A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Community composting Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Kompostujeme na území MAS Ploštin (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

The citizens have the possibility to borrow the composter for home composting; The municipalities can borrow the composter for processing of biomass from public areas.

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste sent to composting

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Alena Kolářová, Karolína Ortov  Collective treatment of organic waste Czech Association of Local Governments 2015 CZ

Title (orig.): Biologicky rozložitelný odpad (Jak-se-vam-libi-nas-venkov-SMSCR)

Language: Czech

Summary:

Collective purchase of composters for organic residues from public areas and households (288 composters, volume of 900 liter each; 12 composters for public areas, volume of 5100 liter each).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW (predominantly) and municipal organic waste collectively composted

Link:

Web

Attachment

PDF (4.54 MB)

Anders, Kenneth; Fischer, Lars  Woody roads into a new landscape? Aufland Verlag 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Holzwege in eine neue Landschaft? - Perspektiven für holzige Biomasse aus der Sicht von Akteuren

Language: German

Summary:

Within the scope of the AgroForNet research network, the Landscape Communication Agency has conducted extensive surveys on short-term plantations, material from landscape maintenance and forestry residuals as well as other uses of woody biomass in German landscapes between 2010 and 2013. These were supplemented by research on historical agroforest systems, middle and low forests. From this material, the authors compiled a reading book, which supports the question of the future of these land use forms with the existing practices. The book is a snapshot of high landscape dynamics and a catalog of diverse possibilities to shape one’s own landscape and to create new value-creating relationships.

(LCMW) Relevance: Best practice examples of roles of stakeholders when using LCMW biomass

Link:

Purchase book

Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

CENTRE TECHNIQUE DU BOIS ET DE L'AMEUBLEMENT  Coexistence of biomass energy projects at regional level FP5-LIFE QUALITY 2004 FR

Title (orig.): Cohabitation de projets énergie - biomasse - à l’échelle d’un territoire

Language: French

Summary:

Study aims to optimize the coexistence in the region of energy production from biomass taking into better account the externatilities related to different projects, share the information regarding the stakeholders requirements over the different impacts from the projects. Croiser les vues des acteurs sur différents profils de projets (impacts) and accumulate experience.

(LCMW) Relevance: Coexistence in the region of energy production from biomass taking into better account the externatilities related to different projects

Link:

Website

Attachment

Conrady et. al.  Landscape management without shepherd? – Results based on the pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” Thüringer Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Forsten, Umwelt und Naturschutz 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer? - Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt "Biodiversität und Energieholz"

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” examines the use of wood from landscape management for energy production to maintain the natural value of open habitats with their important biodiversity in cultural landscapes. Since 2009, different methods of timber harvesting have been tested on up to 34 areas in Brandenburg and Thuringia in Germany – with a special focus on cost reduction, economic efficiency and environmental compatibility. The project shows the benefit of combining efforts to maintain open habitats in our cultural landscape with using harvested woody biomass as fuel wood. This benefit was visible already after the first few measures – economically and ecologically.

(LCMW) Relevance: Hederows on banks, nature protection, landscape management

Link:

Download portal for single chapters of conference script "The steppe habitats in Europe - Hazards, conservation measures and protection"

Attachment

PDF Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer (323.30 KB)

Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources  Bioenergy action plan Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy action plan

Language: English

Summary:

Comprehensive strategy for the 2007-2013 period to increase the deployment of renewable energy across three key sectors: transport, heat and electricity and aims to cut Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2 million tonnes per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy action plan of Ireland

Link:

Online PDF
Online source

Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region  Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014) Environment and Energy administration; Public Service of the Walloon region 2010; 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

Language: English

Summary:

Energy subsidies are provided by the Walloon Region for the generation of electricity through CHP plants using renewable energy. The energy subsidies for CHP plants were renewed for the year 2014 with the same conditions as for 2013.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from biogas and biomass

Link:

Wallonia: Subsidy (primes Energie 2014)

European Commission  ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD) European Commission 2015 EU

Title (orig.): ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD)

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive aims to promote transition from conventional (starch-rich energy crops) biofuels (with a risk of ILUC emissions) to advanced biofuels (that deliver substantial greenhouse gas savings and low-ILUC) and encourage a greater market penetration of advanced biofuels by allowing such fuels to contribute more to the targets in the RED than conventional biofuels.

The ILUC Directive sets a cap for biofuels produced from energy crops, however, it promotes a production and use of advanced generation biofuels.

References to the RED and FQD that sets out the sustainability criteria. The overall obejctive of the ILUC Directive is to limit ILUC.

In Recital 7 it is recognised that “advanced biofuels, such as those made from wastes and algae, provide high greenhouse gas emission savings, with low risk of causing indirect land use change, and do not compete directly for agricultural land for the food and feed markets. It is appropriate, therefore, to encourage greater research, development and production of such advanced biofuels as they are currently not commercially available in large quantities”. Recital 15 states that “biofuels made from feedstocks that do not lead to additional demand for land, such as those from waste feedstocks, should be assigned a zero emissions factor.” Article 2(1)(p) establishes that ‘waste’ shall be defined as in Article 3(1) of Directive 2008/98/EC. Article 2(2) explains that when setting policies for the promotion of the production of advanced biofuels, MS “shall have due regard to the waste hierarchy as established in Article 4 of Directive 2008/98/EC, including its provisions regarding life-cycle thinking on the overall impacts of the generation and management of different waste streams”.

Link:

ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD)

European Commission  Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC European Commission 2009 EU

Title (orig.): Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive sets environmental criteria for fossil fuel components such as petrol and diesel. It also determines the permitted level of emissions derived from fossil fuels and includes GHG emission reduction target.

The FQD determines permitted GHG emissions level and reduction targets from fuels. It also sets a sustainability criteria and describes mass-balance system (same as the RED).

Art. 7b sets out sustainability criteria for all biofuels produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they guarantee real GHG savings and protects biodiversity. Art. 7b.1 defines that biofuels produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria in relation to the GHG savings. (Same as the RED).

Art. 7c defines a mass balance system, which allows consignments of raw material or biofuel with differing sustainability characteristics to be mixed and requires information about the sustainability characteristics and sizes of the consignments. (same as the RED)

Art. 7a.2 sets a requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the GHG intensity of energy supplied for road transport by up to 10 % by 2020 (Low Carbon Fuel Standard). This reduction shall consist of: (1) 6 % by 2020 with the intermediate targets: 2 % by 2014 and 4 % 2017; (2) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through: “the supply of energy for transport supplied for use in any type of road vehicle, non-road mobile machinery (including inland waterway vessels), agricultural or forestry tractor or recreational craft” and/or “the use of any technology (including carbon capture and  storage) capable of reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy from fuel or energy supplied”; (3) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through the use of credits purchased through the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, under the conditions set out in Directive 2003/87/EC.

Link:

Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Forest research, Forest Commission  Scottish and England Forestry Strategy Forest research, Forest Commission 2006 UK

Title (orig.): Scottish and England Forestry Strategy

Language: English

Summary:

Use of land degraded by former industrial and urban activity makes an increasingly important contribution to the expansion of woodland. Trees planted on such sites offer immense social benefits in addition to the possibility of economic activity on formerly unproductive land. This programme supports the related objectives of the English Forestry Strategy and across Great Britain generally.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanence of forests and urban trees in England and Scotland

Link:

England Forestry Strategy
The Scottish Forestry Strategy
Forest Reseach: Waste minimisation and utilisation in greenspace creation
Forest Reseach
Forestry commission England
Forestry commission Scotland

Höner, G.  Heating with hedge rows Forstmagazin Top Agrar Online 2017 DE

Title (orig.): Heizen mit Hecken

Language: German

Summary:

In der Ausgabe 2012/2012 des Forstmagazins Topagrar.com wird das Management der Wallheckenpflege durch den Heckenkoordinator im Münsterland beschrieben. Dabei werden die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Heckeneigentümer und Lohnunternehmer, die regionale Vermarktung der Hackschnitzel und der maschinelle Einsatz im Kreis Steinfurt genauer betrachtet.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ressource used for Biomass Assessment of the LCMW type Hedge Rows on Banks (D5.2)

Link:

Onlineartikel Heizen mit Hecken

Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas; Graven, Thomas; Bergs, Claus-Gerhard; Hermann, Tim  Ecologically sustainable recovery of bio-waste Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Ecologically sustainable recovery of bio-waste - Suggestions for policy-makers at local authorities

Language: English, German

Summary:

In order to provide guidance in optimising bio-waste collection and use especially for local policy-makers, this booklet sets out the potential in bio-waste and the technical processes currently available for using the various categories of bio-waste. Furthermore, with the aid of a checklist local policy-makers can estimate whether optimising bio-waste recovery is practical in terms of increasing the amounts collected or the quantity of energy generated on site.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass assessment, energetic and material utilisation, economic and ecologic aspects

Link:

Download of booklet on homepage of BMU

Attachment

Booklet ecologically sustainable recovery of bio-waste (6.56 MB)

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Municipality of Salas  Interreg - Salas Interreg 2009 CZ

Title (orig.): Interreg - Salaš

Language: Czech

Summary:

The Interreg IIIA project was supported to use environmentally clean heating biomass – wood, along with the use of solar collectors for domestic hot water. The basic idea is to utilize local sources of wood (contract with Lesy Czech Republic) for heating houses also reducing emissions from transport. The result of the project is the creation of one job associated with the organization of harvesting, handling, record keeping and billing itself individual participants in the project.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of environmentally clean biomass for heating.

Link:

Interreg - Salas

Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association  Wood heating for hotels and industry Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association 2016 AT

Title (orig.): Holzwärme für Hotels und Gewerbe

Language: German

Summary:

This flyer presents best practice projects in which Austrian hotel companies – from small inns to luxury 5-star wellness hotels – have switched from oil to wood heating. It describes how the change took place, the motivation of the hotel operators and the economic effects of the measure.

Link:

Online Shop of the Austrian Biomass Association to download flyer

Pehlken, Alexandra , et al.   Forming stakeholder alliances to unlock alternative and unused biomass potentials in bioenergy regions Journal of Cleaner Production. 2015, 110, pp. 66–77 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Forming stakeholder alliances to unlock alternative and unused biomass potentials in bioenergy regions

Language: English

Summary:

The Story: Potential of alternative biomass types for energy recovery in two regions in the context of German renewable energy regulation (EEG) was addressed. Two selected regions were represented by two biogas plant operators interested in reducing the amount of maize as biogas substrate in their plants due to the new EEG regulation. In the Dornum region, the mayor, the water association, the biogas producer and citizens of Dornum came together to discuss and define the bioenergy solution for their region. During the discussion, it became clear, how advantageous it is to discuss the situation with the wide spectrum of actors and that there are benefits out of it for all the participants. Similar was the situation in the Ihausen region. Although there were some doubts of using some materials, the biogas plant operator made it clear based on his experience.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of not dedicated cultures for biogas production

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (2.51 MB)

Presenters at the conference  Script of the conference "Biomass to Power and Heat" 1. - 2. 6. 2016 Zittau University of Zittau/Görlitz 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Tagungsband - Beiträge zum Fachkolloquium "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Language: German and English

Summary:

The script of the conference „Biomass to Power and Heat“ 2016 includes the summaries of the 15 expert presentations of this year´s event. The contributions focus on practical introduction, and scientific and economic support for decentralized supply approaches and power generation of wood-like biomass in cogeneration. Accordingly, the presentations cover topics as:

  • biomass from agroforestry
  • new technologies for producing and using pellets
  • spontaneous reactions when storing biomass
  • combined heat and power units with Stirling motor
  • regulation- and monitoring systems for pollution emissions
  • biogas production
  • biochar
  • syngas
  • regional energy markets
  • experiences with different combustibles.

The aims and work of the greenGain project were introduced as well and are summarised in the according chapter of the conference script.

(LCMW) Relevance: Technologies, experiences and new findings in the field of biomass firings. Aline Clalüna from COALS (Landwirtschaftskammer Niedersachsen), partner of the greenGain project, had a presentation at the conference dedicated to the greenGain project (see p. 9 - 13).

Link:

Homepage on conference "Biomass to Power and Heat"

Attachment

Conference script "Biomass to Power and Heat" (22.01 MB)
Flyer with program of the conference (518.18 KB)

Schonhoff, Andreas; Berger, Florian; Khalsa, Jan Hari Arti; Lenz, Volker; Teltewskaja, Gundula; Werner, Hans  Final report of the customized concept for municipal energy carriers Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Schlussbericht für das Verbundvorhaben Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept (IbeKET)

Language: German

Summary:

Endbericht des Verbundvorhaben “Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept” (IbeKET). Zu den konzeptionellen Zielen gehörten die Erarbeitung eines übertragbaren Konzeptes zur Beschaffung, Aufbereitung und energetische Nutzung von Biomasse wie Laub, Grünschnitt und Gewässepflegematerial, sowie das Anstreben einer Umsetzung am Standort der LUTRA GmbH. In technischer Hinsicht sollte grundsätzlich die energetische Nutzung der genannten Reststoffbiomassen unter Einhaltung der gegebenen Rahmenbedingungen ermöglicht werden.

Link:

Dokumentinformation

von der Mühlen & Dietrich  Landscape Management Plan County Friesland Landkreis Friesland 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landkreis Friesland Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplans: Biotopkartierung, Erhebung der gesetzlichen geschützen Biotope, Überprüfen der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung

Language: German

Summary:

Im Juni 2011 wurde durch den Landkreis Friesland die Biotoptypenkartierung auf der Grundlage einer Luftbildinterpretation, die Erfassung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope sowie die Überprüfung der vorliegenden Wallheckenkartierung von 1987 / 88 in Auftrag gegeben. Auftrag war es, eine für das Kreisgebiet flächendeckende Biotoptypenkarte unter Berücksichtigung der gesetzlich geschützten Biotope (§ 30 BNatSchG) als Grundlage für die Fortschreibung des Landschaftsrahmenplanes des Landkreis Friesland zu erstellen. Vorgehensweise und Ergebnisse der Bestandserhebungen werden in diesem Fachbeitrag beschrieben.

(LCMW) Relevance: Ressource used for Biomass Assessment of the LCMW type Hedge Rows on Banks (D5.2)

Link:

Landkreis Friesland

Attachment

Landschaftsrahmenplan Landkreis Friesland (2.84 MB)