A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 1987 FR

Title (orig.): Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks

Language: English

Summary:

The law covers provisions relating to the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks. It consists of 53 articles divided into 2 parts, namely: Organisation of civil security, establishing the conditions for the preparation of safeguard measures and the implementation of means to deal with major risks and disasters, in order to protect people, property and the environment against accidents, disasters and catastrophes (I); Forest protection against fire and prevention of major risks, bearing dispositions on the right of citizens to information on the major risks to which they are subject to the control of urbanization, forest defense against the fire, the prevention of natural and technological risks (II). The Act amends various previous laws and, in particular, it adds three tracks to Act No. 65-498 of 29 June 1965 on the transport of chemicals by pipeline.

Link:

Law No. 87-565 on the organization of civil security, protection of forests against fire and the prevention of major risks

Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Rural development and marine fishing code Ministère de l'agriculture, de l'agroalimentarie et de la forêt - Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 2014 FR

Title (orig.): Rural development and marine fishing code

Language: English

Summary:

This code contains all legislation concerning the planning and sustainable development of rural areas and marine fishing. The code consists of 9 different parts: (1) furnishings and equipment for rural areas, (2) veterinary public health and plant protection, (3) agricultural exploitation, (4) land leases, (5) agricultural professional organizations, (6) production and markets, (7) social provisions, (8) Education, vocational training and agricultural development, and agricultural research and (9) Marine fisheries and marine aquaculture.

Link:

Rural development and marine fishing code

Ministère de l'écologie et du développement durable  Environmental Code Ministère de l'écologie et du développement durable 2014 FR

Title (orig.): Environmental Code

Language: English

Summary:

The Environmental Code combines the main legal and regulatory texts, which are applicable to “classified facilities”, waste, water and air. Classified facilities are those that may present a risk to the surrounding area, public health and safety, agriculture, the protection of nature and the environment and the conservation of sites, monuments and places of archaeological heritage. They fall within the scope of the nomenclature established by the relevant legislation. They are subject to an integrated permit regime, which is divided into the declaration regime (for lowest risk activities), the registration regime (for medium risk activities) or the authorisation regime (for highest risk activities).

Link:

Environmental Code

Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l´Energie – Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy  Act on the Modernisation and Development of Public Electricity Supply - Tenders Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement durable et de l´Energie – Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy 2012 FR

Title (orig.): Act on the Modernisation and Development of Public Electricity Supply - Tenders

Language: English

Summary:

A promotional tariff may be awarded to the winners of tenders for the construction of renewable energy plants. The ministry responsible for energy invites tenders at irregular intervals to reach the target production of electricity from renewable sources, which is specified in the multi-annual investment plant (Programmation Pluriannuelle des Investissements PPI), (art. 8 Loi n°2000-108). The calls for tenders are published in the official gazette of the European Union. The actual payment to be awarded is calculated in accordance with the successful tenderer’s finance plan (art. 1 Décret n°2002-1434).

Link:

Act on the Modernisation and Development of Public Electricity Supply - Tenders

Ministère de l’écologie, du développement durable et de l’énergie  Energy Transition Act. Ministère de l’écologie, du développement durable et de l’énergie 2015 FR

Title (orig.): Energy Transition Act.

Summary:

In mid-2014 France has revealed a draft of its Energy Bill (likely to be adopted in 2015) establishing climate and renewable energy targets to be reached by 2030.

The split of the renewable energy target for 2030 follows NREAP model:

  • Overall target: 32% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 38% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 40% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 15% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to reach the above 2030 target France is planning to use mechanisms set by NREAP.

The Bill set a goal to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40% (compared to 1990 baseline) and to reduce overall fossil fuel consumption 30% by 2030.

Also France is aiming at decreasing its reliance on nuclear energy power generation. The goal is to reduce the share of nuclear energy to 50% of electricity production by 2025, from around 75% in 2014.

Link:

Energy Transition Act.

Ministere de leconomie et des finances  Extension of the Law on Reduced VAT for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment Ministere de leconomie et des finances 2002 FR

Title (orig.): Extension of the Law on Reduced VAT for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment

Language: English

Summary:

Under the 2003 Finance Law, the reduced VAT rates applying to equipment for renewable energy production and use which is installed in primary or secondary residencies built for more than two years has been extended until 31 December 2003. The VAT rate is 5.5% in France and Corsica and 2.1% in Guadeloupe, Martinique and Reunion. The equipment must be bought from and installed by the same company. Reference Law n° 2002-1575 of 30 December 2002 – Finance Law for 2003

Link:

Extension of the Law on Reduced VAT for Residential Renewable Energy Equipment

Ministere de leconomie, des finances  District Heating Classification Ministere de leconomie, des finances 1999 FR

Title (orig.): District Heating Classification

Language: English

Summary:

A decree on 5 May 1999 introduced a simplified procedure for classifying district heating using renewable energy or cogeneration, allowing local authorities to obligate new buildings in specified zones to be connected to the district heating grid.

Link:

District Heating Classification

Ministerstvo hospodárstva a výstavby SR  National Action Plan for energy from renewable sources Ministerstvo hospodárstva a výstavby SR 2010 SK

Title (orig.): Národný akčný plán pre energiu z obnoviteľných zdrojov

Language: Slovak

Summary:

The National Action Plan for renewable energy deals and describes the steps of the national policy of Slovakia in relation to renewable resources. It describes the expected energy consumption from 2010 to 2020, also deals with targets and trajectories in the field of renewable energy. There is described an overall national target in the renewable resources and how to achieve it. The document also deals with the preparation of a national action plan for renewable energy and continuing in its implementation.

Link:

Národný akčný plán pre energiu z obnoviteľných zdrojov (PDF)

Ministry for Industry, Energy, and Tourism-Spain  Royal Decree 1027/2007, of 20 July, approving the Regulation of Thermal Installations in Buildings approved Ministry for Industry, Energy, and Tourism-Spain 2013 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 1027/2007, de 20 de julio, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de Instalaciones Térmicas en los Edificios

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The new Regulation of Thermal Installations in Buildings, hereinafter RITE,approved in Royal Decree 1027/2007 and published in the Official Gazette of August 29, 2007, is the basic regulatory framework that establishes the requirements for energy efficiency and security to be met by thermal installations in buildings designed to meet the demand for welfare and health of people, during the design and sizing, implementation, maintenance and use, and to determine the procedures to demonstrate compliance.

Link:

Real Decreto 1027/2007, de 20 de julio, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de Instalaciones Térmicas en los Edificios

Ministry for Industry, Energy, and Tourism-Spain  Royal Decree 900/2015 of 9 October laying down the administrative and financial arrangements for supplying electric power consumption with consumption and production conditions, technical regulating Ministry for Industry, Energy, and Tourism-Spain 2015 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 900/2015, de 9 de octubre, por el que se regulan las condiciones administrativas, técnicas y económicas de las modalidades de suministro de energía eléctrica con autoconsumo y de producción con autoconsumo

Language: Spanish

Summary:

Royal Decree 900/2015 of 9 October, the technical and economic conditions of the modes of supply of electric energy consumption and production with consumption are regulated, it proceeds to make a brief summary. Probably it can’t be expected immediately implement this decree, for the Autonomous Communities in the scope of its powers, must adapt and implement their own standards to facilitate its implementation. Let’s see if once and for all, regulate in favor of a rational application of minimum requirements to avoid discouraging demand for these savings and CO2 savings, especially for photovoltaic plants.

Link:

Real Decreto 900/2015, de 9 de octubre, por el que se regulan las condiciones administrativas, técnicas y económicas de las modalidades de suministro de energía eléctrica con autoconsumo y de producción con autoconsumo

Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain  Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of electricity production under the special regime (Valid until July 14, 2013) is regulated Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain 2007 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 661/2007, de 25 de Mayo, por el que se regula la actividad de producción de energía eléctrica en régimen especial

Language: Spanish

Summary:

The Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of electricity production in the special regime, established under remuneration to apply to the special regime facilities (renewable and cogeneration), including photovoltaics. However, compensation under RD 661 only applies to photovoltaic systems with final registration in the Administrative Register of production facilities under the special regime before September 2008, so it is necessary to regulate the remuneration of the facilities that fall under the such registration after this date. In the following link you can find a summary of Royal Decree 1578/2008, of 26 September, remuneration for production of electricity using solar photovoltaic technology for installations after the deadline keeping the remuneration of Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, for the technology.

Link:

Real Decreto 661/2007, de 25 de mayo, por el que se regula la actividad de producción de energía eléctrica en régimen especial

Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain  Order ITC / 2877/2008, of October 9, establishing a mechanism to promote the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport sets Ministry for Industry, Tourism and commerce-Government of Spain 2008 ES

Title (orig.): Orden ITC/2877/2008, de 9 de octubre, por la que se establece un mecanismo de fomento del uso de biocarburantes y otros combustibles renovables con fines de transporte

Language: Spanish

Summary:

Order ITC / 2877/2008, of October 9, establishing a mechanism to promote the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport sets

Link:

Orden ITC/2877/2008, de 9 de octubre, por la que se establece un mecanismo de fomento del uso de biocarburantes y otros combustibles renovables con fines de transporte

Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs  Malta Resources Authority Act (MRA) Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs 2000 MT

Title (orig.): Malta Resources Authority Act (MRA)

Language: English

Summary:

Article 4 of the MRA establishes the functions of the Authority and gives wide ranging responsibilities essentially involving regulation of practices, operations and activities in the energy, water and minerals Industrial enterprises exploiting resources such as oil exploration, quarry owners and abstractors of groundwater;sectors. This broadly can be considered to incorporate the regulation of: The national utilities and service providers for energy and water namely Enemalta Corporation and the Water Services Corporation and their subsidiary companies; Retailers and operators in the regulated sectors including: operators of petrol stations, gas and kerosene delivery entities, offshore bunkering companies, private operators of desalination plants and operators of road tankers; Tradesmen such as electricians.

The Authority is also responsible for oil exploration and climate change, as well as having the function to promote energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy.

and gives wide ranging responsibilities essentially involving regulation of practices, operations and activities in the energy, water and minerals Industrial enterprises exploiting resources such as oil exploration, quarry owners and abstractors of groundwater;sectors. This broadly can be considered to incorporate the regulation of: The national utilities and service providers for energy and water namely Enemalta Corporation and the Water Services Corporation and their subsidiary companies; Retailers and operators in the regulated sectors including: operators of petrol stations, gas and kerosene delivery entities, offshore bunkering companies, private operators of desalination plants and operators of road tankers; Tradesmen such as electricians. The Authority is also responsible for oil exploration and climate change, as well as having the function to promote energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy

Link:

Malta Resources Authority Act (MRA)

Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs  Information Campaigns on Energy Effiency and RES Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs 2004 MT

Title (orig.): Information Campaigns on Energy Effiency and RES

Language: English

Summary:

In 2004, government appointed Green Leaders, one in each Line Ministry, in an initiative aimed towards meeting Government’s corporate responsibilities with regards to the environment. Government has also embarked on various information campaigns within the educational sector and the public sector.

The Green Leader system has driven each ministry, department and entity to take steps to reduce energy consumption and waste of resources. Energy audits have been carried out in all administrative buildings as well as in residential homes for the elderly and health centers and measures have been actuated to reduce energy. The Green Leaders have also led an educational campaign to eliminate waste, with stickers attached to light switches and above water taps to serve as a constant reminder against waste.

All these measures are intended to complement the government’s public environmental awareness campaign and propulsion towards sustainable lifestyles. Educational talks are organized within schools for awareness on alternative energies. Adverts and programmes are created for the promotion of alternative energy.

Link:

Information Campaigns on Energy Effiency and RES

Ministry for Sustainable Development and Infrastructure and Minister of Finance  Financial aid programme for energy savings and renewable energy in housing 2013 Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2013 LU

Title (orig.): Financial aid programme for energy savings and renewable energy in housing 2013

Language: English

Summary:

The regulation of 12 December 2012 sets up a new financial aid scheme called “PRIMe House”. The regulation went into force on 1 January 2013 superseding regulation in force between 2008 and 2012.

Scheme provides financial support in form of grants for projects aiming to improve energy savings and usage of renewable energy sources in the building sector. The scheme focus is on renovation and improvement of already existing households and enactment of new households with high energy efficiency indicators and substantial usage of renewable energy sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support improving energy savings and usage of renewable energy sources in the building sector

Link:

Financial aid programme for energy savings and renewable energy in housing 2013

Ministry od economic development  Ministerial Decree 06/07/2012 Ministry od economic development 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Decreto Ministeriale 06/07/2012

Language: Italian

Summary:

Defines how the incentives for the production of electricity from renewable sources,from 2013, promoting the implementation of determined types of systems.The Decree issued by the Minister of Economic Development on 6 Jul. 2012, in consultation with the Minister of Environment, Land and Sea Protection, implemented article 24 of Legislative Decree no. 28 of 3 Mar. 2011 on support for electricity generation by renewable power plants other than photovoltaic ones. The Decree gave, among others, indications about the management of Guarantees of Origin.

Link:

Decreto Ministeriale 06/07/2012

Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery  Plan for the energy performance of agricultural exploitations Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery 2009 FR

Title (orig.): Plan for the energy performance of agricultural exploitations

Language: English

Summary:

In February 2009, the French government launched a plan to improve the energy efficiency of agricultural exploitations. The plan will support the Grenelle de lEnvironment objective of having 30% of agricultural exploitations be low-energy consumption by 2013. As part of the plan six agreements have been signed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishing and various public and private organisations (ADEME, GDF-Suez, EDF, the agriculture chamber APCA, Sofiprotéol, Cristal Union, federation of agricultural equipment users FNCUMA). The plan comprises eight streams: 1-Improved evaluation of energy use: The plan will enhance and improve data collection and analysis on agricultural energy use, including renewable energy production and use. 2-Implementing energy performance evaluations 3-Improving the energy efficiency of agricultural equipment 4-Improving the energy efficiency of agricultural production 5-Promoting the use of renewable energy: The plan will seek to promote the use of methane for energy production and support investment in other renewable energy equipment such as biomass heaters, hot-water heaters and driers, as well as solar PV systems. 6-Addressing special needs of overseas territories: The above activities are to be adapted for overseas territories and their crops, and will include renewable energy pilot projects and the promotion of sugar cane bagasse as an energy source. 7-Promoting research and innovation; this will involve a needs assessment, deployment activities and financial and technical support innovative activities. 8-Monitoring, reporting and communication on the plans activities, including designating responsibility and establishing the necessary institutions at both the national and regional level. Investments must be at a minimum EUR 2000 to be eligible for support. Qualifying energy-saving and renewable energy equipment qualify for investment support of 40%, to a maximum of EUR 40 000, or EUR 150 000 for a cooperative. Investment support goes up to 50% if the applicant has the status of Young Farmer. Examples of qualifying equipment include building insulation, milk pre-coolers, engine test stands, heat recovery equipment, solar water heaters, biomass heaters, heat exchangers and solar heaters. Engine test stands for tractors can benefit from investment support of up to 75%, to a maximum of EUR 250 000. For anaerobic digestion units, the maximum amount is EUR 500 000. For 2009, the plan has received funding of EUR 35 billion, of which EUR 30 billion have been allocated as part of the French governments economic stimulus plan.

Link:

Plan for the energy performance of agricultural exploitations

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland  Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland 1996 FIN

Title (orig.): Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Language: English

Summary:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry (1094/1996, amendments up to 112/2003 included) contains 9 chapters:

  • Chapter 1 – General provisions
  • Chapter 2 – Ensuring the sustainability of timber production
  • Chapter 3 – Support for maintaining the biological diversity in forests
  • Chapter 4 – Forest ecosystem management
  • Chapter 5 – Other promotion measures
  • Chapter 6 – Application, granting and payment as well as recovery and legal consequences
  • Chapter 7 – Steering and supervision
  • Chapter 8 – Miscellaneous provisions
  • Chapter 9 – Entry into force and transitional provisions

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial support on maintenance of forest biomass

Link:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development  Subsidies for RES in agriculture Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 2011 RO

Title (orig.): Subsidies for RES in agriculture

Summary:

RES-H technologies may be supported by subsidies from the National Rural Development Programme for own consumption.However, there is currently no open call for Measure 123.Furthermore, the Romanian Environmental Fund provides subsidies to legal entities and natural persons for the installation of heating systems using renewable energy sources.However, there has been no call for applications since 2011, since the budget for 2012 has been used for financing projects on the waiting list from 2011. Due lacking funds, no new call for applications took place in 2013. The availability of budgets for a new call for applications in 2014 is still uncertain. However, the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change announced that the subsidy programme should be continued and a new call for applications can be expected for the end of 2014 or latest for 2015.

Link:

Subsidy (Modernizarea exploatatiilor agricole – Masura 121)

Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic  Action Plan for Biomass in the Czech Republic for the period 2012-2020 Ministry of Agriculture 2012 CZ

Title (orig.): Akční plan pro biomasu v ČR na období 2012–2020

Language: CS

Summary:

Biomass Action Plan in the Czech Republic for the period 2012-2020 presents an analysis of the biomass use in the Czech Republic for energy purposes, and proposes appropriate measures for sustainable agro-energy interconnections till the year 2020.

The material includes information on key areas of energy use of biomass, including the use of solid biomass for direct combustion to produce heat and electricity, biogas production and liquid biofuels and proposes appropriate measures for the sustainability of the biomass field by 2020.

Biomass Action Plan presents real potential of various types of biomass for efficient energy utilization.

The Biomass Action Plan is built on a previous similar document prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture for years 2009-2011, which indicated the possibility of biomass energy utilization.

Link:

Akční plan pro biomasu v ČR na období 2012–2020 (PDF)