A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Biogas Forum Bayern  Use of landscape material in biogas plants Biogas Forum Bayern 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Nutzung von Landschaftspflegematerial in Biogasanlagen

Language: German

Summary:

Based on Best Practice recommendations and successful examples, the manual outlines the energetic use of landscape maintenance material in biogas plants. It further shows the ecological and economical advantages of using this feedstock in biogas plants and describes the regulatory framework (EEG / Renewable Energy Law).

(LCMW) Relevance: LCMW biomass energetic use in biogas plants

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.69 MB)

Chamber of Commerce of Padova  Recovery of prunings in vineyards and orchards for the production of energy Chamber of Commerce of Padova, in cooperation with CNR-Ivalsa, Confagricoltura, Coldiretti, CIA 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Recupero delle potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

Language: IT

Summary:

The publication presents the results of a project, which aimed to test new rational solutions that would allow market actors to have economic benefit from the use of LCMW biomass from pruning in vineyards and orchards in the Padua area. The test was conducted through the creation of collection / treatment sites in the hills and plains, aimed at studying and testing functional technologies able to the overrun the challenges related to collection and logistics.

Objectives:

  • Define the productivity of the machines and the cost of recovery of the residual biomass, according to various length of the rows, extraction distance, yield of the pitch and type of collection
  • Identify the elements of optimization to reduce the cost of pruning collection
  • Identify the quality of wood chips obtained (size, water content and energy content)

(LCMW) Relevance: Given that the biomass boilers are three time as expensive as a natural gas boiler, the cost of primary energy provided by chipped trenches in an optimized system is the cheapest possible: 27 €/MWh against 70 €/MWh for natural gas and 108 €/MWh for heating oil/diesel.

Link:

Recupero di potature di vigneti e frutteti finalizzato alla valorizzazione energetica

L. Leible, S. Kälber, G. Kappler, H. Oechsner und M. Mönch-Tegeder  Biogas from Landscape Management grass KIT Scientific Publishing 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Biogas aus Landschaftspflegegrass

Language: German

Summary:

In order use landscape maintenance material (LCMW) in biogas plants process relevant constraints need to be addressed first, e.g. by pre-conditioning the material. The objective of this study is to analyse and evaluate  LCMW as substrate for biogas plants from a process- technological and economical perspective.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grass from Landscape management

Link:

Online

Attachment

PDF (1.79 MB)

Pick, Daniel, Dieterich, Martin, Heintschel, Sebastian  Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste Sustainability 2012 CH

Title (orig.): Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Residual land currently not used for agricultural production has been considered a promising resource, but in terms of potentials, difficult to estimate for biomass for use in the energy sector. Biomass potentials associated with “green waste” from residual grasslands were assessed for Schwäbisch Hall County in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Roadside edges, conservation grasslands subject to low intensity use (landscape maintenance sites), riparian stretches along ditches and streams, and municipal green spaces (public lawns, parks and sports fields) were the area types considered.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass from municipal green spaces for biogas production

Link:

Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Biogas Production Potential from Economically Usable Green Waste

Rommeiß, Nikolas; Thrän, Daniela; Schlägl, Thomas; Daniel, Jaqueline; Scholwin, Frank  Energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service Bundesamt für Straßenwesen, Federal Office for Road Services 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Energetische Verwertung von Grünabfällen aus dem Straßenbetriebsdienst

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

Aim of the research project was to discuss and recommend possibilities of a sustainable economical and energetic utilisation of green wastes from the technical road service (grass cut, wood cut and grass scrapings from roadsides). Suitable utilisation concepts were developed, in consideration of the specific material flow as well as the technical, organisational, legal, ecological and political promotion framework.

(LCMW) Relevance: Roadside maintenance concept

Link:

Publication site of the Federal Office for Road Services

ADAS  Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities. ADAS 2008 UK

Title (orig.): Addressing the land use issues for non-food crops, in response to increasing fuel and energy generation opportunities.

Language: English

Summary:

One of the roles of the NNFCC is to develop markets for UK renewable feedstocks. One of these, biomass, has the potential to supply energy for heating, electricity production and as a liquid transport fuel. This report establishes the current scale and location of biomass production in the UK and assesses the potential for increasing biomass production in the future. This report was commissioned by the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) on behalf of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

(LCMW) Relevance: Development of renewable feedstocks markets in UK.

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economic Affairs, European Comission 2010 NL

Title (orig.): Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

Netherlands 2020 targets:

  • Overall target: 14.5% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 9% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 37% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 10% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to achieve above enlisted targets Netherlands established comprehensive legal and administrative framework nurturing deployment of renewables with a number of complementary financial, fiscal and promotional measures:

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets

Link:

Netherlands National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Arodudu, Oludunsin, et al.  Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators Elsevier Ltd. 2014 DE, NL, NG

Title (orig.): Exploring bioenergy potentials of built-up areas based on NEG-EROEI indicators. Ecological Indicators

Language: English

Summary:

The production of bioenergy is dependent on the supply of biomass. Biomass production for bioenergy may cause large land use conversions, impact agricultural production, food prices, forest conservation, etc. The best solution is to use biomass that does not have agricultural or ecological value. Some of such unconventional sources of biomass are found within urban spaces. We employed Geographic Information System (GIS) and quantitative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas. Net Energy Gain (NEG) and Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI) were used as indicators to assess the bioenergy potential of urban spaces within the Overijssel province of the Netherlands as a case study. Data regarding suitable areas were geometrically extracted from available GIS datasets, and used to estimate the biomass/bioenergy potential of different species with different yields per hectare, growing under different environmental conditions. We found that potential net-energy gain from built-up areas can meet 0.6–7.7% of the 2030 renewable energy targets of the province without conflicting with socio-ecological concerns, while also improving human habitat.

(LCMW) Relevance: Methodologies to identify and estimate bioenergy potential of green roofs and other bioenergy options within urban areas.

Bioenergy Promotion  Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance Bioenergy Promotion 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy Promotion Demo Region: Rotenburg (Wümme), Germany - Sustainable woody bioenergy resources from private forests and hedgerow maintenance

Language: English

Summary:

Rotenburg (Wümme) County supports renewable energy mainly from biogas and woody resources through a strategy which was founded in 2007 and acts as a platform for commuication and information among related actors. This strategy is supported by addressing renwable energy in all mandatory publc planning like the Regional Development Plan (under renewal in 2014), the Regional Landscape Plan and the Concept for Climate Protection. Moreover, forestry-related, mostly EU-co-financed support schemes like site mapping, forest inventory and investment support provide good opportunities for assessment and utilisation of woody biomass, taking sustainability principles into account. A close cooperation exists between three local forest owners associations, which can form a basis for resliable supply of wood as an energy carrier.

(LCMW) Relevance: Project partner - greenGain.

Bundesregierung  Energy Concept Bundesregierung 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Language: Deutsch

Summary:

Energy and Climate Fund

Link:

Das Energiekonzept: Deutschlands Weg zu einer bezahlbaren, zuverlässigen und umweltschonenden Energieversorgung

Butler Manning, David; Bemann, Albrecht; Bredemeier, Michael; Lamersdorf, Norbert; Ammer, Christian  Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas Wiley-VCH 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas

Language: English

Summary:

This book shows the major reasearch foundings of the projects AgroForNet: Linking the Producers and Consumers of Woodfuel to Contribute to the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas and BEST: Strengthening Bioenergy Regions. In stand-alone scientific research papers the latest knowledge on cultivation of dendromass for bioenergy purposes in Germany is presented in the context of international research. Different aspects are covered, among other i) environmental constraints, landscape functions, ecosystem services; ii) evaluating, managing and enhancing the supply of dendromass; and iii) socio-economic and legal aspects fo dendromass for bioenergy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Examples of frameworks for the development of woodfuel-based service systems and supply chains

Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI  Action plan for coordinated energy research Commission for Technology and Innovation CTI 2013 CH

Title (orig.): Action plan for coordinated energy research

Language: English

Link:

Action plan for coordinated energy research

European Commission  Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020 European Commission 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

Language: English

Summary:

These European Commission guidelines are new rules on public support for environmental protection and energy to help renewable sources of energy enter the marketplace. Their aim is to support EU countries in reaching their 2020 climate targets while addressing the market distortions that may result from subsidies granted to renewable energy sources.

Art 3.2.5.1.For measures supporting integrated projects such as integrated energy-efficiency measures, or biogas projects, the counterfactual scenario can be difficult to establish. Where a counterfactual scenario cannot credibly

be established, the Commission is amenable to consider the total costs of a project as an alternative, which may imply lower aid intensities to reflect the different eligible cost calculation. Art 3.3.2.3. A i d f o r e x i s t i n g b i o m a s s pl a n t s a f t e r p l a n t d e p r e c i a t i o n (132) Unlike most other renewable sources of energy, biomass requires relatively low investment costs but higher operating costs. Higher operating costs may prevent a biomass    *(2) plant from operating even after depre ciation of the installation as the operating costs can be higher than the revenues (the market price). On the other hand, an existing biomass plant may operate by using fossil fuel instead of biomass as an input source if the use of fossil fuel as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass. To preserve the use of biomass in both cases, the Commission may find operating aid to be compatible with the internal market even after plant depreciation.

(133) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that the operating costs borne by the beneficiary after plant depreciation are still higher than the market price of the energy concerned and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary and the market price; and

(c) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify whether the operating costs borne are still higher than the market price of energy. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated production cost information and take place at least on an annual basis.

(134) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that, independent from the market price of the energy concerned, the use of fossil fuels as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary from biomass compared to the alternative fossil fuel input;

(c) credible evidence is provided that without the aid a switch from the use of biomass to fossil fuels would take place within the same plant; and

(d) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify that the use of fossil fuels is more beneficial than the use of biomass. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated cost information and take place at least on an annual basis   Annex 2 Typical State Intervention Biogas production which is upgraded to a level of natural gas: If the aid is limited to the upgrading of biogas, the counterfactual

constitutes the alternative use of these biogas (including burning). Biofuels and biogas used for transport:  In principle the extra investment cost compared to that of a normal

refinery should be chosen, but the Commission can accept alternative counterfactuals if duly justified.

Targets are:

— greenhouse gas emissions 20 % (or even 30 %, if the conditions are right) lower than 1990 levels;

— 20 % of energy from renewables; and

— 20 % increase in energy efficiency.

Link:

Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

European Commission  Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC European Commission 2009 EU

Title (orig.): Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive sets environmental criteria for fossil fuel components such as petrol and diesel. It also determines the permitted level of emissions derived from fossil fuels and includes GHG emission reduction target.

The FQD determines permitted GHG emissions level and reduction targets from fuels. It also sets a sustainability criteria and describes mass-balance system (same as the RED).

Art. 7b sets out sustainability criteria for all biofuels produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they guarantee real GHG savings and protects biodiversity. Art. 7b.1 defines that biofuels produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria in relation to the GHG savings. (Same as the RED).

Art. 7c defines a mass balance system, which allows consignments of raw material or biofuel with differing sustainability characteristics to be mixed and requires information about the sustainability characteristics and sizes of the consignments. (same as the RED)

Art. 7a.2 sets a requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the GHG intensity of energy supplied for road transport by up to 10 % by 2020 (Low Carbon Fuel Standard). This reduction shall consist of: (1) 6 % by 2020 with the intermediate targets: 2 % by 2014 and 4 % 2017; (2) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through: “the supply of energy for transport supplied for use in any type of road vehicle, non-road mobile machinery (including inland waterway vessels), agricultural or forestry tractor or recreational craft” and/or “the use of any technology (including carbon capture and  storage) capable of reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy from fuel or energy supplied”; (3) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through the use of credits purchased through the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, under the conditions set out in Directive 2003/87/EC.

Link:

Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Federal Council  Energy Strategy 2050 Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2011 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Strategy 2050

Language: English

Link:

Energy Strategy 2050

Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth  Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012 Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth 2012

Title (orig.): Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Summary:

Green Electricity Act 2012

Link:

Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research  Sixth Energy Research Programme Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research 2011 DE

Title (orig.): 6.Energieforschungsprogramm - Forschung für eine umweltschonende, zuverlässige und bezahlbare Energieversorgung

Language: English

Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth 2010 AT

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

4.6 Specific measures for the promotion of the use of energy from biomass

4.6.2 Measures to increase biomass availability, taking into account other biomass users (agriculture and forest-based sectors)

Measures to encourage unused arable land, degraded land, etc. to be used for energy purposes

The cultivation of land for food products and the production of bioresources are not in competition in Austria according to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture.

Unused raw material potential arises primarily from the use of grassland for biogas production. Until a few years ago grassland was still hardly used, however in the near future it will be a very interesting source material for various types of usage (fibre, lactic acid, etc.) and subsequent biogas production.

Strategy to promote the production and use of biogas

Biogas is currently still mainly produced for generating sets which produce green electricity and heat. Because biogas is, besides stored hydropower, the only storable renewable energy source, biogas technology may be used for daily production right up to the peak electricity production in the future. Treated biogas has the same chemical composition as natural gas. Therefore the targets aimed at for the future are the integration of treated biogas into the natural gas grid as well as the sale of biogas to filling stations. According to the Biogas and Compost Association, the use of biogas as fuel is possible through the steady spreading of natural gas powered vehicles and natural gas filling stations (Biogas and Compost Association).

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics  National Energy strategy Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics AT

Title (orig.): National Energy strategy

Language: English

Link:

Federal Ministry of Science Websites

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Electricity act (ElWOG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2010 AT

Title (orig.): Electricity act (ElWOG)

Language: English

Link:

Electricity act (ElWOG)

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Natural gas act (GWG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2015 AT

Title (orig.): Natural gas act (GWG)

Language: English

Link:

Natural gas act (GWG)

Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment  Biomass Strategy Switzerland Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Biomass Strategy Switzerland

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomassestrategie Schweiz legt übergeordnete Ziele fest

Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER  BELGIUM National renewable energy action plan Plan Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER 2010 BE

Title (orig.): D’action national en matière d'énergies renouvelables; Nationaal actieplan voor hernieuwbare energie

Language: English

Summary:

Belgian authorities pursue a sustainable energy policy that takes into account the economic and social interests of the energy sector as well as the exhaustion of fossil resources and environmental concerns. In this context, renewable energy sources contribute to achieving the following targets:

  • reducing consumption of energy from fossil sources to safeguard future reserves
  • reducing greenhouse gas emissions; – reducing the country’s dependence on energy imports
  • minimising the impact of price fluctuations for energy from other sources
  • creating employment in the framework of an innovative economy
  • diversifying the available range of energy to improve the functioning of the energy market

In the field of electricity generation, Belgium has set up a scheme of green certificates and guaranteed minimum prices to support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources

Link:

Belgium National Action Plan

Finish Ministry of the Environment  Land Use and Building Act (Finish) Ministry of the Environment 1999 FI

Title (orig.): Land Use and Building Act

Language: English

Summary:

The objective of this Act is to ensure that the use of land and water areas and building activities on them create preconditions for a favourable living environment and promote ecologically, economically, socially and culturally sustainable development.

The Act also aims to ensure that everyone has the right to participate in the preparation process, and that planning is high quality and interactive, that expertise is comprehensive and that there is open provision of information on matters being processed.

Link:

Land Use and Building Act

Attachment

Government  Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat Government 2006 CY

Title (orig.): Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Link:

Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat