A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

ADAS  Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities. ADAS 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities.

Language: English

Summary:

One of the roles of the NNFCC is to develop markets for UK renewable feedstocks. One of these, biomass, has the potential to supply energy for heating, electricity production and as a liquid transport fuel. This report establishes the current scale and location of biomass production in the UK and assesses the potential for increasing biomass production in the future. This report was commissioned by the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of renewable feedstocks markets in UK.

AEA group  UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report DECC 2011 UK

Title (orig.): UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Language: English

Summary:

This report examines potential biomass supply in the UK between 2010 and 2030, given current constraints and the potential to address some of these constraints. It examines the supply side issues only and does not consider constraints on the conversion and use of biomass. The analysis examined the situation to 2030, based on forward estimates of potential biomass supply and included three international development scenarios: business as usual; high investment; and low development. The resource estimated for 2030 is not available now in many cases; a significant proportion of the supply in 2030 would require considerable investment to become available.

(LCMW) Relevance: Forward estimates of potential biomass supply included three international development scenarios

Link:

UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Arodudu, Oludunsin, et al.  Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators Elsevier Ltd. 2014 DE, NL, NG

Title (orig.): Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators

Language: English

Summary:

The production of bioenergy is dependent on the supply of biomass. Biomass production for bioenergy may cause large land use conversions, impact agricultural production, food prices, forest conservation, etc. The best solution is to use biomass that does not have agricultural or ecological value. Some of such unconventional sources of biomass are found within urban spaces. We employed Geographic Information System (GIS) and quantitative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas. Net Energy Gain (NEG) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI) were used as indicators to assess the bioenergy potential of urban spaces within the Overijssel province of the Netherlands as a case study. Data regarding suitable areas were geometrically extracted from available GIS datasets, and used to estimate the biomass/bioenergy potential of different species with different yields per hectare, growing under different environmental conditions. We found that potential net-energy gain from built-up areas can meet 0.6–7.7% of the 2030 renewable energy targets of the province without conflicting with socio-ecological concerns, while also improving human habitat.

(LCMW) Relevance: Methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas.

BAFU & BFE  Energy potencial of wood outside the forest: Study commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment and the Federal Office of Energy BAFU & BFE 2009 DE

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale ausserhalb des Waldes; Studie im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Umwelt BAFU und des Bundesamtes für Energie BFE

Language: German

Summary:

In der Schweiz steigt die Nachfrage nach Energieholz. Aus diesem Grund wird auch ausserhalb des Waldes anfallendes Holz vermehrt genutzt. Bisher liegen kaum Informationen darüber vor, wie viel Holz ausserhalb des Waldes nachwächst und wie dieses Flurholz verwertet wird. Die vorliegende Studie trägt dazu bei, diese Lücke zu schliessen. Ein wichtiger Aspekt ist dabei die Potenziale an Flurholz in der Schweiz abzuschätzen. Weiter wurde untersucht, wie Flurholz verwertet wird und mit welchen finanziellen Aufwendungen und Erträgen die Bewirtschaftung von Flurgehölzen verbunden ist.

(LCMW) Relevance: Study on energy potencial of wood outside the forest.

Barbera, Federica; Pais, Bárbara  Socio-Economic and Environmental Responsible Models for Sustainable Biomass Exploitation in European Protected Areas BioEUParks 2016 EU

Title (orig.): Socio-Economic and Environmental Responsible Models for Sustainable Biomass Exploitation in European Protected Areas

Language: English

Summary:

Final report (D1.2) of the BioEUParks project (2012 – 2016) : Exploiting the potentialities of solid biomasses in EU Parks.

BioEUParks project borns to answer to a crucial question: how to match nature and biodiversity conservation with sustainable exploitation of woody biomass for energy purpose?

Link:

Socio-economic and environmental responsible models for sustainable biomass exploitation in european protected areas

Barcelona  Management of biodiversity and green areas Barcelona 2011 ES

Title (orig.): Barcelona website

Language: EN

Summary:

Green spaces in the city of Barcelona are  of a big importance. On its website, a lot of information about it can be found regarding the use of natural resources, maintenance of the parks and gardens which generate biomass that is recycled by turning it into compost, an organic fertilizer for the green spaces in Barcelona.

Link:

Ecology, Urban Planning and Mobility Area (website)
Street Tree Management in Barcelona (brochure)

Baum et. al.  Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review Vizja Press&IT 2012 PL

Title (orig.): Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

Language: English

Link:

Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

Baur, Frank; Faßbender, Beate; Frantzen, Jörg; Speck, Mike; Springer, Mikael; Trapp, Manuel; Weiler, Katja; Wern, Bernhard; Ziegler, Claudia; Gebhard, Ralf  Biomass potential analysis for the Saarland Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Verkehr des Saarlands 2011 DE

Title (orig.): Biomasse-Potenzialanalyse für das Saarland - Der Teilplan Biomasse zum Masterplan Neue Energie

Language: German

Summary:

A master plan “New Energy” has been developed in the German Saarland in order to describe the path to a sustainable energy supply, including the possibilities and necessary measures to be taken. The plan based, inter alia, on the regional potential for expansion of renewable energies. To this end, a range of potential analyses were carried out, the results of which are presented for the biomass sector as part of this report.

Link:

Download on homepage of the Institut for Future Energy Systems

Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde  Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings (green cuttings, leaves, wood) in the bioenergy region Ludwigsfelde RegioFutur 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Endbericht „Potentiale und Möglichkeiten der energetischen Verwertung von kommunalem Begleitgrün (Grünschnitt, Laub, Holz) in der Bioenergie-Region Ludwigsfelde Plus+

Language: German

(LCMW) Relevance: Final report on "potential and possibilities of energy recovery from urban green cuttings.

Bioenergy Promotion  Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance Bioenergy Promotion 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance

Language: English

Summary:

Rotenburg (Wümme) County supports renewable energy mainly from biogas and woody resources through a strategy which was founded in 2007 and acts as a platform for commuication and information among related actors. This strategy is supported by addressing renwable energy in all mandatory publc planning like the Regional Development Plan (under renewal in 2014), the Regional Landscape Plan and the Concept for Climate Protection. Moreover, forestry-related, mostly EU-co-financed support schemes like site mapping, forest inventory and investment support provide good opportunities for assessment and utilisation of woody biomass, taking sustainability principles into account. A close cooperation exists between three local forest owners associations, which can form a basis for resliable supply of wood as an energy carrier.

(LCMW) Relevance: Project partner - greenGain.

BMU & UBA  Ecologically sensible recycling of biowaste; Suggestions for municipal decision makers BMU & UBA 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Ökologisch sinnvolle Verwertung von Bioabfällen; Anregungen für kommunale Entscheidungsträger

Language: German

Summary:

Die Bundesregierung will bis spätestens 2020 die Emission treibhausrelevanter Gase in Deutschland um 40 Prozent gegenüber 1990 reduzieren. Ziele, die sich nur durch eine nachhaltige Energiewirtschaft – der Einsparung von Energie, der regenerativen Energieerzeugung und einen effizienteren Energieeinsatz – erreichen lassen. Angesichts dieser hochgesteckten Ziele ist zu prüfen, welchen Beitrag die Abfallwirtschaft, und hierbei auch die Bioabfälle zur Erreichung
der Ressourcen-, Energie- und Klimaziele, künftig zusätzlich noch leisten kann.

(LCMW) Relevance: Recycling of biowaste.

Bratkovich Steve , Bowyer Jim, Fernholz Kathryn and Alison Lindburg  Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters Alliance for Community Trees 2008 USA

Title (orig.): Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters

Language: EN

Summary:

Comprehensive article about the problematic of treatment of urban wood in the USA.

Link:

Urban Tree Utilization and Why It Matters

Bratkovich, Steve , et al.  Urban Forests & Urban Tree Use Opportunities on Local, State, National and International Scales DOVETAIL PARTNERS, INC. 2014 USA

Title (orig.): Urban Forests & Urban Tree Use Opportunities on Local, State, National and International Scales

Language: English

Summary:

This report focuses on urban forestry (urban forest management) as it is practiced in urban areas as defined by the Bureau of the Census. These areas include urbanized areas with populations of 50,000 or more, places that contain some urbanized areas within their boundaries, or places with at least 2,500 people and located outside of urbanized areas. Community forestry is a phrase that can mean one thing in Mexico or Nepal, and different things in the United States. For example, in the Pacific Northwest, where the federal government is the major landowner, community forestry might refer to the process by which loggers, environmentalists, and others come together to craft a vision for the management of public lands. In New England, community forestry can mean the management of predominantly rural town forests by local municipalities. In this report, community forestry and urban forestry are used interchangeably to describe tree and forestry activities practiced in population centers, whether large or small.

(LCMW) Relevance: This report focuses on urban forestry (urban forest management).

Britton, Renée Bradford  The potential for CO2 reduction of energetically used landscape conservation materials and green waste in the county Marburg - Biedenkopf, Germany Kassel University, Kassel, Germany and Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (Master thesis) 2013 DE

Title (orig.): The potential for CO2 reduction of energetically used landscape conservation materials and green waste in the county Marburg - Biedenkopf, Germany

Language: EN

Summary:

The goal of this thesis is to ascertain the annual average amount of green waste available from LCMW and to determine the potential of its energetic use and its positive contribution to the climate targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Key messages and data for greenGain Approaches: Bio-waste management analysis in Marburg-Biedenkopf Literature review on relevant energy-conversion technology Overview on green waste in Germany, key stakeholders of the energetic use Importance of logistic for the use of green residues Determining the potential of the green residues for the energy utilisation (yield of methane) Tool for modelling CO2 emissions Case scenario for Marburg-Biedenkopf: coal vs. grass plant Transferability of the concept to Jamaican context.

Link:

Thesis
Presentation

Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU) & Bundesamt für Energie (BFE)  Energy wood potentials outside of the forest in Switzerland Ernst Basler + Partner AG 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

The aim of this study is to assess the potential amount of meadow wood (= wood growing on areas outside of forests) in Switzerland, how it is currently used and what gains and costs occur. The authors defined five sources for meadow wood (along roads, along rivers and lakes, urban green, hedgerows and agricultural areas). They used a GIS-model and conducted expert interviews for the data collection. The study showed that on 10 % of Switzerland’s area meadow wood is growing (400 000 ha) and that 420 000 t TS per year can be sustainably used. Over 80 % of the meadow wood is on urban or agricultural are and mostly in the region of the Swiss midland. Of today’s use only 54 % are used for energetic purposes, 39 % are left on the site and 7 % is used for material production. The profits and costs differ strongly between the regions. In some regions, the same material is sold and in others, disposal charges have to be paid.

(LCMW) Relevance: Broad overview of the situation of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Energieholzpotenziale außerhalb des Waldes (PDF)
Holzenergie (website)

Butler Manning, David; Bemann, Albrecht; Bredemeier, Michael; Lamersdorf, Norbert; Ammer, Christian  Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas Wiley-VCH 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas

Language: English

Summary:

This book shows the major reasearch foundings of the projects AgroForNet: Linking the Producers and Consumers of Woodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas and BEST: Strengthening Bioenergy Regions. In stand-alone scientific research papers the latest knowledge on cultivation of dendromass for bioenergy purposes in Germany is presented in the context of international research. Different aspects are covered, among other i) environmental constraints, landscape functions, ecosystem services; ii) evaluating, managing and enhancing the supply of dendromass; and iii) socio-economic and legal aspects fo dendromass for bioenergy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Examples of frameworks for the development of woodfuel-based service systems and supply chains

Carlini, Maurizio , et al.  Waste Wood Biomass Arising from Pruning of Urban Green in Viterbo Town: Energy Characterization and Potential Uses Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2013 IT

Title (orig.): Waste Wood Biomass Arising from Pruning of Urban Green in Viterbo Town: Energy Characterization and Potential Uses

Language: English

Summary:

The use of residual biomass arising from urban green pruning for energy production is a current and interesting subject for three main reasons: to achieve the aims of the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels and to manage the urban green in a sustainable way.The aim of this study is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of waste wood biomass from urban green pruning in Viterbo in order to use it for energy production. Moisture, ash, C, H, N contents and Calorific Value analysis are carried out. Starting from the results analysis, two energy uses are proposed: wood-chips boiler and gasification.

(LCMW) Relevance: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of waste wood biomass from urban green pruning.

CertiQ (formerly the Green Certificate Body)  Green Certificate Trading Ministry of Economic Affairs 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Green Certificate Trading

Language: English

Summary:

To promote green energy on the national electricity market, the Netherlands in 2001 established a tradable green certificates program. In a green certificate system, the credits function as an accounting system to verify whether demand has been met or, when there is no demand, to measure the amount of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES-E). Secondly, certification facilitates trade: through the establishment of green certificates (GCs) a separate market for the renewable characteristic of the electricity will originate besides the market for physical electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Green Certificate Trading

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Cremer, Tobias  Mobilisation and economical utilization of raw wood from forests and landscape for energy production DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Language: DE

Summary:

The aim of this project was to develop and implement optimised mobilisation, supply and logistic concepts for energy wood from forests and LCMW biomass for a concrete region. Existing and innovative technologies and organisational approaches for the supply of energy wood were further developed and combined. During this process, all affected regional actors were involved.

(LCMW) Relevance: A new approach for the assessment of the potential of LCMW biomass for energetic use was described.

Link:

Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung