (MRA)

European Unions Community Support Framework (POE)  Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) 2000 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME. In 2000, a new programme in support of economic development activities under the European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) was prepared. It set out new regulations related to incentives for energy efficiency and energy diversification (renewables) projects.

Link:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME

Kaltschmitt et. al.  Overall economic assessment of energy production from biomass taking into account external and macroeconomic effects Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten; Federal Ministry of Food, Agricutlure and Forestry 2000 DE

Title (orig.): Gesamtwirtschaftliche Bewertungder Energiegewinnung aus Biomasse unter Berücksichtigung externer und makroökonomischer Effekte

Language: German

Summary:

The aim of this study was to determine the advantages and disadvantages of increased energy generation from biomass in Germany from a business and economic point of view. As a result of the investigation, conclusions were reached about the marginal and basic conditions that make energy supply from biogenic solid and liquid fuels most cost-effective for the operator and for the economy as a whole.

(LCMW) Relevance: Economic aspect of LCMW biomass utilisation

Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment  Renewables for Government Buildings Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Renewables for Government Buildings

Language: English

Summary:

Under Dutch implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, a scheme for joint purchasing of energy for government buildings is effective. The objective is to arrive at a climate neutral supply of energy for government structures by 2012. In the period 2002-2004, a mandate required that 50% of the consumption of electricity of all government buildings to be derived from renewable energy sources.

Under Dutch implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, a scheme for joint purchasing of energy for government buildings is effective. The objective is to arrive at a climate neutral supply of energy for government structures by 2012. In the period 2002-2004, a mandate required that 50% of the consumption of electricity of all government buildings to be derived from renewable energy sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Renewables for Government Buildings

CertiQ (formerly the Green Certificate Body)  Green Certificate Trading Ministry of Economic Affairs 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Green Certificate Trading

Language: English

Summary:

To promote green energy on the national electricity market, the Netherlands in 2001 established a tradable green certificates program. In a green certificate system, the credits function as an accounting system to verify whether demand has been met or, when there is no demand, to measure the amount of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES-E). Secondly, certification facilitates trade: through the establishment of green certificates (GCs) a separate market for the renewable characteristic of the electricity will originate besides the market for physical electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Green Certificate Trading

Ministry of the Environment and Minister of Treasury and Budget  Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2001 LU

Title (orig.): Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources

Language: English

Summary:

This legislation provided incentives in form of financial grants for the installation of renewable systems.

Eligibility criteria:

  • Only private owners were eligible to benefit from the scheme when installing renewable energy installation
  • Two classes of grants depending on electricity generation capacity: 1) 1 kWp – 4 kWp, and 2) > 4 kWp – 50 kWp
  • Systems had to be installed within the private property of the owner
  • Off-grid and connected to the grid installations were eligible for the support

Grant characteristics:

  • One-time financial grant on installation costs
  • Max. EUR 4000 per kWp per beneficiary
  • Owners benefiting from this scheme could also benefit from the  VAT reduction

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial grants for the installation of renewable systems

Link:

Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.) Parliament of the Czech Republic 2001 CZ

Title (orig.): Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.)

Language: English

Link:

Waste Act (Act no. 185/2001 Coll.)

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE  SwissEnergy Programme Energieschweiz 2001 CH

Title (orig.): SwissEnergy Programme

Link:

SwissEnergy Programme

French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)  Government Crediting and Loan Guarantee for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investment French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) 2001 FR

Title (orig.): Government Crediting and Loan Guarantee for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investment

Language: English

Summary:

The FOGIME was created in 2000 in co-operation with the French development bank for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) and ADEME. The guarantee fund for investments in energy sustainability (efficiency and renewables) has a budget of approximately ? 17.8 million, of which ? 7.62 million comes from ADEME and ? 10.21 million come from a branch of the development bank for SMEs (BDPME). This fund guarantees up to ? 242 million for loans to the private sector. Its goal is to provide SMEs with the option to obtain loans for energy efficiency and renewable energy investments. This guarantee is only available for SMEs created prior to 2000. Eligible investments include: high performance production, use, recovery and energy storage equipment; energy efficient modifications of production processes and renewables. The guarantee covers medium and long-term risks (2-15 years) and insures the risk taken by the financial institution providing the loan. The guarantee covers 70% of the loan in comparison to 40% average coverage rates for other SME projects covered by BDPME.

Link:

Government Crediting and Loan Guarantee for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investment

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance  Tax Code - VAT reduction Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance 2001 FR

Title (orig.): Tax Code - VAT reduction

Language: English

Summary:

In 2001, the tax credit was extended to include renewable energy sources. Accordingly, natural persons may deduct from income tax a certain percentage of investments in renewable energy plants. Art. 18 bis of Annex IV of the Code Général des Impôts lists all eligible plants and specifies technical and performance requirements. Further provisions regarding the implementation of the tax credit are laid down in Instruction fiscale 5 B-26-05 N° 147, Instruction fiscale 5 B-17-07 N° 88, Instruction fiscale 5 B-10-09 N° 38, Instruction fiscale 5 B-20-10 N° 77 and Instruction fiscale 5 B-22-09 N° 65. The crédit d’impôt for renewable energy plants will apply until the end of 2012 (art. 200 quater, Code Général des Impôts, referred to and specified in Instruction fiscale 5 B-22-09 N° 65). However, it is extended until 2015 for installations carried out in buildings completed since more than two years (Art. 200 quater, Code Général des Impôts).

Link:

Tax Code - VAT reduction

Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division  Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division 2001 MT

Title (orig.): Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division

Language: English

Summary:

The Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division (PPCD) was established to ensure the efficient absorption and management of European assistance, both EU and Bi-lateral through effective co-ordination across government departments, authorities, agencies and other stakeholders.

Among others, PPCD offers financial funds to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency projects (public and private).

Link:

Planning and Priorities Co-ordination Division

Government  New Tariffs for Renewables Government 2001 PT

Language: English

Summary:

In 2001, the buy-back tariffs for renewables were increased (up to 25% for wind energy), in order to develop more electricity generation under the special regime for co-generation and renewables.

Link:

New Tariffs for Renewables

DECC and in Northern Ireland: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI)  Renewables Obligation (RO) DECC and in Northern Ireland: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI) 2002 UK

Title (orig.): Renewables Obligation (RO)

Language: English

Summary:

The Renewables Obligation (RO) is one of the main support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects in the UK. Smaller scale generation is mainly supported through the Feed-In Tariff (FITs). The RO came into effect in 2002 in England and Wales, and Scotland, followed by Northern Ireland in 2005. It places an obligation on UK electricity suppliers to source an increasing proportion of the electricity they supply from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects in the UK

Link:

Renewables Obligation (RO)

Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM)  Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP) Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM) 2002 BE

Title (orig.): Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Language: English

Summary:

In April 2000, the federal government decided that all generators of electricity from renewable sources will become progressively free to choose their own electricity supplier if they use more electricity than they are able to generate. Consumers who buy a significant amount of their electricity from renewable sources are also eligible to choose their electricity supplier. When coordinating the call to electricity suppliers, the transport-grid manager, taking into account the needed supply security, gives priority to plants using renewable energy sources for power production, or to cogeneration units. The Flemish Parliament approved the decree regarding the liberalisation of the electricity market and marked the following categories as eligible:

  • Producers using quality CHP installations or renewables for electricity generation (up to a certain ceiling)
  • Consumers of renewables-generated electricity by means of a CHP unit (for a certain amount of electricity) or consumers using heat from CHP units or renewables
  • Consumers using heat from a supplier who generates this heat by means of CHP units or renewables (for a maximum of 500 kWh electricity per GJ heat)

In Wallonia, a corresponding decree was approved and aims to gradually open the market for producers using CHP and/or renewables for electricity generation, as well as consumers using renewable electricity and/or electricity generated by means of a CHP unit, or using heat from CHP units or renewables.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Ministere de leconomie et des finances  Extension of the Law on Reduced VAT for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment Ministere de leconomie et des finances 2002 FR

Title (orig.): Extension of the Law on Reduced VAT for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment

Language: English

Summary:

Under the 2003 Finance Law, the reduced VAT rates applying to equipment for renewable energy production and use which is installed in primary or secondary residencies built for more than two years has been extended until 31 December 2003. The VAT rate is 5.5% in France and Corsica and 2.1% in Guadeloupe, Martinique and Reunion. The equipment must be bought from and installed by the same company. Reference Law n° 2002-1575 of 30 December 2002 – Finance Law for 2003

Link:

Extension of the Law on Reduced VAT for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy; Ministère de l'Environnement - Ministry of the Environment  Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy; Ministère de l'Environnement - Ministry of the Environment 2002 FR

Title (orig.): Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste

Language: English

Summary:

All information relating to waste under Title IV of Part V of the Environmental Code and its implementing regulations must be provided using the codes listed in the list contained in Annex II of this decree. Waste that exhibits one or more of the properties listed in Annex I of this decree is considered hazardous waste. These hazardous wastes are marked with an asterisk in the list in Annex II.

Link:

Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste

Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning  Decree on Support for Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy Sources Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning 2002 (last amended 2012) SI

Title (orig.): Uredba o podporah električni energiji, proizvedeni iz obnovljivih virov energije – neuradno prečiščeno besedilo NPB7, PisRS)

Language: English

Summary:

A decree law passed in 2002 paved the way for establishing prices and premiums for purchasing electricity from qualified producers. Qualified producers are those that produce electricity from renewable energy sources, or in facilities with higher than average efficiency for combined heat and power.

Under the scheme producers can choose to receive either fixed feed-in tariffs or premium feed-in tariffs from the network operators. A Purchase Agreement is concluded, valid for 10 years. According to the Law on Energy, the uniform annual prices and premiums are set at least once a year. Feed-in tariffs and premiums are differentiated in terms of both technology and size. In 2006, the size differentiation was removed for solar energy, and increased the tariff and premium for biomass. Producers can also choose to adhere to a double tariff system, whereby either the tariff or premium amount varies according to season and time of day. This system is advantageous to producers that can adapt their production.

As of January 2012, new rates for the feed-in premium allocated to renewable power producers on top of the electricity price for technologies have been adjusted. Premiums for all technologies and for plants smaller than 5 MW were increased, except for biomass and CHP. Tariffs for solar PV projects greater than 5 MW were reduced and increased for biomass and CHP. Due to a change in legislation (Off. Gazette, 43/2011) biogas plants connected to the grid after 1. 7. 2012 that use 40% or more of primary agricultural produce (e.g. corn) are not entitled to receive support. If they use less than 40% but more than 25%, then the variable part of the reference costs are set at 70 %.The variable part of feed in tariff in case of solid biomass shall be adjusted in line with changes to the prices of wood biomass (contained in the forecast published by the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia).

Link:

Decree on Renewable Electricity support

Swedish Government  Quota system for renewable energies Swedish Government 2003 FIN

Title (orig.): Quota system for renewable energies

Language: English

Summary:

Act No. 2011:1200 obliges electricity suppliers, certain electricity consumers and energy-intensive companies to annually acquire renewable energy certificates in due proportion to their electricity sales and their consumption by a set date (Chapter 4 §§ 1 and 4 Act No. 2011:1200). Furthermore, the Act stipulates the conditions in which owners of renewable energy generation plants may acquire electricity certificates (Chapter 2 §§ 1-13 Act No. 2011:1200).

In general, all renewables, including biogas generated from biomass, are eligible for the quota system (Chapter 1 § 2 No. 2 Act No. 2011:1200). One certificate is issued for every MWh of electricity produced, regardless of the generation technology employed (Chapter 3 § 2 Act No. 2011:1200). Obligated persons that fail to satisfy their quota obligation shall pay a quota obligation fine.

During the past few years, certificate prices ranged between 15 and 40 €/MWh.

A change introduced in 2006 was the extension of the validity of the certificates from 2010 to 2030 in order to improve long-term investment security.

According to the Swedish Energy Agency, Sweden and Norway introduced a common electricity certificate market on 1 January 2012. The producers of RES electricity receive certificates in their own country. These certificates can be traded on both the Swedish and Norwegian markets (Chapter 1 § 5 Act No. 2011:1200).

The Swedish RES quota system has led to an increase of the share of RES electricity from 51.2% in 2004 to 60% in 2012. During the first few years, mainly biomass power plants (and to a smaller degree hydro-power) benefitted from the scheme while in recent years, the share of wind energy has been steadily increasing.

Link:

Energypedia: Quota system for renewable energies
Quota system for renewable energies

Ministry of Environment  Law on Environmental protection Latvian Government 2003 LV

Title (orig.): Law on Environmental protection

Language: English

Link:

Law on Environmental protection

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism  Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism 2003 CY

Title (orig.): Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Summary:

Grant scheme for the promotion of electricity generation using wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic systems and the utilization of biomass – The minimum selling price of electrical energy that will be produced by utilizing biomass-landfill and fed to the transmission / distribution grid is 117.9 -97.4 Eur/MWh for the first 20 years. The grant, paid from the Special Fund for RES will result from the difference between the total selling price and the purchase price of electricity from renewable sources, by the electricity distributor as it is periodically determined by CERA. Note that if the purchase price kWh from the supplier surpass total selling price, then the supplier will pay the excess amount to the Special Fund for RES and RUE.

Link:

Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

National Government Decree  Legislative Decree 307/2003 National Government Decree 2003 IT

Title (orig.): Decreto Ministeriale 307/2003

Language: Italian

Summary:

As part of the management of transactions in the Electricity Market, GME was also assigned with the task of organising venues for the trading of Green Certificates (art. 6, Ministerial Decree of 24 Oct. 2005) and of Energy Efficiency Certificates (articles 10, Ministerial Decrees of 20 Jul. 2004, as subsequently amended and supplemented by the Ministerial Decree of 21 Dec. 2007). Legislative Decree 387/03 (as subsequently amended and supplemented), implementing Directive 2001/77/EC on promotion of electricity generation from renewables in the internal electricity market, contains additional provisions on Green Certificates.

Link:

Il Piano di Azione Nazionale (PAN)

Ministry of Economy and Innovatoin (MEI)  Resolution of the Council of Ministries - 63/2003 Ministry of Economy and Innovatoin (MEI) 2003 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Promotion of national competitiveness : the main focus is the liberalisation of the electricity market and to decrease energy intensity. In early 2007, the renewable energy targets were reviewed and made more ambitious: -The target rate of electricity produced from renewable energy sources by 2010 was set higher, going from its initial figure of 39% to 45%. – The percentage of biofuels as part of road-transport fuel was set at 10% by 2010, up from the previous target of 5.75%. – 5% to 10% of coal used in Sines and Pego power plants is to be prelaced by biomass or waste by 2010.

Link:

Resolution of the Council of Ministries - 63/2003

Wiehe, Julia  Energetic utilisation of wood from landscape maintenance: Hedgerows on banks as heat source for the county Grafschaft Bentheim Inaugural Dissertation at the University Hanover 2003 DE

Title (orig.): Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege - Wallhecken als Wärmequelle für den Landkreis Grafschaft Bentheim

Language: German

Summary:

In this diploma thesis it was investigated if in the German county Grafschaft Bentheim and the neighboring Dutch province of Overijssel poorly preserved hedgerows on banks can be used as a renewable energy source for heat generation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Utilisation of hedgerows on banks

Link:

Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege

PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges  Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme PHILIPPE, Roi des Belges 2003 (last amended 2014) BE

Title (orig.): Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

Language: English

Summary:

The Royal Decree on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources was adopted in July 2002 and came into force 1 July 2003. It addresses two fundamental issues: first, it sets the conditions for issuing green certificates by the federal regulator (CREG) for offshore wind energy production, and second, it states that the grid operator is obliged to buy green certificates issued anywhere in Belgium at minimum prices of:

  • EUR 107/MWh for offshore wind energy (for installations with a financial close before 1/5/2014) for energy produced by first installed capacity up to 216 MW for each concession, and EUR 90/MWh for additional capacity, and at minimum prices equal to LCOE – [reference price of electricity – correction factor] for installations with a financial close after 1/5/2014, with LCOE = 138 EUR/MWh;
  • EUR 20/MWh for ocean energy (namely wave and tidal).

Other obligations related to buying green certificates have been deleted by the Royal Decree of 21/12/2012. Only green certificates delivered to PV installations commissioned before 1/8/2012 can benefit from a minimum purchase price obligation of up to 150 EUR/MWh.

By virtue of a Royal Decree of 20 December 2000, last modified by the Royal Decree of 20 March 2014, the Minister for Energy from now on can deliver domanial concessions for the construction and the exploitation of installations of electricity production, generated from water, currents or winds, in the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone of Belgium. The decree in question determinates precisely the zone where the installations may be set up. It also specifies the criteria of granting and the procedure by which the concessions are being issued.

The Programme law of July 2005 called for the mandatory contribution by national transmission service operators (TSO) of up to EUR 25 million worth of undersea cables for each concession. An imbalance costs regime for offshore wind production has been put in place by the Royal Decree of 30/3/2009. Imbalance refers to when the electricity producer produces too much or too little electricity, and must pay the difference to the Regulator. The new policy provides a 10% price reduction on the daily market price for the imbalance cost, for output gaps up to 30 %, or has to be compensated by the producer for imbalances above 30 %, based on the TSO’s tariff for the compensation of imbalances or according to the market conditions for imbalance energy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources

Link:

Quota System and Green Certificate Scheme

CENTRE TECHNIQUE DU BOIS ET DE L'AMEUBLEMENT  Coexistence of biomass energy projects at regional level FP5-LIFE QUALITY 2004 FR

Title (orig.): Cohabitation de projets énergie - biomasse - à l’échelle d’un territoire

Language: French

Summary:

Study aims to optimize the coexistence in the region of energy production from biomass taking into better account the externatilities related to different projects, share the information regarding the stakeholders requirements over the different impacts from the projects. Croiser les vues des acteurs sur différents profils de projets (impacts) and accumulate experience.

(LCMW) Relevance: Coexistence in the region of energy production from biomass taking into better account the externatilities related to different projects

Link:

Website

Attachment

Estonian Government  Estonian Waste Act Estonian Government 2004 EST

Title (orig.): Estonian Waste Act

Language: English

Link:

Estonian Waste Act

Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs  Information Campaigns on Energy Effiency and RES Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs 2004 MT

Title (orig.): Information Campaigns on Energy Effiency and RES

Language: English

Summary:

In 2004, government appointed Green Leaders, one in each Line Ministry, in an initiative aimed towards meeting Government’s corporate responsibilities with regards to the environment. Government has also embarked on various information campaigns within the educational sector and the public sector.

The Green Leader system has driven each ministry, department and entity to take steps to reduce energy consumption and waste of resources. Energy audits have been carried out in all administrative buildings as well as in residential homes for the elderly and health centers and measures have been actuated to reduce energy. The Green Leaders have also led an educational campaign to eliminate waste, with stickers attached to light switches and above water taps to serve as a constant reminder against waste.

All these measures are intended to complement the government’s public environmental awareness campaign and propulsion towards sustainable lifestyles. Educational talks are organized within schools for awareness on alternative energies. Adverts and programmes are created for the promotion of alternative energy.

Link:

Information Campaigns on Energy Effiency and RES

Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04)  Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement) Economy and Employment Administration of the Brussels-Capital region; Public Service of the Walloon region – Directorate General for Energy (DG04) 2004; 2006; 2009 BE

Title (orig.): Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014; Aide à l'investissement)

Language: English

Summary:

Primes Energies 2014: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels Capital region provides energy subsidies for residential, industrial as well as service sector buildings located in the Brussels region. Moreover, energy subsidies can also apply for renovation works in buildings older than 10 years. The energy subsidies are defined each year and apply from 1 January to 31 December.

The energy subsidies of the Brussels Capital region are allocated according to the income level. Three levels of subsidies are thus possible (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014):

  • Base income: > € 60,000 for singles and > € 75,000 for couples
  • Middle income: € 30,000 – 60,000 for singles and € 45,000 – 75,000 for couples
  • Low income: < € 30,000 for singles and < € 45,000 for couples

These income limits are increased by € 5,000 EUR per fiscally irresponsible person and if the applicant is under 35 years old. The subsidy is increased by 10 % for residential buildings situated within a Housing and Renovation Development Area (Espace de Développement Renforcé du Logement et de la Rénovation).

Social real estate agencies, public service real estate agencies as well as the Housing fund of the Brussels region benefit of the subsidies of the low income category. Industrial as well as service sector buildings benefit from the subsidies of the base income category (6.4 Conditions générales primes énergies 2014).

Aide à l’investissement: Within the bounds of its available budget, the Brussels-Capital provides investment assistance for companies which develop environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants.

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of environmental projects, including investments in renewable energy plants

Link:

Brussels: Subsidy (Primes Energies 2014)
Brussels: Subsidy (Aide à l'investissement)

Ministry of Middle Class and Ministry of Budget  Subsidies for companies for investing in renewable electricity generation II Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2005 LU

Title (orig.): Subsidy II (Régime d'aide à la protection de l'environnement et à l'utilisation rationnelle des ressources naturelles)

Language: English

Summary:

Companies investing in renewable electricity generation are eligible for investment grants.

Grants may cover up to 45% of the additional costs arising from the use of renewable energy as compared to non-renewable sources. The grant may increase by 20 percentage points for small enterprises and by 10 percentage points for medium-sized enterprises (Art. 8 Loi du 18 février 2010).

Applications shall be submitted to the Ministry of Economy before the investment is made (Art. 11 Loi du 18 février 2010). Art. 11 contains a list of the required documents. Subsidies are awarded by joint decision of the Ministries of Economy and Finance.

(LCMW) Relevance: Companies investing in renewable electricity generation including the biomass

Link:

Subsidy II (Régime d'aide à la protection de l'environnement et à l'utilisation rationnelle des ressources naturelles)

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Biomass Regulation Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2005 DE

Title (orig.): Biomass Regulation

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomasse-Verordnung

Parliament of the Czech Republic  Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.) Parliament of the Czech Republic 2005 CZ

Title (orig.): Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.)

Language: English

Link:

Act on support for the use of renewable sources of energy ( Act No. 180/2005 Coll.)

Directorate General for Energy and Climate  Tax credit for energy transition (CITE) Directorate General for Energy and Climate 2005 FR

Title (orig.): Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Language: English

Summary:

In 2005, the government recalibrated the tax credits for purchases of equipment for primary residences (Article 200 of the General Tax Code) to promote both sustainable development and energy conservation. Specifications regarding equipment covered were modified in 2006 and 2007, to account for technological change. These were modified again in 2009, when the credit was extended to 31 December 2012 (from end of 2009). To be eligible for the tax credits the building in which the equipment is used must be a primary residence and at least two years old; for renewable energy equipment the building can be new or old. The tax credits are as follows: – 15% for purchases of low-temperature boilers; (until 31 December 2008) – 25% for purchases of condensation boilers, thermal insulation and heating regulation devices; This amount increases to 40% if: a) the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners; b) the material was purchased after 1 January 2006. Since 2009, the installation costs for thermal insulation of walls, floors, roofs and ceilings are also covered by the tax credit. – 40% for energy production equipment using renewable energy and heat pumps devoted primarily to heat production; Increased to 50% for renewable energy used for heating as of 1 January 2006. However the credit for heat pumps decreases to 40% in 2009 and 25% in 2010 for biomass or wood boilers, and heat pumps. It remains at 40% if the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners. Air-air heat pumps are excluded as of 1 January 2009. -50% for obtaining an energy audit, when not required by law (as of 1 January 2009, limited to one audit every 5 years); -25% for the purchase of equipment and heating systems drawing the majority of their power from cogeneration or renewable energy sources (as of 1 January 2006); The tax credit is limited to EUR 8000 per person, EUR 16 000 for a couple and EUR 400 for each additional dependent.

Since 2005 and the Programme Law setting the directions of the energy policy (POPE), privateindividuals have been able to benefit from a tax credit for the purchase of the most efficient materials or equipment in terms of saving energy or generating renewable energy.From 1st July 2015, the CIDD will be subject to an eco-conditionality criterion: the work must be performed by installers that hold the quality sign “recognised Grenelle de l’environnement”.Between 2005 and 2011, over 6 million of the 34 million primary residences in metropolitan France benefited from the CIDD at least once.

Link:

Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Regional Legislative Decree No. 16/2005/A implementing Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances Portuguese Environmental Agency 2005 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto Legislativo Regional n. 16/2005/A de 20 de Julho Transpõe a Directiva n.o 286/278/CEE, do Conselho, de 12 de Junho, referente à utilização das lamas de depuração na agricultura

Language: English

Summary:

Regional Legislative Decree No. 16/2005/A implementing Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances included in List I of the Annex to Directive 76/464/EEC. This Decree, composed of 14 articles, introduces in the Azores Regional legal system the Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances within agricultural activities. In particular, the Decree regulates discharges’ characteristics, soil requirements, protection areas, licensing procedures, information duties, control and monitoring procedures and the required reporting system.

Link:

Factsheet: Decree on discharge of dangerous substances in agriculture

SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable  Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable 2005; 2010 BE

Title (orig.): Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Language: English

Summary:

As of 2006, the Walloon government awarded grants for the installation of micro-cogeneration systems and high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers. Households, entreprises, self-employed workers and private entities were all eligible to receive grants. Every year, the programme is reviewed, taking into account the evolution of technology.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grants for the installation of high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers

Link:

Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Morgenroth, Andreas  The energy transition at the cemetery - production and use of renewable energies in cemetery open spaces Aeternitas e.V. - Verbraucherinitiative Bestattungskultur 2006 DE

Title (orig.): Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof - Erzeugung und Nutzung regenerativer Energien auf Friedhofsfreiflächen

Language: DE

Summary:

Landscape architect Andreas Morgenroth describes the benefits and shows how to use renewable energy in cemeteries. He constitutes the framework of the energy transition and explains sustainability aspects of cemetery management, taking into account the special cemetery cultural concerns. On German cemeteries approximately 15,000 hectares are no longer needed for burials. The trend is towards small urn graves. Morgenroth explains several options of production and use of renewable energies and describes cemetery open spaces as predestined.

(LCMW) Relevance: Potential of landscape material from cemeteries for incineration and digestion.

Link:

Pressemitteilung: Friedhöfe könnten Energie erzeugen
Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof (PDF)

Madlener R., Vögtl S.  Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: socio-economic analysis of the planned Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel CEPE Working Paper 2006 CH

Title (orig.): Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: socio-economic analysis of the planned Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel

Language: EN

Summary:

The municipal utilities of Basel (IWB) are in the process of building a 30 MW wood-fired CHP plant in the city of Basel, a project idea that was initially propelled by visionaries from the forest sector. The plant is attractive both politically and from a business perspective, as several goals related to the increased use of renewable energy can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, significant woody biomass resources are awaiting further exploitation in the Basel region, which could help to improve markedly the cost effectiveness of forest maintenance. In this paper we study the history and some of the characteristics of the planned project from a socio-economic perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Socio-economic analysis of diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas.

Link:

Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: socio-economic analysis of the planned Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel

Department of Environment, Community and Local Government  National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste Department of Environment, Community and Local Government 2006 IE

Title (orig.): National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Improving waste management system is a key challenge that is currently engaging Ireland’s citizens and government. A primary goal in accordance with the EU Landfill Directive is to reduce dependence on landfill in favour of more environmentally sound alternatives. This document outlines Government policy for the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste from landfill, building upon the key objectives established in policy documents Changing Our Ways (1998), Delivering Change – Preventing and Recycling Waste (2002) and Waste Management: Taking Stock and Moving Forward (2004).

(LCMW) Relevance: Diversion of biodegradable waste

Link:

PDF online

Forest research, Forest Commission  Scottish and England Forestry Strategy Forest research, Forest Commission 2006 UK

Title (orig.): Scottish and England Forestry Strategy

Language: English

Summary:

Use of land degraded by former industrial and urban activity makes an increasingly important contribution to the expansion of woodland. Trees planted on such sites offer immense social benefits in addition to the possibility of economic activity on formerly unproductive land. This programme supports the related objectives of the English Forestry Strategy and across Great Britain generally.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanence of forests and urban trees in England and Scotland

Link:

England Forestry Strategy
The Scottish Forestry Strategy
Forest Reseach: Waste minimisation and utilisation in greenspace creation
Forest Reseach
Forestry commission England
Forestry commission Scotland

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling Ministry of Economic Affairs 2006 NL

Title (orig.): Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Language: English

Summary:

Upon its publication in the EU Official Journal on 4 January 2003, the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) entered into EU law, allowing member states until 4 January 2006 to transpose the Directive into domestic building codes. The Directives principal objectives are: To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU through cost effective measures; To promote the convergence of building standards towards those of Member States which already have ambitious levels. Measures include: Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings; Application of performance standards on new and existing buildings; Certification schemes for all buildings; Regular inspection and assessment of boilers/heating and cooling installations. The Netherlands transposed into national law these measures, along with a building labelling scheme designed to encourage property buyers to choose property using relatively less fossil energy – either through integrated renewable energy generation or the buildings energy efficiency.

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy generation and the buildings energy efficiency

Link:

Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Ministry of the Environment  CO2 Reduction Action Plan Ministry of the Environment 2006 LU

Title (orig.): CO2 Reduction Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

The CO2 Reduction Action Plan was presented on 3 May 2006 by the Minister of Environment, introducing multi-sectoral measures targeting emissions reductions.

The measures elaborated in the Plan are to be tracked and progress measured regularly, while the plan is to evolve as necessary. Implementation and monitoring of the Plan is to be done through a taskforce, supervised by the Ministry of Environment, but which brings together various Ministries (Agriculture, Finance, Housing, Interior, Transport and Public Services).

(LCMW) Relevance: Supporting use of cogeneration and biomass

Link:

CO2 Reduction Action Plan

Cabinet of Ministers  Guidelines for Energy Sector Development for 2007-2016 Latvian Government 2006 LV

Title (orig.): Par Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2007.–2016.gadam

Language: Latvian

Link:

Par Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2007.–2016.gadam

Government  Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat Government 2006 CY

Title (orig.): Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Link:

Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change  Feed-in tariff from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA) Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change 2006 GR

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariff from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

Language: English

Summary:

Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Producers that own power plants can sell the electricity with regulated prices (feed-in tariff), differentiated on the basis of type of technology (biomass-biogas), plant size and type of fuel (biomass waste, organic fraction of MSW, sewage sludge, agricultural biomass)

Link:

Feed-in tariff from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

Government  Loan (Environmental Fund) Government 2006 HR

Title (orig.): Loan (Environmental Fund)

Language: English

Summary:

The Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency offers interest-free loans for the promotion of renewable energy sources.

Link:

Loan (Environmental Fund)

Ministry of Environment  Legislative Decree 152/2006 Ministry of Environment 2006 IT

Title (orig.): Decreto Legislativo 3 aprile 2006, n. 152

Language: Italian

Summary:

Regulates the management of waste and remediation of contaminated sites, providing with measures that protect the environment and human health by preventing or reducing the adverse impacts of the generation and management of waste and by reducing overall impacts of resource use and improving the effectiveness. The Decree establishing the classification of by-product of biomass, causing the exclusion of their management in the context of waste.

Link:

Decreto Legislativo 3 aprile 2006, n. 152

Cremer, Tobias  Mobilisation and economical utilization of raw wood from forests and landscape for energy production DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Language: DE

Summary:

The aim of this project was to develop and implement optimised mobilisation, supply and logistic concepts for energy wood from forests and LCMW biomass for a concrete region. Existing and innovative technologies and organisational approaches for the supply of energy wood were further developed and combined. During this process, all affected regional actors were involved.

(LCMW) Relevance: A new approach for the assessment of the potential of LCMW biomass for energetic use was described.

Link:

Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

García D., Pascual J., García A., Asín J.  The effect of the surrounding conditions in the assessment of biomass: case study of agricultural residual biomass in Teruel province (Spain) CIRCE Foundation - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption 2007 ES

Title (orig.): The effect of the surrounding conditions in the assessment of biomass: case study of agricultural residual biomass in Teruel province (Spain)

Language: EN

Summary:

Paper presented to the 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition 7-11 May 2007 (Berlin, Germany)

The best location for the sitting of a biomass plant inside a territory requires as input data the energy potentials of the territory. Up to date the area outside the territory under assessment has not been considered, and the territory was studied as an island. The paper summarizes the results of using different spatial resolution degrees for the area surrounding the Spanish Teruel province (NUTS 3). Residual biomass from woody crops pruning has been estimated inside the province of Teruel using the geographical resolution of the Corine Land Cover. The resources evaluation for the area surrounding Teruel province (50 km in straight line) has been carried out at four levels of spatial resolution: no biomass in the surroundings, biomass per province (NUTS3), biomass per municipalities (NUTS5), and biomass assigned to the Corine Land Cover land use characterisation. The sum of the potential biomass in a 50 km-radius circle has been calculated for every point inside the province of Teruel per resolution scale. A comparison among the cases has been carried out by qualitative and quantitative observations. The results have shown the essentiality of the surrounding areas when searching for the maximum potentials in a territory. The use of spatially vast information (NUTS 3) generates a distortion in the geographical potentials and may lead to excessively large errors. For the analysed zone, it has been proved that municipality resolution (NU

Link:

The effect of the surrounding conditions in the assessment of biomass: case study of agricultural residual biomass in Teruel province (Spain)

La Voz de Galicia  Recycling and biomass plant to use biomass from roadside cleaning La Voz de Galicia.es 2007 ES

Title (orig.): Sugieren una planta de reciclaje y aprovechamiento de biomasa para residuos de cunetas

Language: ES

Summary:

Pontevedra could carry out a project to use biomass from roadsides for energy purposes if the initiative proposed by the Workers’ Commissions succeed. The trade Union asked the Council, to which are attributable 2,200 km of roads, to launch the initiative.

The plant would produce energy and fertilizers or both at the same time. It would also treat the biomass residues from different centres and farms of the provincial agency. Additionally it would process the residues from the forest cleaning, agriculture and vineyards.

The residues from the roadside cleaning are many times abandoned in site and therefore become a dangerous fuel in case a fire starts.

Link:

Sugieren una planta de reciclaje y aprovechamiento de biomasa para residuos de cunetas

Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources  Bioenergy action plan Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy action plan

Language: English

Summary:

Comprehensive strategy for the 2007-2013 period to increase the deployment of renewable energy across three key sectors: transport, heat and electricity and aims to cut Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2 million tonnes per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy action plan of Ireland

Link:

Online PDF
Online source

Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources  Green paper: towards a sustainable energy future in Ireland Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Green paper: towards a sustainable energy future in Ireland

Language: English

Summary:

This Green Paper reflects the Government’s goals of ensuring safe and secure energy supplies, promoting a sustainable energy future, and delivering economically efficient prices to Irish consumers. The Government supports the delivery of these objectives through competitive market mechanisms, supplemented by regulatory oversight. The energy system is highly complex, impacting on various aspects of the environment, the transport and built environment sectors. Delivering an effective energy policy requires an integrated programme, which is joined up across all of government.

(LCMW) Relevance: Political strategies for biomass as a part of renewable sources in Ireland

Link:

PDF online

Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building  The National Allocation Plan 2008-2012 (last available) Danish Government 2007 DK

Title (orig.): English courtesy translation of Denmark’s National Allocation Plan notified to the European Commission 7 March 2007

Language: English

Link:

English courtesy translation of Denmark’s National Allocation Plan notified to the European Commission 7 March 2007

Ministry of Environment  10 regional Waste Management Plans Latvian Government 2007 LV

Title (orig.): Valsts un reģionālie atkritumu apsaimniekošanas plāni

Language: Latvian

Link:

Valsts un reģionālie atkritumu apsaimniekošanas plāni

Attachment

PDF (656.96 KB)

Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC)  Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) 2007 CH

Title (orig.): Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Link:

Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development, National Planning and Development  National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development, National Planning and Development 2007 FR

Title (orig.): National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy

Language: English

Summary:

The French National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy is issued by the ministry in charge of energy (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development, National Planning and Development) and the ministry in charge of research (Ministry for Higher Education and Research) according to Article 10 of the Programme Law on the orientations of the energy policy of 13 July 2005. The Strategy aims to increase energy security, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. It thus seeks to promote RD&D in technologies and energy sources that limit GHG emissions and/or increase energy efficiency. In the field of renewable energy, the Strategy emphasises RD&D in the following areas: ?Biomass, for electricity production, heating, and used as a fuel ?Photovoltaic energy ?A variety of other renewable energies, for whose development the criteria will be: the source?s energy potential, contribution to energy independence, environmental impact (including emissions and waste), the type of technological barriers, the presence and motivation of actors able to develop them.

Link:

National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy

Directorate General for Energy and Raw Materials (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning)  Livret de Developpement Durable Directorate General for Energy and Raw Materials (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning) 2007 FR

Title (orig.): Livret de Developpement Durable

Language: English

Summary:

Preferential loans for energy saving measures. On 5 October 2006, the French Government announced the creation of a EUR 10 billion fund for the funding of domestic energy conservation projects with low-interest loans. Available from 1 January 2007, the low-interest loans are based on a previous tax-free savings account known as the CODEVI (Compte pour le Développement Industriel). This savings product allowed banks to finance the development of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The CODEVI as of 1 January 2007 has been renamed the LDD (Livret de Développement Durable), and banks must use a portion of these funds to offer preferential loans for domestic energy conservation projects. While the CODEVI was capped at EUR 4600 per person, the LDD cap has been raised to EUR 6000 per person to raise additional funds for these loans. As of 2009 the account pays tax-free interest of 2.5% a year. In 2008, banks must dedicate 2% of the funds to energy conservation loans, rising to 5% in 2009 and 10% thereafter. Preferential loans can be awarded to individuals, co-properties and entrepreneurs for the purchase and installation of equipment producing energy from renewable sources; space and water heating equipment using wood or other biomass; heat pumps. Applicants must provide the bank with documents from the equipment installer, certifying that the equipment and installation meets the required criteria.

Link:

Livret de Developpement Durable

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Decree No. 2007-951 on state subsidies granted for forest investment Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 2007 FR

Title (orig.): Decree No. 2007-951 on state subsidies granted for forest investment

Language: English

Summary:

The provisions of this Decree state that the State may grant the general budget to enable the achievement of the following: 1) afforestation, reforestation, regeneration and stand; 2) Work forest improvement; 3) The work of forest service; 4) The work of forest protection including restoration of mountain land, investment in prevention and defense against forest fires and coastal dune fixation operations; 5) cleaning, restoration and pest control in forest stands affected by exceptional natural phenomena; 6) The work of protection and restoration of biodiversity. Grants are awarded on the basis of an estimate and description, in accordance with the general rules on state subsidies for investment projects. However, the subsidy amounts for the transactions referred to in item 5 may be established on the basis of regional scales adopted by regional prefects, under the conditions laid down in Annex 1 to this Order.

Link:

Forest Subsidies
Feed-in tariff

Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain  Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of electricity production under the special regime (Valid until July 14, 2013) is regulated Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain 2007 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 661/2007, de 25 de Mayo, por el que se regula la actividad de producción de energía eléctrica en régimen especial

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of electricity production in the special regime, established under remuneration to apply to the special regime facilities (renewable and cogeneration), including photovoltaics. However, compensation under RD 661 only applies to photovoltaic systems with final registration in the Administrative Register of production facilities under the special regime before September 2008, so it is necessary to regulate the remuneration of the facilities that fall under the such registration after this date. In the following link you can find a summary of Royal Decree 1578/2008, of 26 September, remuneration for production of electricity using solar photovoltaic technology for installations after the deadline keeping the remuneration of Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, for the technology.

Link:

Real Decreto 661/2007, de 25 de mayo, por el que se regula la actividad de producción de energía eléctrica en régimen especial

Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI)  Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables. Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007 Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI) 2007 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007, revised the feed-in tariffs established by the previous Decree Law No. 33 A/2005. The Law covers a wide variety of renewable energy sources, and tariffs vary by source and by capacity. Different tariffs are provided for small (below 5 MW) and large (above 5MW) installations. Wind Below 5 MW: EUR 75/MWh; above 5 MW: EUR 74/MWh Hydro Below 5 MW: EUR 77/MWh; between 5 and 10 MW: EUR 75/MWh Photovoltaic Up to 5 kW: EUR 450/MWh 5 kW to 5 MW: EUR 317/MWh Above 5 MW: EUR 310/MWh micro-generation photovoltaic Under 5 kW: EUR 470/MWh Between 5 and 150 kW: EUR 355/MWh Bioenergy Biomass : EUR 104-109/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102-107/MWh above 5 MW (depending on source) Biogas from anaerobic digestion of waste biomass: EUR 117/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR115/MWh above 5 MW Landfill gas: EUR 104/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102/MWh above 5 MW Municipal Sold Waste (incineration): EUR 54/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 53/MWh above 5 MW Waste-derived fuel (incineration): EUR 76/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 74/MWh above 5 MW Wave power Demonstration wave power up to 4 MW: EUR 260/MWh Pre-commercial wave power from 5 MW up to 20 MW: EUR 191/MWh Commercial wave power above 5 MW: EUR 131/MWh for the first 100 MW; EUR 101/MWh for the subsequent 150 MW; EUR 76/MWh thereafter On 13 September 2007, the Portuguese government approved new incentives for the micro-generation of renewable electricity. This refers to electricity produced primarily for personal consumption, with any excess production available for distribution to third parties or the national grid, up to a limit of 150 kW. The revised rules set a micro-generation tariff of EUR 650 per megawatt hour (MW/h) for an initial five-year period, with payment via electricity bills. An electronic registration platform for micro-generation has been established to manage the new incentive programme, and a simplified licensing and registration procedure has been put in place.

Link:

Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Government Resolution No. 65/2006 on the National Plan for Forest Protection against fires PNDFCI Portuguese Environmental Agency 2007 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.º 351/2007

Language: English

Summary:

This Resolution is composed of one article and one Annex. It approves the National Plan for Forest Protection against fires PNDFCI. The Plan defines the general objectives, the main axes of intervention and the Plan’s continuous monitoring. Moreover, it provides Municipal Operative Plans (POM) and related monitoring indicators. The Plan also contains as appendix an historical perspective of forests in Portugal.

Link:

Factsheet: Air quality Decree

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

García D., Gómez M., García A., Royo F.J.  Determination of the real potential of greenhouse emissions reduction in Spain by means of the cofiring implementation (Ene2005-00304/Alt Project): methodology for the biomass potential of cofiring CIRCE Foundation - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption. Natural Resources Division 2008 ES

Title (orig.): Determination of the real potential of greenhouse emissions reduction in Spain by means of the cofiring implementation (Ene2005-00304/Alt Project): methodology for the biomass potential of cofiring

Language: EN

Summary:

Paper presented to the 16th European biomass conference (2 – 6 June 2008, Valencia, Spain).

The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a relevant part in many of the current energy and environment policies in most of the European countries. Diverse alternatives are being used by the governments and the private companies to palliate the emissions and the costs derived from the emissions trade system; one of these possibilities for the CO2 emission remediation is the replacement of solid fossil fuels by biomass (co-firing) in different sectors. In Spain the consumption of fossil fuels account for more than 124 Mtep, from which solid fossil fuels represent 20 % of the share in the primary energy.

The main solid fuel consuming sectors are the power generation sector (more than 82 %) and cement industry (more than 7 %). The equivalent CO2emissions of those solid fuel intensive consuming sectors account for more than 20 % of the gross CO2 equivalent emissions, similar to other important sectors like the transport. Therefore the co-firing technology arises as a promising mean to reduce the emissions from solid fossil fuels.

The current paper presents the project ENE2005-00304/ALT (founded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education). The main objective is the assessment of the potential of co-firing in Spain and the development of a methodology based on the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), allowing a precise knowledge about the multiplier effect, in terms of GHG emissions reduction, associated with this technology and the related economic benefits.

(LCMW) Relevance: The Authors are one of the greenGain project partners (Daniel García, Maider Gómez; CIRCE).

Bratkovich Steve , Bowyer Jim, Fernholz Kathryn and Alison Lindburg  Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters Alliance for Community Trees 2008 USA

Title (orig.): Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters

Language: EN

Summary:

Comprehensive article about the problematic of treatment of urban wood in the USA.

Link:

Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters

ADAS  Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities. ADAS 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities.

Language: English

Summary:

One of the roles of the NNFCC is to develop markets for UK renewable feedstocks. One of these, biomass, has the potential to supply energy for heating, electricity production and as a liquid transport fuel. This report establishes the current scale and location of biomass production in the UK and assesses the potential for increasing biomass production in the future. This report was commissioned by the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of renewable feedstocks markets in UK.

UK Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC)  Climate Change Act 2008 UK Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Climate Change Act 2008

Language: English

Summary:

On 26 November 2008, the Climate Change Act became law. The Act aims to improve carbon management, help the transition toward a low-carbon economy, and demonstrate strong international UK leadership. Major provisions of the Act include the setting of legally binding targets, the establishment of a carbon budgeting system, and the creation of a Committee on Climate Change. The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) is an independent body designed to recommend targets, advise on the level of carbon budgets, as well as to monitor and report progress towards targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: The Act aims to improve carbon management and related increase of renewable energy (as the biomass energy)

Link:

Report: The Carbon Plan - reducing greenhouse gas emissions
CCC websites
Climate Change Act 2008

European Parliament & Council  Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives European Parliament & Council 2008 EU

Title (orig.): Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives

Language: English

Link:

Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives

Ministry of Economy  Quota system / Green certificates Ministry of Economy 2008 RO

Title (orig.): Quota system / Green certificates

Language: English

Summary:

Quota system: In Romania, the main means of promotion is a quota system based on quota obligations, tradable certificates, and minimum and maximum prices. Electricity suppliers and producers are obliged to present a certain number (or quota) of green certificates (art. 8 par. 1 Law No. 220/2008 as referred to in art. 1 par. 11 Emergency Ordinance No. 88/2011). These tradable certificates are allocated to the producers of electricity from renewable sources (art. 6, 10 Law no. 220/2008 as referred to in art. 1 par. 9, 12 Emergency Ordinance No. 88/2011).

Link:

Quota system / Green certificates

Federation of Retail and Distribution Enterprises  Retailer Sustainable Commerce Agreement Federation of Retail and Distribution Enterprises 2008 FR

Title (orig.): Retailer Sustainable Commerce Agreement

Language: English

Summary:

On 29 January 2008, the French Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning signed a five-year agreement with the Federation of Retail and Distribution Enterprises, representing 26 500 outlets nationwide. The agreement commits the retail sector to establish packaging waste and greenhouse gas emission reduction goals. Retailers agreed to undertake detailed analysis of the CO2 emissions of all their activities, to better assess emissions from merchandise transportation and in-store activities. They also pledged to improve energy efficiency in stores, by switching to low-energy lighting and upgrading refrigeration and freezer systems. They also committed to acquiring at least 20% of their overall energy use from renewable energy sources by 2020

Link:

Retailer Sustainable Commerce Agreement

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Heat Fund Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 2008 FR

Title (orig.): Heat Fund

Language: English

Summary:

The Heat Fund was implemented in order to support the production of heat from renewable resources and recovered energy. This system of support for investment is one of the commitments of the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund’s goal is to support 5.5 Mtoe production of renewable heat between 2009 and 2020; this number represents more than a quarter of the renewable energy production target of 20 Mtoe by 2020 set by the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund mainly supports the development of the use of biomass (forestry, agriculture, production and thermal recovery of biogas, etc.), geothermal energy, heat pumps and solar thermal. The targetted sectors are collective housing, tertiary, agriculture and industry. By encouraging the use of renewable energy by heating networks, the Heat Fund will also have an important social impact (reduction and stabilisation of heating bills of essentially social housing) and directly encourage overall diversification of the energy supply.The Heat Fund intervention methods are:- for large scale biomass facilities (production of renewable heat greater than 1 000 toe/year) in the industrial, agricultural and tertiary sectors: there is an annual national call for projects. Four calls for projects have been already launched and a fifth one will be launched in September 2012.- for all other sectors (including residential), and for biomass facilities between 100 and 1000 toe/year, the Heat Fund is managed by the ADEME at regional level with regional calls for projects. It complements aid currently granted in the context of State-Region Project Contracts.

Link:

Heat Fund

Government of Spain  Law 45/2007 of 13 December, for the sustainable development of rural areas Government of Spain 2008 ES

Title (orig.): Ley 45/2007, de 13 de diciembre, para el desarrollo sostenible del medio rural

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The Law 45/2007 for the sustainable development or rural areas, the basis of its own rural policy, as state policy, fully adapted to the economic, social and environmental conditions established particular the Spanish countryside, allowing complement the implementation of the instruments of European policies and convencional sectoral policies to ensure sustainable development of rural areas.

Link:

Ley 45/2007, de 13 de diciembre, para el desarrollo sostenible del medio rural

Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain  Order ITC / 2877/2008, of October 9, establishing a mechanism to promote the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport sets Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain 2008 ES

Title (orig.): Orden ITC/2877/2008, de 9 de octubre, por la que se establece un mecanismo de fomento del uso de biocarburantes y otros combustibles renovables con fines de transporte

Language: Spanish

Summary:

Order ITC / 2877/2008, of October 9, establishing a mechanism to promote the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport sets

Link:

Orden ITC/2877/2008, de 9 de octubre, por la que se establece un mecanismo de fomento del uso de biocarburantes y otros combustibles renovables con fines de transporte

Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU) & Bundesamt für Energie (BFE)  Energy wood potentials outside of the forest in Switzerland Ernst Basler + Partner AG 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

The aim of this study is to assess the potential amount of meadow wood (= wood growing on areas outside of forests) in Switzerland, how it is currently used and what gains and costs occur. The authors defined five sources for meadow wood (along roads, along rivers and lakes, urban green, hedgerows and agricultural areas). They used a GIS-model and conducted expert interviews for the data collection. The study showed that on 10 % of Switzerland’s area meadow wood is growing (400 000 ha) and that 420 000 t TS per year can be sustainably used. Over 80 % of the meadow wood is on urban or agricultural are and mostly in the region of the Swiss midland. Of today’s use only 54 % are used for energetic purposes, 39 % are left on the site and 7 % is used for material production. The profits and costs differ strongly between the regions. In some regions, the same material is sold and in others, disposal charges have to be paid.

(LCMW) Relevance: Broad overview of the situation of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes (PDF)
Holzenergie (website)