A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

ADAS  Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities. ADAS 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities.

Language: English

Summary:

One of the roles of the NNFCC is to develop markets for UK renewable feedstocks. One of these, biomass, has the potential to supply energy for heating, electricity production and as a liquid transport fuel. This report establishes the current scale and location of biomass production in the UK and assesses the potential for increasing biomass production in the future. This report was commissioned by the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of renewable feedstocks markets in UK.

AEA group  UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report DECC 2011 UK

Title (orig.): UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Language: English

Summary:

This report examines potential biomass supply in the UK between 2010 and 2030, given current constraints and the potential to address some of these constraints. It examines the supply side issues only and does not consider constraints on the conversion and use of biomass. The analysis examined the situation to 2030, based on forward estimates of potential biomass supply and included three international development scenarios: business as usual; high investment; and low development. The resource estimated for 2030 is not available now in many cases; a significant proportion of the supply in 2030 would require considerable investment to become available.

(LCMW) Relevance: Forward estimates of potential biomass supply included three international development scenarios

Link:

UK and Global Bioenergy Resource – Final report

Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 127/2013 establishing industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente - Portuguese Environmental Agency 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n. 127/2013 de 30 de Agosto

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, consisting of 9 Chapters and 8 Annexes, establishes industrial emission requirements to prevent soil, water and air pollution. In particular, it establishes the regime for industrial emissions applicable to prevention and integrated control of pollution, as well as norms and requirements to avoid or reduce any kind of emission or production of waste in soil, water and air in order to reach a high level of environmental protection, transferring to National legislation the EU Parliament and Council Directive No. 2010/75 related to industrial emissions. Annexes specify residue limits and environmental quality standards to be met and authorised activities to be performed within the National territory.

Link:

Factsheet: Industrial emissions

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Wood Energy Programme Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Wood Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

For domestic heating, the programme seeks to maintain the same national wood consumption by 2006 and to improve the energy and environmental efficiency of wood combustion. It includes a communication plan for supporting best practices in wood combustion for public/privates operators. Quality labels have been established with manufacturers for wood devices.

Link:

Wood Energy Programme

Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME)  Heat Fund Agency for the Environment and Energy Resources (ADEME) 2008 FR

Title (orig.): Heat Fund

Language: English

Summary:

The Heat Fund was implemented in order to support the production of heat from renewable resources and recovered energy. This system of support for investment is one of the commitments of the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund’s goal is to support 5.5 Mtoe production of renewable heat between 2009 and 2020; this number represents more than a quarter of the renewable energy production target of 20 Mtoe by 2020 set by the Grenelle Environment Forum.The Heat Fund mainly supports the development of the use of biomass (forestry, agriculture, production and thermal recovery of biogas, etc.), geothermal energy, heat pumps and solar thermal. The targetted sectors are collective housing, tertiary, agriculture and industry. By encouraging the use of renewable energy by heating networks, the Heat Fund will also have an important social impact (reduction and stabilisation of heating bills of essentially social housing) and directly encourage overall diversification of the energy supply.The Heat Fund intervention methods are:- for large scale biomass facilities (production of renewable heat greater than 1 000 toe/year) in the industrial, agricultural and tertiary sectors: there is an annual national call for projects. Four calls for projects have been already launched and a fifth one will be launched in September 2012.- for all other sectors (including residential), and for biomass facilities between 100 and 1000 toe/year, the Heat Fund is managed by the ADEME at regional level with regional calls for projects. It complements aid currently granted in the context of State-Region Project Contracts.

Link:

Heat Fund

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economic Affairs, European Comission 2010 NL

Title (orig.): Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

Netherlands 2020 targets:

  • Overall target: 14.5% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 9% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 37% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 10% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to achieve above enlisted targets Netherlands established comprehensive legal and administrative framework nurturing deployment of renewables with a number of complementary financial, fiscal and promotional measures:

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets

Link:

Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling Ministry of Economic Affairs 2006 NL

Title (orig.): Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Language: English

Summary:

Upon its publication in the EU Official Journal on 4 January 2003, the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) entered into EU law, allowing member states until 4 January 2006 to transpose the Directive into domestic building codes. The Directives principal objectives are: To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU through cost effective measures; To promote the convergence of building standards towards those of Member States which already have ambitious levels. Measures include: Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings; Application of performance standards on new and existing buildings; Certification schemes for all buildings; Regular inspection and assessment of boilers/heating and cooling installations. The Netherlands transposed into national law these measures, along with a building labelling scheme designed to encourage property buyers to choose property using relatively less fossil energy – either through integrated renewable energy generation or the buildings energy efficiency.

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy generation and the buildings energy efficiency

Link:

Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  International Energy Programme Ministry of Economic Affairs 2010 NL

Title (orig.): International Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

The Dutch government initiated the International Energy Programme, a research co-operation partnership, to further benefit from international experience and knowledge in the field of sustainable energy policies. The backbone of the programme is knowledge management and international networking. The Energy Programme aims to enhance Dutch national policies through information sharing and international co-operation, especially with focus countries namely Russia, Romania, Ukraine and China.

(LCMW) Relevance: Sustainable energy policies

Link:

International Energy Programme

Alexander van der Jagt and Anna Lawrence  Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission 2015 GB

Title (orig.): Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities

Language: English

Summary:

Forest Research is the Research Agency of the Forestry Commission and is the leading UK organisation engaged in forestry and tree related research. The Agency aims to support and enhance forestry and its role in sustainable development by providing innovative, high quality scientific research, technical support and consultancy services.

Forest Research (FR) was commissioned to provide a snapshot of the state of urban tree management by local authorities in Scotland in a study entitled Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns (TWIST). Research themes were identified in partnership with a steering group comprising members of Forestry Commission Scotland, Arboricultural Association and several Scottish local authorities. To address these, FR carried out interviews with tree officers from nine local authorities, focusing on tree management in specific towns, examining tree stock of varying size and age; and analysing relevant documents such as tree strategies. This was supplemented with a short survey distributed to all 32 Scottish local authorities (response rate: 69%).

Some positive examples are highlighted, and opportunities to address the status quo are identified, for example improving data, learning from success, involving communities in urban trees and woodland management and enhancing socio-economic valuations of trees and woodlands.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanace and utilization of forest biomass

Link:

Trees and Woods in Scottish Towns: The role of Local Authorities

Attachment

Anders, Kenneth; Fischer, Lars  Woody roads into a new landscape? Aufland Verlag 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Holzwege in eine neue Landschaft? - Perspektiven für holzige Biomasse aus der Sicht von Akteuren

Language: German

Summary:

Within the scope of the AgroForNet research network, the Landscape Communication Agency has conducted extensive surveys on short-term plantations, material from landscape maintenance and forestry residuals as well as other uses of woody biomass in German landscapes between 2010 and 2013. These were supplemented by research on historical agroforest systems, middle and low forests. From this material, the authors compiled a reading book, which supports the question of the future of these land use forms with the existing practices. The book is a snapshot of high landscape dynamics and a catalog of diverse possibilities to shape one’s own landscape and to create new value-creating relationships.

(LCMW) Relevance: Best practice examples of roles of stakeholders when using LCMW biomass

Link:

Purchase book

Baumgartner, Hansjakob  Also in meadows grows energy wood Federal Office for Environment (CH), Magazine "Umwelt" 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Language: DE - CH

Summary:

Meadows enrich the landscape among other also by providing important habitats for animals and plants. To fulfil this function on a long term regular maintenance work is necessary. The resulting woody biomass has a high potential to contribute to a climate neutral energy potential.

(LCMW) Relevance: In the city of Bern, biomass coming from LCMW is nearly completely used for energetic purposes. Description of the use of LCMW biomass in Switzerland.

Link:

Aktionsplan Holz: Auch in der Flur wächst Energieholz

Bioenergy Promotion  Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance Bioenergy Promotion 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance

Language: English

Summary:

Rotenburg (Wümme) County supports renewable energy mainly from biogas and woody resources through a strategy which was founded in 2007 and acts as a platform for commuication and information among related actors. This strategy is supported by addressing renwable energy in all mandatory publc planning like the Regional Development Plan (under renewal in 2014), the Regional Landscape Plan and the Concept for Climate Protection. Moreover, forestry-related, mostly EU-co-financed support schemes like site mapping, forest inventory and investment support provide good opportunities for assessment and utilisation of woody biomass, taking sustainability principles into account. A close cooperation exists between three local forest owners associations, which can form a basis for resliable supply of wood as an energy carrier.

(LCMW) Relevance: Project partner - greenGain.

Bioenergy Promotion project  Country Policy Assessment Report on Bioenergy 2011 Interreg IVB 2011 LV

Title (orig.): Country Policy Assessment Report on Bioenergy 2011

Language: English

Link:

Country policy assessment report from Latvia

Attachment

PDF (909.74 KB)

BIOMASS Energy Centre  Overview of grants and incentives to encourage bioenergy use and development BIOMASS Energy Centre 2016 UK

Title (orig.): Overview of grants and incentives to encourage bioenergy use and development

Language: English

Summary:

The use of biomass as an energy source can have numerous benefits personally, locally, nationally and globally.  Many countries, including the UK, offer a range of grants and incentives to encourage its use and development. For convenience grants and support are divided into those that help support the purchase, installation or development of equipment, those that support the fuels supply chain, and those that provide consultancy and advice.

(LCMW) Relevance: Overview of grants and incentives to encourage bioenergy use and development

Link:

Online sources

BMU & UBA  Ecologically sensible recycling of biowaste; Suggestions for municipal decision makers BMU & UBA 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Ökologisch sinnvolle Verwertung von Bioabfällen; Anregungen für kommunale Entscheidungsträger

Language: German

Summary:

Die Bundesregierung will bis spätestens 2020 die Emission treibhausrelevanter Gase in Deutschland um 40 Prozent gegenüber 1990 reduzieren. Ziele, die sich nur durch eine nachhaltige Energiewirtschaft – der Einsparung von Energie, der regenerativen Energieerzeugung und einen effizienteren Energieeinsatz – erreichen lassen. Angesichts dieser hochgesteckten Ziele ist zu prüfen, welchen Beitrag die Abfallwirtschaft, und hierbei auch die Bioabfälle zur Erreichung
der Ressourcen-, Energie- und Klimaziele, künftig zusätzlich noch leisten kann.

(LCMW) Relevance: Recycling of biowaste.

Bulgarian Ministry of Finance  Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act Bulgarian Ministry of Finance 2013 BG

Title (orig.): Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

Language: English

Summary:

Tax regulation mechanism: A reduced rate of excise duty is applied to unleaded petrol or gas oil if a share of 4 to 5% of bioethanol or biodiesel has been added.

Link:

Excise Duties and Tax Warehouses Act

Bundesregierung  Energy Concept Bundesregierung 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Language: Deutsch

Summary:

Energy and Climate Fund

Link:

Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Butler Manning, David; Bemann, Albrecht; Bredemeier, Michael; Lamersdorf, Norbert; Ammer, Christian  Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas Wiley-VCH 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas

Language: English

Summary:

This book shows the major reasearch foundings of the projects AgroForNet: Linking the Producers and Consumers of Woodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas and BEST: Strengthening Bioenergy Regions. In stand-alone scientific research papers the latest knowledge on cultivation of dendromass for bioenergy purposes in Germany is presented in the context of international research. Different aspects are covered, among other i) environmental constraints, landscape functions, ecosystem services; ii) evaluating, managing and enhancing the supply of dendromass; and iii) socio-economic and legal aspects fo dendromass for bioenergy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Examples of frameworks for the development of woodfuel-based service systems and supply chains

Cabinet of Ministers  Guidelines for Energy Sector Development for 2007-2016 Latvian Government 2006 LV

Title (orig.): Par Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2007.–2016.gadam

Language: Latvian

Link:

Par Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2007.–2016.gadam

CertiQ (formerly the Green Certificate Body)  Green Certificate Trading Ministry of Economic Affairs 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Green Certificate Trading

Language: English

Summary:

To promote green energy on the national electricity market, the Netherlands in 2001 established a tradable green certificates program. In a green certificate system, the credits function as an accounting system to verify whether demand has been met or, when there is no demand, to measure the amount of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES-E). Secondly, certification facilitates trade: through the establishment of green certificates (GCs) a separate market for the renewable characteristic of the electricity will originate besides the market for physical electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Green Certificate Trading