A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 127/2013 establishing industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n. 127/2013 de 30 de Agosto

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, consisting of 9 Chapters and 8 Annexes, establishes industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution. In particular, it establishes the regime for industrial emissions applicable to prevention and integrated control of pollution, as well as norms and requirements to avoid or reduce any kind of emission or production of waste in soil, water and air in order to reach a high level of environmental protection, transferring to National legislation the EU Parliament and Council Directive No. 2010/75 related to industrial emissions. Annexes specify residue limits and environmental quality standards to be met and authorised activities to be performed within the National territory.

Link:

Factsheet: Industrial emissions

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Wood Energy Programme Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Wood Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

For domestic heating, the programme seeks to maintain the same national wood consumption by 2006 and to improve the energy and environmental efficiency of wood combustion. It includes a communication plan for supporting best practices in wood combustion for public/privates operators. Quality labels have been established with manufacturers for wood devices.

Link:

Wood Energy Programme

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Heat Fund Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 2008 FR

Title (orig.): Heat Fund

Language: English

Summary:

The Heat Fund was implemented in order to support the production of heat from renewable resources and recovered energy. This system of support for investment is one of the commitments of the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund’s goal is to support 5.5 Mtoe production of renewable heat between 2009 and 2020; this number represents more than a quarter of the renewable energy production target of 20 Mtoe by 2020 set by the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund mainly supports the development of the use of biomass (forestry, agriculture, production and thermal recovery of biogas, etc.), geothermal energy, heat pumps and solar thermal. The targetted sectors are collective housing, tertiary, agriculture and industry. By encouraging the use of renewable energy by heating networks, the Heat Fund will also have an important social impact (reduction and stabilisation of heating bills of essentially social housing) and directly encourage overall diversification of the energy supply.The Heat Fund intervention methods are:- for large scale biomass facilities (production of renewable heat greater than 1 000 toe/year) in the industrial, agricultural and tertiary sectors: there is an annual national call for projects. Four calls for projects have been already launched and a fifth one will be launched in September 2012.- for all other sectors (including residential), and for biomass facilities between 100 and 1000 toe/year, the Heat Fund is managed by the ADEME at regional level with regional calls for projects. It complements aid currently granted in the context of State-Region Project Contracts.

Link:

Heat Fund

Baur, Frank; Faßbender, Beate; Frantzen, Jörg; Speck, Mike; Springer, Mikael; Trapp, Manuel; Weiler, Katja; Wern, Bernhard; Ziegler, Claudia; Gebhard, Ralf  Biomass potential analysis for the Saarland Ministerium für Umwelt, Energie und Verkehr des Saarlands 2011 DE

Title (orig.): Biomasse-Potenzialanalyse für das Saarland - Der Teilplan Biomasse zum Masterplan Neue Energie

Language: German

Summary:

A master plan “New Energy” has been developed in the German Saarland in order to describe the path to a sustainable energy supply, including the possibilities and necessary measures to be taken. The plan based, inter alia, on the regional potential for expansion of renewable energies. To this end, a range of potential analyses were carried out, the results of which are presented for the biomass sector as part of this report.

Link:

Download on homepage of the Institut for Future Energy Systems

Bulgarian Ministry of Finance  Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act Bulgarian Ministry of Finance 2013 BG

Title (orig.): Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

Language: English

Summary:

Tax regulation mechanism: A reduced rate of excise duty is applied to unleaded petrol or gas oil if a share of 4 to 5% of bioethanol or biodiesel has been added.

Link:

Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

CertiQ (formerly the Green Certificate Body)  Green Certificate Trading Ministry of Economic Affairs 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Green Certificate Trading

Language: English

Summary:

To promote green energy on the national electricity market, the Netherlands in 2001 established a tradable green certificates program. In a green certificate system, the credits function as an accounting system to verify whether demand has been met or, when there is no demand, to measure the amount of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES-E). Secondly, certification facilitates trade: through the establishment of green certificates (GCs) a separate market for the renewable characteristic of the electricity will originate besides the market for physical electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Green Certificate Trading

Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI  Action plan for coordinated energy research Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI 2013 CH

Title (orig.): Action plan for coordinated energy research

Language: English

Link:

Action plan for coordinated energy research

Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment  Building Renovation Program Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Building Renovation Program

Language: English

Link:

Building Renovation Program

Conrady et. al.  Landscape management without shepherd? – Results based on the pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” Thüringer Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Forsten, Umwelt und Naturschutz 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer? - Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt "Biodiversität und Energieholz"

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” examines the use of wood from landscape management for energy production to maintain the natural value of open habitats with their important biodiversity in cultural landscapes. Since 2009, different methods of timber harvesting have been tested on up to 34 areas in Brandenburg and Thuringia in Germany – with a special focus on cost reduction, economic efficiency and environmental compatibility. The project shows the benefit of combining efforts to maintain open habitats in our cultural landscape with using harvested woody biomass as fuel wood. This benefit was visible already after the first few measures – economically and ecologically.

(LCMW) Relevance: Hederows on banks, nature protection, landscape management

Link:

Download portal for single chapters of conference script "The steppe habitats in Europe - Hazards, conservation measures and protection"

Attachment

PDF Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer (323.30 KB)

Croatian Energy Market Operator  Croatia Feed in tariff Croatian Energy Market Operator 2011 HR

Title (orig.): Croatia Feed in tariff

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariff. RES-E plant operators, which have been classified as “qualified producers” and have signed a contract with the Croatian Energy Market Operator (HROTE), are paid a fixed price per kWh of electricity supplied.

Moreover the following support schemes are available

HBOR-Loans. The loans granted for the employment of RES-E technologies are part of the “environmental protection” loan scheme by the Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development (HBOR) in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Fund and business banks.

Environmental Fund-Loans. The Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency offers interest-free loans for the promotion of renewable energy sources.

In general, all RES-E technologies are eligible for all incentive schemes

Link:

Tariffs for RES and CHP electricity

Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources  Bioenergy action plan Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy action plan

Language: English

Summary:

Comprehensive strategy for the 2007-2013 period to increase the deployment of renewable energy across three key sectors: transport, heat and electricity and aims to cut Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2 million tonnes per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy action plan of Ireland

Link:

Online PDF
Online source

Department Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl), works for Dutch governments and European Union  Stimulation of Sustainable Energy Production, SDE+ Department Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl), works for Dutch governments and European Union 2015 NL

Title (orig.): Stimulering duurzame energie, SDE+

Language: English

Summary:

The SDE+ is an incentive for the production of renewable energy in the Netherlands. Renewable energy is generated from clean, inexhaustible sources. In 2015, the SDE+ is open from 31 March from 9 am to 17 December 2015, 5 pm.

The SDE+ scheme grants a premium on top of the market price to the producers of renewable energy in order to compensate for the difference between the wholesale price of electricity from fossil sources and the price of electricity from renewable sources. The SDE+ is aimed at companies and (non-profit) organizations that would like to produce renewable energy.

The sum of the premium, paid on top of the market price, is variable and depends on the annual electricity market price development and is adjusted by a correction value accordingly (art. 13 (5) SDE+). The premium is paid for a period of 5, 12 or 15 years. The support is made available in 6 stages and is allocated on a ‘first come, first serve’ basis. The scheme’s budget was capped at € 3.5 billion for 2014.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

SDE+ Brochure

Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR)  Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff 2 and 3 (REFIT 2 and 3) Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR) 2010 IE

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff 2 and 3 (REFIT 2 and 3)

Language: English

Summary:

Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff (REFIT) scheme in Ireland is split into two programmes: REFIT 2 and REFIT 3. REFIT 2 programme was opened in March 2012 and covers small and large scale onshore wind, biomass landfill gas and small hydro (≤ 5MW). REFIT 3 programme opened in February 2012 and supports anaerobic digestion, biomass with CHP and biomass combustion and co-firing. The REFIT 2 and REFIT 3 competitions are separate schemes with separate terms and conditions in respect to each scheme. Both schemes close down to new applications on 31st December 2015 or if the capacity caps in both programmes will be reached before that date. REFIT capacity cap is 4,000MW and REFIT 3 has an overall limit of 310 MW, differentiated by technology:

  • Anaerobic digestion (including AD CHP): 50MW
  • Biomass CHP: 100MW
  • Biomass combustion (including co-firing with peat): 160MW.

FIT contracts are awarded for period of 15 years (both for REFIT 2 and REFIT 3). Projects benefiting from REFIT programmes must be operational by 2017. The financial support awarded through REFIT will not exceed beyond 31st December 2032.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on biomass production in Ireland

Link:

IEA online

Department of Environment  National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions Ministry of sustainable Development and Infrastructure 2000 LU

Title (orig.): National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

Language: English

Summary:

In May 2000, the government issued a National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions. The report stresses the need to ensure sustainable development and to set up a medium-term plan. The report recommends six categories of actions:

  • To ensure that electricity from renewable energies will amount to at least 10% of final electricity consumption by 2010
  • To improve energy efficiency in energy generation
  • To increase energy savings
  • To set an eco-tax progressively
  • To curb the increase in road transport
  • To rely on flexible mechanism allowed by Kyoto Protocol

On top of that, Plan lists 29 measures, some of which have been already envisaged in the National Plan on Sustainable Development from 1999.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energies

Link:

National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

Dept of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Dept of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources 2010 IE

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

Ireland’s overall target is 16% of gross final energy consumption to come from renewable sources by 2020 (3.1% in 2005). This 16% target will be made up of contributions from renewable energy in electricity (RES-E), renewable energy in transport (RES-T) and renewable energy for heat and cooling (RES-H). The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) sets out the Government’s strategic approach and concrete measures to deliver on Ireland’s 16% target under Directive 2009/28/EC.

(LCMW) Relevance: National Renewable Energy Action Plan of Ireland

Link:

National action plan online
SEAI online

Directorate General for Energy and Climate  Tax credit for energy transition (CITE) Directorate General for Energy and Climate 2005 FR

Title (orig.): Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Language: English

Summary:

In 2005, the government recalibrated the tax credits for purchases of equipment for primary residences (Article 200 of the General Tax Code) to promote both sustainable development and energy conservation. Specifications regarding equipment covered were modified in 2006 and 2007, to account for technological change. These were modified again in 2009, when the credit was extended to 31 December 2012 (from end of 2009). To be eligible for the tax credits the building in which the equipment is used must be a primary residence and at least two years old; for renewable energy equipment the building can be new or old. The tax credits are as follows: – 15% for purchases of low-temperature boilers; (until 31 December 2008) – 25% for purchases of condensation boilers, thermal insulation and heating regulation devices; This amount increases to 40% if: a) the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners; b) the material was purchased after 1 January 2006. Since 2009, the installation costs for thermal insulation of walls, floors, roofs and ceilings are also covered by the tax credit. – 40% for energy production equipment using renewable energy and heat pumps devoted primarily to heat production; Increased to 50% for renewable energy used for heating as of 1 January 2006. However the credit for heat pumps decreases to 40% in 2009 and 25% in 2010 for biomass or wood boilers, and heat pumps. It remains at 40% if the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners. Air-air heat pumps are excluded as of 1 January 2009. -50% for obtaining an energy audit, when not required by law (as of 1 January 2009, limited to one audit every 5 years); -25% for the purchase of equipment and heating systems drawing the majority of their power from cogeneration or renewable energy sources (as of 1 January 2006); The tax credit is limited to EUR 8000 per person, EUR 16 000 for a couple and EUR 400 for each additional dependent.

Since 2005 and the Programme Law setting the directions of the energy policy (POPE), privateindividuals have been able to benefit from a tax credit for the purchase of the most efficient materials or equipment in terms of saving energy or generating renewable energy.From 1st July 2015, the CIDD will be subject to an eco-conditionality criterion: the work must be performed by installers that hold the quality sign “recognised Grenelle de l’environnement”.Between 2005 and 2011, over 6 million of the 34 million primary residences in metropolitan France benefited from the CIDD at least once.

Link:

Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-Law No. 34/2011 of 8 March - legal framework for RES-E generation by small power installations or plants Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.° 34/2011 de 8 de Março

Language: English

Summary:

This decree-law establishes the legal framework for renewable energy generation by small power installations or plants (miniproduction units). A miniproduction unit is defined as an installation that uses a single production technology and has a capacity of up to 250 kW (art. 1 DL 34/2011). Any entity that has a contract for purchasing electricity with a relevant consumption of electricity can apply to this law, provided that injected power does not exceed 50% of the contracted power. A special tariff is provided to installations with a capacity below 20 kW. For biogas and biomass installations in case of miniproduction, 60% of the reference tariff is provided (art 11(7) DL34/2011). The tariffs are limited to 15 years, the maximum production may not exceed 5 MWh/year and the annual maximum capacity eligible for the tariff is 30 MW in 2013 (art 11). Currently the regime is being discussed by the government.

Link:

Factsheet: RES-E in small power installations

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-Law No. 363/2007 of 2 November - legal framework for renewable electricity generated by ‘microproduction units Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.° 363/2007 de 2 de Novembro

Language: English

Summary:

This decree-law establishes the legal framework for renewable energy generation by ‘microproduction units’. A microproduction unit is defined as an installation that uses a single production technology and a single-phase or three-phase load operating at low voltage and has a capacity of up to 5.75 kW (art. 3 DL 118-A/2010). It provides for a simplified licensing regime for local grid connected, low-voltage, small/residential renewable energy producers. Licensing is conducted through the internet, via the System of Registration of Microproducers (SRM), an electronic platform through which producers register their installations. Micro producers cannot inject more than 50 % of the power mentioned in the purchasing contract, except in the case of installations for condominiums. The tariffs are limited to 15 years, the maximum production may not exceed 4 MWh/year and the annual maximum capacity eligible for the tariff is 11 MW in 2013 (art 1 DL 118-A/2010). Currently the regime is being discussed by the government.

Link:

Factsheet: RE in microproduction units

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-Law No. 189/1988 of 27 May - Feed-in tariff Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.° 189/88 de 27 de Maio - Tarifas feed-in

Language: English

Summary:

Decree-Law No. 189/1988 of 27 May – Feed-in tariff. In Portugal, the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Decree-Law No. 189/88 regulates the generation of renewable electricity. DL 225/2007, DL 33A-2005 and DR 71/2007 amended the provisions on the feed-in tariff for electricity from renewable sources. The guaranteed feed-in tariff is the only promotion mechanism. The amount of incentive is dependent on the energy source. Using a coefficient Z (DL 339-C/2001) the FiT is varied according to the technology used. Currently the regime is being discussed by the government. For biogas (fermentation of municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, agricultural and food waste and landfill gas) the support in provided for 15 years, for biomass (forest and animal biomass) the support is provided for 25 years. In case of micro- or miniproduction a separate degree is in force, respectively 363/2007 and 34/2011.

Link:

Factsheet: Feed-in tariff

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-law 23/2010 of 25 March Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2010 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-lei 23/2010 de 25 de Março

Language: English

Summary:

Decree-law 23/2010 introduced the legal framework for cogeneration activities and a remunerative framework for operators. As such it implements the directive 2004/8/EC of February 11 of the European parliament and council on the promotion of cogeneration which amended directive 92/42/EEC of May 21. It aims to increase energy efficiency and security of supply by creating a framework for the promotion and development of high efficiency cogeneration of heat and electricity based on useful heat demand and primary energy savings in the internal energy market. This law regulates the activity of cogeneration, establishing its legal status and remuneration. The tariff is based on two modalities, according to the choice of cogeneration, accessible to efficient cogeneration and high efficiency cogeneration. Incentives are provided based on three criteria: reduction of primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions compared with the separate production of electric and thermal energy; cogeneration production that is efficient and uses renewable resources; and promoting the participation of cogeneration in the electricity market. At least 50% of primary energy consumed must come from renewable resources.

Link:

Factsheet: Cogeneration