A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

ADAS  Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities. ADAS 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities.

Language: English

Summary:

One of the roles of the NNFCC is to develop markets for UK renewable feedstocks. One of these, biomass, has the potential to supply energy for heating, electricity production and as a liquid transport fuel. This report establishes the current scale and location of biomass production in the UK and assesses the potential for increasing biomass production in the future. This report was commissioned by the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of renewable feedstocks markets in UK.

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economic Affairs, European Comission 2010 NL

Title (orig.): Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

Netherlands 2020 targets:

  • Overall target: 14.5% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 9% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 37% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 10% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to achieve above enlisted targets Netherlands established comprehensive legal and administrative framework nurturing deployment of renewables with a number of complementary financial, fiscal and promotional measures:

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets

Link:

Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Arodudu, Oludunsin, et al.  Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators Elsevier Ltd. 2014 DE, NL, NG

Title (orig.): Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators

Language: English

Summary:

The production of bioenergy is dependent on the supply of biomass. Biomass production for bioenergy may cause large land use conversions, impact agricultural production, food prices, forest conservation, etc. The best solution is to use biomass that does not have agricultural or ecological value. Some of such unconventional sources of biomass are found within urban spaces. We employed Geographic Information System (GIS) and quantitative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas. Net Energy Gain (NEG) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI) were used as indicators to assess the bioenergy potential of urban spaces within the Overijssel province of the Netherlands as a case study. Data regarding suitable areas were geometrically extracted from available GIS datasets, and used to estimate the biomass/bioenergy potential of different species with different yields per hectare, growing under different environmental conditions. We found that potential net-energy gain from built-up areas can meet 0.6–7.7% of the 2030 renewable energy targets of the province without conflicting with socio-ecological concerns, while also improving human habitat.

(LCMW) Relevance: Methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas.

Bioenergy Promotion  Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance Bioenergy Promotion 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance

Language: English

Summary:

Rotenburg (Wümme) County supports renewable energy mainly from biogas and woody resources through a strategy which was founded in 2007 and acts as a platform for commuication and information among related actors. This strategy is supported by addressing renwable energy in all mandatory publc planning like the Regional Development Plan (under renewal in 2014), the Regional Landscape Plan and the Concept for Climate Protection. Moreover, forestry-related, mostly EU-co-financed support schemes like site mapping, forest inventory and investment support provide good opportunities for assessment and utilisation of woody biomass, taking sustainability principles into account. A close cooperation exists between three local forest owners associations, which can form a basis for resliable supply of wood as an energy carrier.

(LCMW) Relevance: Project partner - greenGain.

Bundesregierung  Energy Concept Bundesregierung 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Language: Deutsch

Summary:

Energy and Climate Fund

Link:

Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Butler Manning, David; Bemann, Albrecht; Bredemeier, Michael; Lamersdorf, Norbert; Ammer, Christian  Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas Wiley-VCH 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas

Language: English

Summary:

This book shows the major reasearch foundings of the projects AgroForNet: Linking the Producers and Consumers of Woodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas and BEST: Strengthening Bioenergy Regions. In stand-alone scientific research papers the latest knowledge on cultivation of dendromass for bioenergy purposes in Germany is presented in the context of international research. Different aspects are covered, among other i) environmental constraints, landscape functions, ecosystem services; ii) evaluating, managing and enhancing the supply of dendromass; and iii) socio-economic and legal aspects fo dendromass for bioenergy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Examples of frameworks for the development of woodfuel-based service systems and supply chains

Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI  Action plan for coordinated energy research Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI 2013 CH

Title (orig.): Action plan for coordinated energy research

Language: English

Link:

Action plan for coordinated energy research

European Commission  Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020 European Commission 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

Language: English

Summary:

These European Commission guidelines are new rules on public support for environmental protection and energy to help renewable sources of energy enter the marketplace. Their aim is to support EU countries in reaching their 2020 climate targets while addressing the market distortions that may result from subsidies granted to renewable energy sources.

Art 3.2.5.1.For measures supporting integrated projects such as integrated energy-efficiency measures, or biogas projects, the counterfactual scenario can be difficult to establish. Where a counterfactual scenario cannot credibly

be established, the Commission is amenable to consider the total costs of a project as an alternative, which may imply lower aid intensities to reflect the different eligible cost calculation. Art 3.3.2.3. A i d f o r e x i s t i n g b i o m a s s pl a n t s a f t e r p l a n t d e p r e c i a t i o n (132) Unlike most other renewable sources of energy, biomass requires relatively low investment costs but higher operating costs. Higher operating costs may prevent a biomass    *(2) plant from operating even after depre ciation of the installation as the operating costs can be higher than the revenues (the market price). On the other hand, an existing biomass plant may operate by using fossil fuel instead of biomass as an input source if the use of fossil fuel as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass. To preserve the use of biomass in both cases, the Commission may find operating aid to be compatible with the internal market even after plant depreciation.

(133) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that the operating costs borne by the beneficiary after plant depreciation are still higher than the market price of the energy concerned and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary and the market price; and

(c) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify whether the operating costs borne are still higher than the market price of energy. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated production cost information and take place at least on an annual basis.

(134) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that, independent from the market price of the energy concerned, the use of fossil fuels as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary from biomass compared to the alternative fossil fuel input;

(c) credible evidence is provided that without the aid a switch from the use of biomass to fossil fuels would take place within the same plant; and

(d) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify that the use of fossil fuels is more beneficial than the use of biomass. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated cost information and take place at least on an annual basis   Annex 2 Typical State Intervention Biogas production which is upgraded to a level of natural gas: If the aid is limited to the upgrading of biogas, the counterfactual

constitutes the alternative use of these biogas (including burning). Biofuels and biogas used for transport:  In principle the extra investment cost compared to that of a normal

refinery should be chosen, but the Commission can accept alternative counterfactuals if duly justified.

Targets are:

— greenhouse gas emissions 20 % (or even 30 %, if the conditions are right) lower than 1990 levels;

— 20 % of energy from renewables; and

— 20 % increase in energy efficiency.

Link:

Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

European Commission  Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC European Commission 2009 EU

Title (orig.): Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive sets environmental criteria for fossil fuel components such as petrol and diesel. It also determines the permitted level of emissions derived from fossil fuels and includes GHG emission reduction target.

The FQD determines permitted GHG emissions level and reduction targets from fuels. It also sets a sustainability criteria and describes mass-balance system (same as the RED).

Art. 7b sets out sustainability criteria for all biofuels produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they guarantee real GHG savings and protects biodiversity. Art. 7b.1 defines that biofuels produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria in relation to the GHG savings. (Same as the RED).

Art. 7c defines a mass balance system, which allows consignments of raw material or biofuel with differing sustainability characteristics to be mixed and requires information about the sustainability characteristics and sizes of the consignments. (same as the RED)

Art. 7a.2 sets a requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the GHG intensity of energy supplied for road transport by up to 10 % by 2020 (Low Carbon Fuel Standard). This reduction shall consist of: (1) 6 % by 2020 with the intermediate targets: 2 % by 2014 and 4 % 2017; (2) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through: “the supply of energy for transport supplied for use in any type of road vehicle, non-road mobile machinery (including inland waterway vessels), agricultural or forestry tractor or recreational craft” and/or “the use of any technology (including carbon capture and  storage) capable of reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy from fuel or energy supplied”; (3) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through the use of credits purchased through the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, under the conditions set out in Directive 2003/87/EC.

Link:

Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Federal Council  Energy Strategy 2050 Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2011 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Strategy 2050

Language: English

Link:

Energy Strategy 2050

Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth  Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012 Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth 2012

Title (orig.): Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Summary:

Green Electricity Act 2012

Link:

Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research  Sixth Energy Research Programme Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research 2011 DE

Title (orig.): 6.Energieforschungsprogramm - Forschung für eine umweltschonende, zuverlässige und bezahlbare Energieversorgung

Language: English

Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth 2010 AT

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

4.6 Specific measures for the promotion of the use of energy from biomass

4.6.2 Measures to increase biomass availability, taking into account other biomass users (agriculture and forest-based sectors)

Measures to encourage unused arable land, degraded land, etc. to be used for energy purposes

The cultivation of land for food products and the production of bioresources are not in competition in Austria according to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture.

Unused raw material potential arises primarily from the use of grassland for biogas production. Until a few years ago grassland was still hardly used, however in the near future it will be a very interesting source material for various types of usage (fibre, lactic acid, etc.) and subsequent biogas production.

Strategy to promote the production and use of biogas

Biogas is currently still mainly produced for generating sets which produce green electricity and heat. Because biogas is, besides stored hydropower, the only storable renewable energy source, biogas technology may be used for daily production right up to the peak electricity production in the future. Treated biogas has the same chemical composition as natural gas. Therefore the targets aimed at for the future are the integration of treated biogas into the natural gas grid as well as the sale of biogas to filling stations. According to the Biogas and Compost Association, the use of biogas as fuel is possible through the steady spreading of natural gas powered vehicles and natural gas filling stations (Biogas and Compost Association).

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics  National Energy strategy Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics AT

Title (orig.): National Energy strategy

Language: English

Link:

Federal Ministry of Science Websites

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Electricity act (ElWOG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2010 AT

Title (orig.): Electricity act (ElWOG)

Language: English

Link:

Electricity act (ElWOG)

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Natural gas act (GWG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2015 AT

Title (orig.): Natural gas act (GWG)

Language: English

Link:

Natural gas act (GWG)

Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment  Biomass Strategy Switzerland Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Biomass Strategy Switzerland

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomassestrategie Schweiz legt übergeordnete Ziele fest

Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER  BELGIUM National renewable energy action plan Plan Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER 2010 BE

Title (orig.): D’action national en matière d'énergies renouvelables; Nationaal actieplan voor hernieuwbare energie

Language: English

Summary:

Belgian authorities pursue a sustainable energy policy that takes into account the economic and social interests of the energy sector as well as the exhaustion of fossil resources and environmental concerns. In this context, renewable energy sources contribute to achieving the following targets:

  • reducing consumption of energy from fossil sources to safeguard future reserves
  • reducing greenhouse gas emissions; – reducing the country’s dependence on energy imports
  • minimising the impact of price fluctuations for energy from other sources
  • creating employment in the framework of an innovative economy
  • diversifying the available range of energy to improve the functioning of the energy market

In the field of electricity generation, Belgium has set up a scheme of green certificates and guaranteed minimum prices to support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources

Link:

Belgium National Action Plan

Finish Ministry of the Environment  Land Use and Building Act (Finish) Ministry of the Environment 1999 FI

Title (orig.): Land Use and Building Act

Language: English

Summary:

The objective of this Act is to ensure that the use of land and water areas and building activities on them create preconditions for a favourable living environment and promote ecologically, economically, socially and culturally sustainable development.

The Act also aims to ensure that everyone has the right to participate in the preparation process, and that planning is high quality and interactive, that expertise is comprehensive and that there is open provision of information on matters being processed.

Link:

Land Use and Building Act

Attachment

Government  Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat Government 2006 CY

Title (orig.): Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Link:

Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg  Luxembourg's Rural Development programme for 2014-2020 approved by the European Commission Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2015 LU

Title (orig.): Luxembourg's Rural Development programme for 2014-2020 approved by the European Commission

Language: English

Summary:

The Rural Development Programme (RDP) for Luxembourg was formally adopted by the European Commission on 1 July 2015, outlining the Grand Duchy’s priorities for using the EUR 368 million of public money that is available for the 7-year period 2014-2020 (EUR 100.6 million from the EU budget and EUR 267.4 million of national co-funding).

Luxembourg’s RDP puts particular emphasis on actions related to restoring, preserving and enhancing ecosystems.

Link:

Luxembourg's Rural Development programme for 2014-2020 approved by the European Commission

Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas; Funda, Karsten; Lootsma, Auke; Hofmann, Hubertus  Costs and benefits of an optimized bowaste utilisation in regard to energy efficiency, climate- and resource protection Umweltbundesamt, German environmental protection agency 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Aufwand und Nutzen einer optimierten Bioabfallverwertung hinsichtlich Energieeffizienz, Klima- und Ressourcenschutz

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Separately collected organic wastes in Germany are currently predominately composted and subsequently recycled for soil improvement and fertilization. Usage of the immanent energy potential of the organic wastes is just emerging. With special emphasis on organic wastes from households, parks and gardens as well as landscape management, the study analyses key questions on an improved material flow management.

(LCMW) Relevance: Management possibilities for LCMW material

Link:

Download on the homepage of the German environmental protection agency

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland  Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland 1996 FIN

Title (orig.): Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Language: English

Summary:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry (1094/1996, amendments up to 112/2003 included) contains 9 chapters:

  • Chapter 1 – General provisions
  • Chapter 2 – Ensuring the sustainability of timber production
  • Chapter 3 – Support for maintaining the biological diversity in forests
  • Chapter 4 – Forest ecosystem management
  • Chapter 5 – Other promotion measures
  • Chapter 6 – Application, granting and payment as well as recovery and legal consequences
  • Chapter 7 – Steering and supervision
  • Chapter 8 – Miscellaneous provisions
  • Chapter 9 – Entry into force and transitional provisions

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial support on maintenance of forest biomass

Link:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic  Energy options of biomass use Ministry of Agriculture 2013 CZ

Title (orig.): Možnosti energetického využití biomasy

Language: CS

Summary:

This publication tries to indicate the possibility of biomass energy utilization, set up appropriate support mechanisms and the direction of development of technology for biomass utilization.

The booklet helps to zoom on the Biomass Action Plan 2012 – 2020 for citizens, to describe the potential of biomass, and discovers in detail the possibility of using biomass for wider public.

The publication is thus divided into three thematic sections, according to whom it is addressed, practical application of knowledge of Biomass Action Plan 2012-2020:

  • possibilities of cultivation and utilization of biomass energy in agriculture
  • possibilities of energy use of biomass in the municipalities
  • possibilities of energy use of biomass in households.

Link:

Možnosti energetického využití biomasy (PDF)

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism  Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism 2003 CY

Title (orig.): Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Summary:

Grant scheme for the promotion of electricity generation using wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic systems and the utilization of biomass – The minimum selling price of electrical energy that will be produced by utilizing biomass-landfill and fed to the transmission / distribution grid is 117.9 -97.4 Eur/MWh for the first 20 years. The grant, paid from the Special Fund for RES will result from the difference between the total selling price and the purchase price of electricity from renewable sources, by the electricity distributor as it is periodically determined by CERA. Note that if the purchase price kWh from the supplier surpass total selling price, then the supplier will pay the excess amount to the Special Fund for RES and RUE.

Link:

Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade  National Renewable Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade, European Comission 2010 LU

Title (orig.): National Renewable Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy targets

Link:

LU National Renewable Action Plan (NREAP)

Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning  Decree on Support for Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy Sources Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning 2002 (last amended 2012) SI

Title (orig.): Uredba o podporah električni energiji, proizvedeni iz obnovljivih virov energije – neuradno prečiščeno besedilo NPB7, PisRS)

Language: English

Summary:

A decree law passed in 2002 paved the way for establishing prices and premiums for purchasing electricity from qualified producers. Qualified producers are those that produce electricity from renewable energy sources, or in facilities with higher than average efficiency for combined heat and power.

Under the scheme producers can choose to receive either fixed feed-in tariffs or premium feed-in tariffs from the network operators. A Purchase Agreement is concluded, valid for 10 years. According to the Law on Energy, the uniform annual prices and premiums are set at least once a year. Feed-in tariffs and premiums are differentiated in terms of both technology and size. In 2006, the size differentiation was removed for solar energy, and increased the tariff and premium for biomass. Producers can also choose to adhere to a double tariff system, whereby either the tariff or premium amount varies according to season and time of day. This system is advantageous to producers that can adapt their production.

As of January 2012, new rates for the feed-in premium allocated to renewable power producers on top of the electricity price for technologies have been adjusted. Premiums for all technologies and for plants smaller than 5 MW were increased, except for biomass and CHP. Tariffs for solar PV projects greater than 5 MW were reduced and increased for biomass and CHP. Due to a change in legislation (Off. Gazette, 43/2011) biogas plants connected to the grid after 1. 7. 2012 that use 40% or more of primary agricultural produce (e.g. corn) are not entitled to receive support. If they use less than 40% but more than 25%, then the variable part of the reference costs are set at 70 %.The variable part of feed in tariff in case of solid biomass shall be adjusted in line with changes to the prices of wood biomass (contained in the forecast published by the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia).

Link:

Decree on Renewable Electricity support

Ministry of the Economy  Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1993 LU

Title (orig.): Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Language: English

Summary:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 provides the legal basis for deployment and renewable energy usage in Luxembourg. The Law sets out energy savings and renewable energy objectives and measures.

The Law provides for research and demonstration activities on renewable energy sources and/or energy conservation to benefit from public assistance, particularly in the form of pilot projects. It establishes that electricity produced from small-scale renewable energy sources and cogeneration are to be connected to public networks, and that feed-in tariffs are to be established for these sources. It also provides the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration obligations to be set, for buildings requiring large amounts of energy and those in industry.

The Law establishes mandatory energy use norms and standards for buildings. Building owners must undertake energy performance evaluation. They must also undertake energy-saving improvements in insulation, heating and cooling components, should heating needs exceed 600 kW, cooling needs exceed 300 kW or transformer capacity exceed 500 kW.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: Providing the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration

Link:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Municipality of Salas  Interreg - Salas Interreg 2009 CZ

Title (orig.): Interreg - Salaš

Language: Czech

Summary:

The Interreg IIIA project was supported to use environmentally clean heating biomass – wood, along with the use of solar collectors for domestic hot water. The basic idea is to utilize local sources of wood (contract with Lesy Czech Republic) for heating houses also reducing emissions from transport. The result of the project is the creation of one job associated with the organization of harvesting, handling, record keeping and billing itself individual participants in the project.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of environmentally clean biomass for heating.

Link:

Interreg - Salas

Netherlands Enterprise Agency  Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace Ministry of Economic Affairs 2016 NL

Title (orig.): Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace

Language: Dutch

Summary:

In the Netherlands, the provinces are responsible for nature conservation. They act as a field director in rural areas and bring the parties together to provide the policy and the implementation of nature and landscape. The provinces also determine where they want to achieve the targets and allocation of resources for this purpose.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy and the implementation of nature and landscape

Link:

Over het Subsidiestelsel

Presenters at the conference  Script of the conference "Biomass to Power and Heat" 1. - 2. 6. 2016 Zittau University of Zittau/Görlitz 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Tagungsband - Beiträge zum Fachkolloquium "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Language: German and English

Summary:

The script of the conference „Biomass to Power and Heat“ 2016 includes the summaries of the 15 expert presentations of this year´s event. The contributions focus on practical introduction, and scientific and economic support for decentralized supply approaches and power generation of wood-like biomass in cogeneration. Accordingly, the presentations cover topics as:

  • biomass from agroforestry
  • new technologies for producing and using pellets
  • spontaneous reactions when storing biomass
  • combined heat and power units with Stirling motor
  • regulation- and monitoring systems for pollution emissions
  • biogas production
  • biochar
  • syngas
  • regional energy markets
  • experiences with different combustibles.

The aims and work of the greenGain project were introduced as well and are summarised in the according chapter of the conference script.

(LCMW) Relevance: Technologies, experiences and new findings in the field of biomass firings. Aline Clalüna from COALS (Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen), partner of the greenGain project, had a presentation at the conference dedicated to the greenGain project (see p. 9 - 13).

Link:

Homepage on conference "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Attachment

Conference script "Biomass to Power and Heat" (22.01 MB)
Flyer with program of the conference (518.18 KB)

Regional Networks for the Development of a Sustainable Market for Bioenergy in Europe  Report: Biomass Action Plan for Salacgrīva Region in Latvia Bioregions. 2012 LT

Title (orig.): Report: Biomass Action Plan for Salacgrīva Region in Latvia

Language: English

Summary:

This document represents one of the five biomass action plans developed within BioRegions project. Action plans set framework for the promotion of renewable energy production and use in five European regions. The action plan for Salacgrīva region (Latvia) was developed by Ekodoma Ltd. in collaboration with Salacgrīva municipality and Salacgrīva Tourism information centre. The aim of the action plan is to create framework for the support of concrete biomass projects in the target region, as well as to develop a wider strategy for regional energy supply with maximum utilization of the regions’ biomass potential. The content of the action plan is following, in Chapter 2 a general description of the region is given, followed by a description of the biomass situation in Chapter 3 and then followed by SWOT analysis in Chapter 4. This is followed by determination of regional bioenergy targets in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 lists concrete actions that should be undertaken to reach these targets, including short to long term actions. Chapter 7 lists the possible impacts of the actions taken and ends with a proposal of monitoring and evaluation of the progress of the actions in the action plan.

(LCMW) Relevance: Creation of framework for the support of concrete biomass projects in the target region

Sandija Zēverte-Rivža  Article: Promotion of biogas production in Latvia (2014) Energetika 2014 LV

Title (orig.): Article: Promotion of biogas production in Latvia (2014)

Language: English

Link:

Promotion of biogas production in Latvia

Swedish Government  Quota system for renewable energies Swedish Government 2003 FIN

Title (orig.): Quota system for renewable energies

Language: English

Summary:

Act No. 2011:1200 obliges electricity suppliers, certain electricity consumers and energy-intensive companies to annually acquire renewable energy certificates in due proportion to their electricity sales and their consumption by a set date (Chapter 4 §§ 1 and 4 Act No. 2011:1200). Furthermore, the Act stipulates the conditions in which owners of renewable energy generation plants may acquire electricity certificates (Chapter 2 §§ 1-13 Act No. 2011:1200).

In general, all renewables, including biogas generated from biomass, are eligible for the quota system (Chapter 1 § 2 No. 2 Act No. 2011:1200). One certificate is issued for every MWh of electricity produced, regardless of the generation technology employed (Chapter 3 § 2 Act No. 2011:1200). Obligated persons that fail to satisfy their quota obligation shall pay a quota obligation fine.

During the past few years, certificate prices ranged between 15 and 40 €/MWh.

A change introduced in 2006 was the extension of the validity of the certificates from 2010 to 2030 in order to improve long-term investment security.

According to the Swedish Energy Agency, Sweden and Norway introduced a common electricity certificate market on 1 January 2012. The producers of RES electricity receive certificates in their own country. These certificates can be traded on both the Swedish and Norwegian markets (Chapter 1 § 5 Act No. 2011:1200).

The Swedish RES quota system has led to an increase of the share of RES electricity from 51.2% in 2004 to 60% in 2012. During the first few years, mainly biomass power plants (and to a smaller degree hydro-power) benefitted from the scheme while in recent years, the share of wind energy has been steadily increasing.

Link:

Energypedia: Quota system for renewable energies
Quota system for renewable energies

Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment  Tax regulation mechanisms Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment 1990-2010 SWE

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms

Language: English

Summary:

  • Tax reductions for households. Act No. 2009:194 sets rules for the tax-deduction of RES-related installation works in households. The installation of renewable energy devices and the replacement of conventional heating sources with renewable ones may be deducted from tax.
  • Energy and carbon dioxide taxes. In Sweden, energy and carbon dioxide taxes are levied on the supply, import and production of fossil fuels for heating purposes. Renewable energy sources are exempt from these taxes. The biogas must be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598. Biomass must also be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598.
  • Nitrous oxide tax. The producers of heat are obliged to pay a tax according to their nitrous oxide emissions. Heat producers using renewable energy sources are exempt from this obligation.

All renewable energy technologies are exempt from the tax obligations.

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Pilot and Demonstration Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Pilot and Demonstration Program

Language: English

Link:

Pilot and Demonstration Program

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Energy Research Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Research Program

Language: English

Link:

Energy Research Program

Tuscany Region  Regional Law 46 of 2013 (Tuscany): promotion of citizen participation in the processes of construction of regional and local policies Regione Toscana 2013 IT

Title (orig.): Legge Regionale 46 del 2013. Dibattito pubblico regionale e promozione della partecipazione alla elaborazione delle politiche regionali e locali

Language: Italian

Summary:

At the end of 2007 the Region of Tuscany approved Law no. 69 defining the rules on the Promotion of Participation in the Formulation of Regional and Local Policies. The new regional law on participation (LR 46/2013), follows and reinforces the positive experiences started in Tuscany in recent years due to the previous regional law (LR 69/2007) which represented, in many ways, a pilot case in Italy. This was an innovative legal provision explicitly aimed at pro-actively promoting citizen engagement in local and regional decision making: by incorporating features explicitly derived from deliberative theory, it institutionalizes citizen participation; that is, the involvement through group dialogue of citizens and stakeholders in decision-making about problems or issues of public interest. The results from this laboratory are of relevance to scholars, practitioners and politicians who are interested in such democratic innovations. The law was updated by the Law 46/2013 which instituted as compulsory the public regional debate for the investments over 50 million euro and as discretionary for investments above 10 million (which are anyway considered at regional level).

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of governance and acceptance for bioenergy related projects

Link:

Online

Umbria Region  Regional Law 14 of 2010 Umbria Region 2010 IT

Title (orig.): Legge Regionale 14 del 2010: Disciplina degli istituti di partecipazione alle funzioni delle istituzioni regionali (Iniziativa legislativa e referendaria, diritto di petizione e consultazione)

Language: Italian

Summary:

With the Regional Law n. 14 of the 16th of February 2010, the Region of Umbria introduces new rules over the administrative and political participation of civil society in decision-making procedures within the competence of the regional institutions. Four instruments are designed to provide the participation of stakeholders: the legislative initiative, the referendum question initiative, the right to petition and finally the consultation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of governance and acceptance for bioenergy related projects

Link:

Online

Wiehe, Julia  Energetic utilisation of wood from landscape maintenance: Hedgerows on banks as heat source for the county Grafschaft Bentheim Inaugural Dissertation at the University Hanover 2003 DE

Title (orig.): Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege - Wallhecken als Wärmequelle für den Landkreis Grafschaft Bentheim

Language: German

Summary:

In this diploma thesis it was investigated if in the German county Grafschaft Bentheim and the neighboring Dutch province of Overijssel poorly preserved hedgerows on banks can be used as a renewable energy source for heat generation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Utilisation of hedgerows on banks

Link:

Die energetische Nutzung von Holz aus der Landschaftspflege