A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic  Energy options of biomass use Ministry of Agriculture 2013 CZ

Title (orig.): Možnosti energetického využití biomasy

Language: CS

Summary:

This publication tries to indicate the possibility of biomass energy utilization, set up appropriate support mechanisms and the direction of development of technology for biomass utilization.

The booklet helps to zoom on the Biomass Action Plan 2012 – 2020 for citizens, to describe the potential of biomass, and discovers in detail the possibility of using biomass for wider public.

The publication is thus divided into three thematic sections, according to whom it is addressed, practical application of knowledge of Biomass Action Plan 2012-2020:

  • possibilities of cultivation and utilization of biomass energy in agriculture
  • possibilities of energy use of biomass in the municipalities
  • possibilities of energy use of biomass in households.

Link:

Možnosti energetického využití biomasy (PDF)

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment  Royal Decree 1007/2015, of 6 November, by which regulates the acquisition, for the Carbon Fund for a Sustainable Economy, carbon credit Plan to Promote Environment in the sector of the company "PIMA Company" for reducing greenhouse gases at its facilities Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment 2015 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 1007/2015, de 6 de noviembre, por el que se regula la adquisición, por el Fondo de Carbono para una Economía Sostenible, de créditos de carbono del Plan de Impulso al Medio Ambiente en el sector de la empresa "PIMA Empresa" para la reducción de gases de efecto invernadero en sus instalaciones

Language: Spanish

Summary:

Royal Decree 1007/2015, of 6 November, by which regulates the acquisition, for the Carbon Fund for a Sustainable Economy, carbon credit Plan to Promote Environment in the sector of the company “PIMA Company” for reducing greenhouse gases at its facilities.

Link:

Real Decreto 1007/2015, de 6 de noviembre, por el que se regula la adquisición, por el Fondo de Carbono para una Economía Sostenible, de créditos de carbono del Plan de Impulso al Medio Ambiente en el sector de la empresa "PIMA Empresa" para la reducción de gases de efecto invernadero en sus instalaciones

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Decree No. 2007-951 on state subsidies granted for forest investment Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 2007 FR

Title (orig.): Decree No. 2007-951 on state subsidies granted for forest investment

Language: English

Summary:

The provisions of this Decree state that the State may grant the general budget to enable the achievement of the following: 1) afforestation, reforestation, regeneration and stand; 2) Work forest improvement; 3) The work of forest service; 4) The work of forest protection including restoration of mountain land, investment in prevention and defense against forest fires and coastal dune fixation operations; 5) cleaning, restoration and pest control in forest stands affected by exceptional natural phenomena; 6) The work of protection and restoration of biodiversity. Grants are awarded on the basis of an estimate and description, in accordance with the general rules on state subsidies for investment projects. However, the subsidy amounts for the transactions referred to in item 5 may be established on the basis of regional scales adopted by regional prefects, under the conditions laid down in Annex 1 to this Order.

Link:

Forest Subsidies
Feed-in tariff

Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries (MADRP)  Decree Law No. 63/2004, of 22 March (Permanent Forest Fund (FFP) Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries (MADRP) 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-lei 63/2004 de 22 de Março (Fundo Florestal Permanente (FFP))

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, composed of 6 articles, institutes the Permanent Forestry Fund, an autonomous body, created complementarily with the Institute for Financing and Supporting the Agriculture and Fisheries Development (IFADAP). It sets the objectives of the Fund, as, for instance: promoting the investment, management and prevention of forest fires; supporting the preventive measures of forest fires; creating financial mechanisms for enabling sustainable forestry models. The Ministry for Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries shall approve the programme of financial aid to be granted by the Fund. Finally, the Decree indicates the various possible aid foreseen (subsidies, credit lines, insurance premiums and guarantees) and the areas covered by the Fund. The decree is amended by Order No. 296/2013. Amended articles: 3-5 and 7-26 of the Regulation of the Permanent Forestry Fund (approved by Order No. 113/2011) deal with administrative and legal proceedings as well as competence, duties and responsibilities of the above mentioned Forestry Fund, aiming at creating financial mechanisms for enabling sustainable forestry sector. The Ministry for Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries shall approve the programme of financial aid to be grated by the Fund.

Link:

Factsheet: Permanent forest fund

Ministry of Budget, Public Accounts and Civil Service  Finance Law 2009: Sustainable energy provisions Ministry of Budget, Public Accounts and Civil Service 2009 FR

Title (orig.): Finance Law 2009: Sustainable energy provisions

Language: English

Summary:

Sustainable energy provisions. The 2009 Finance Law contains various provisions to increase support of renewable energy. Some of the primary measures are described below. Eco-loan: 0% loan for energy-efficient renovation (Art. 99) The Law also creates a zero-interest loan programme for major renovation activities. The aim is for energy savings to allow repayment of the loans capital. Activities that can be covered under the loan include: -Thermal insulation for roofs, exterior walls, and exterior glass surfaces; -Installation, regulation or replacement of heating or hot water systems; -Installation of heating or hot water systems using renewable energy. The loan amount is limited to EUR 30 000. Biofuels (Articles 16 and 17) The Law also includes some provisions targeting biofuels. Ethanol E85 is to benefit from progressively reduced consumption taxes; these are EUR 23.85 per hectolitre as of 1 January 2009, going down to EUR 20.69 as of 1 January 2010, and EUR 17.29 as of 1 January 2011. In addition, a new category of biofuel blend known as E10 is recognised, a low-lead fuel containing 10% ethanol and 22% ethers. It also provides for a consumption tax reduction on a variety of biofuels, ranging from EUR 15 to 21 in 2009, EUR 11 to 18 in 2011, and EUR 8 to 14 in 2012.

Link:

Finance Law 2009: Sustainable energy provisions

Ministry of Climate, Energy  Energy Strategy 2050 – from coal, oil and gas to green energy Danish Government 2011 DK

Title (orig.): Energy Strategy 2050 – from coal, oil and gas to green energy

Language: English

Link:

Energy Strategy 2050 – from coal, oil and gas to green energy

Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building  Danish Energy Agreement for 2012-2020 Danish Government 2012 DK

Title (orig.): Danish Energy Agreement for 2012-2020

Summary:

The Agreement establishes a framework for the policy on climate and energy up to 2020 and outlines the direction Denmark will take until 2050.

According to the Agreement in 2020 half of the electricity consumption will come from wind power, enabling a share of 35% renewable energy in gross energy consumption in 2020. Moreover, the energy consumption is to decrease by more than 12 % in 2020 compared to 2006.

Biogas expansion

  • the current funding of biogas for CHP is to be increased;
  • other opportunities for using biogas – in the natural gas grid, in industrial processes or in the transport sector – are to be made financially more attractive by introducing a series of new funding schemes;
  • capital installation subsidies are to be increased from 20% to 30%;
  • a task force is to be established. This task force is to support the specific projects and make recommendations for additional initiatives, if, in 2012-13, it is assessed that the expansion process is too slow.

Green heating measures:

  • converting from coal to biomass at large-scale power plants will be made more attractive by amending the Heating Supply Act;
  • the smaller open-field plants that are struggling in the wake of high heating prices will be allowed to produce cheap heating based on biomass;

DKK 35 million will be committed to promoting new renewable technologies, e.g. geothermal energy and large heat pumps.

Link:

Danish Energy Agreement for 2012-2020

Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building  The National Allocation Plan 2008-2012 (last available) Danish Government 2007 DK

Title (orig.): English courtesy translation of Denmark’s National Allocation Plan notified to the European Commission 7 March 2007

Language: English

Link:

English courtesy translation of Denmark’s National Allocation Plan notified to the European Commission 7 March 2007

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism  Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism 2003 CY

Title (orig.): Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Summary:

Grant scheme for the promotion of electricity generation using wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic systems and the utilization of biomass – The minimum selling price of electrical energy that will be produced by utilizing biomass-landfill and fed to the transmission / distribution grid is 117.9 -97.4 Eur/MWh for the first 20 years. The grant, paid from the Special Fund for RES will result from the difference between the total selling price and the purchase price of electricity from renewable sources, by the electricity distributor as it is periodically determined by CERA. Note that if the purchase price kWh from the supplier surpass total selling price, then the supplier will pay the excess amount to the Special Fund for RES and RUE.

Link:

Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and tourism  National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Ministry of Commerce, Industry and tourism 2010 CY

Title (orig.): National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan – The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism in cooperation with all others competent bodies, considered various scenarios regarding development plans for projects implementing renewable energy sources technologies in the sectors of electricity, heating/cooling and transport and selected the best scenario for Cyprus. The selection was based on the following criteria:

  • the obligation of the Republic of Cyprus to achieve the targets set by Directive 2009/28/•C for both the share of energy from renewable sources in the final consumption of energy and the rate of renewable sources consumed in transport;
  • the domestic renewable energy potential per technology;
  • the cost, maturity, efficiency, potential, development and social acceptance of each technology;
  • the cost and most efficient utilisation of the Special Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Fund revenue;
  • safe network operation and the potential of each technology with respect to stocks.

Link:

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development  Feed-in tariff and tax benefits Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development 2009 FR

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariff and tax benefits

Language: English

Summary:

In France, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff and tax benefits. The generation of heat through renewable energy plants is promoted through several systems of energy subsidies, tax regulation mechanisms as well as through a zero percent-interest loan. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. Furthermore, biofuels are supported through fiscal regulation. The use of the grid for the transmission of electricity from renewable sources is subject to the general legislation on energy. There are no special provisions for electricity from renewable sources. The following policies aim at promoting the development, installation and usage of RES-installations: There are 2 training programmes for RES-installers; 4 certification schemes for PV installations, solar thermal plants, wood-heating systems and heat pumps; one research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programme; a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and two support schemes for RES-H infrastructures. As far as heating and cooling is concerned, public distribution of heat in France is a competence of the local or regional authorities. In order to promote the use of renewable energies, territorial collectivities are entitled to classify heating networks located in their area, provided they are supplied with at least 50% of heat from renewable energy sources. New and renovated buildings located within a classified area are obliged to be connected to the heating network. The procedure of grid connection is at the same time also the procedure for grid development, since the construction of a plant must occur simultaneously with the construction (development) of the district heating grid. In France, public distribution of heat is a competence of the local or regional authorities.

Link:

Feed-in tariff and tax benefits

Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) France Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development 2010 FR

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) France

Language: English

Summary:

2020 renewable energy targets:

  • Overall target: 23% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 33% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 27% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 10.5% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to achieve above enlisted targets France runs following incentive schemes:

  • Modifications of administrative procedures in order to overcome administrative barriers to the deployment of renewable energies;
  • Tax reliefs (VAT,
  • Measures improving energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings;
  • Grants
  • Financial aid to research, development and deployment of renewable and energy efficiency technologies;

•Investments in railway infrastructure with purpose of energy savings

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) France

Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development  Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Biomass Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development 2009 (amended 2011) FR

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Biomass

Language: English

Summary:

A) The following feed-in tariffs were established under the Electricity Law of 2000. All sites benefiting from the mandatory buyback rates must be under 12 MW of nominal capacity: – Wind energy: production sites built after the law was published (November 2001) can sign a fifteen-year contract which guarantees a FF 0.55/kWh (0.0838) rate for the first five years for all sites. The tariff for the next ten years depends on wind conditions; plants working at full capacity for less than 2,000 hours continue to get EUR 0.0838, those at a full-capacity of 3,600 h/year receive 0.0541/kWh (tariffs in between are determined by a linear regression). These tariffs apply for the first 1,500 MW of nationally installed capacity, thereafter all tariffs decrease by 10% (only for new projects). These tariffs are applicable until December 2002, after they decrease by 3.3% annually to reflect technology learning. – Small hydro: production sites built after the publication of the law (or for the marginal production from retrofits increasing production by more than 10%) can sign a twenty-year contract which guarantees FF 0.40/kWh (0.0610) for sites with a capacity under 500 kW and FF 0.36/kWh (0.0549) for larger ones. An incentive for regularity of production of up to FF 0.10/kWh (0.0152) is available in winter (regularity and winter incentives can be separated). – Combustible waste: production sites built after the publication of the law are guaranteed rates of up to FF 0.299/kWh (0.0456) for medium-voltage connections and FF 0.274/kWh (0.0418) for high-voltage connections. – Solar (PV or any radiative technology): The rate is 0.305/kWh in the overseas departments and Corsica, and 0.0155/kWh on mainland France. It also provides a grant of 4.6/watt for direct grid-connected installations. – Biogas from landfills: production sites built after the publication of the law are guaranteed, in metropolitan France, rates up to 0.0572/kWh for small installations, up to 0.0450/kWh for large installations and linear interpolation for medium-sized installations. -Municipal solid waste (other than biogas): Rate of EUR 0.045 to EUR 0.05/kWh with a bonus for energy efficiency ranging from 0 to EUR 0.003/kWh. -Cogeneration: Rate of between EUR 0.061 and EUR 0.0915/kWh, according to the price of gas, running time and power. Feed-in tariffs for most technologies have been superseded by subsequent regulations, except for biogas from landfills, municipal solid waste and cogeneration. Tariffs for landfill biogas and municipal solid waste run 15 years, while those for cogeneration are 12 years.

B)  In 2002, feed-in tariffs were set for the following renewable energy sources, completing the list of tariffs provided for in the Electricity Law, which came into force in 2001. The tariffs have been set for 15 years, except for solar PV which is for 20 years. All sites benefiting from the mandatory buyback rates must be under 12 MW of nominal capacity: – Biomass (Arreté of 16 April 2002): EUR 0.049/kWh, plus bonus for efficiency of between 0 and EUR 0.12/kWh. – Methanisation (Arreté of 16 April 2002): EUR 0.046/kWh, plus bonus for efficiency of between 0 and EUR 0.12/kWh. – Geothermal (Arreté of 13 March 2002): EUR 0.0762/kWh, with a bonus for efficiency between 0 and EUR 0.003/kWh. – Animal waste (Arreté of 13 March 2002): EUR 0.045 to EUR 0.05/kWh, with a bonus for efficiency between 0 and EUR 0.003/kWh. – Solar photovoltaics (Arreté of 13 March 2002): A tariff of EUR 0.305 per kWh has been set in the overseas departments (DOM), in the islands of Saint Pierre et Miquelon and Corsica and of EUR 0.152 per kWh for mainland France. New tariffs have subsequently been set for most of these technologies (see related entry)

Link:

Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Biomass

Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development, National Planning and Development  National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development, National Planning and Development 2007 FR

Title (orig.): National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy

Language: English

Summary:

The French National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy is issued by the ministry in charge of energy (Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development, National Planning and Development) and the ministry in charge of research (Ministry for Higher Education and Research) according to Article 10 of the Programme Law on the orientations of the energy policy of 13 July 2005. The Strategy aims to increase energy security, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. It thus seeks to promote RD&D in technologies and energy sources that limit GHG emissions and/or increase energy efficiency. In the field of renewable energy, the Strategy emphasises RD&D in the following areas: ?Biomass, for electricity production, heating, and used as a fuel ?Photovoltaic energy ?A variety of other renewable energies, for whose development the criteria will be: the source?s energy potential, contribution to energy independence, environmental impact (including emissions and waste), the type of technological barriers, the presence and motivation of actors able to develop them.

Link:

National Strategy for Research and Development in the field of Energy

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy  Zero percent interest loan for housing renovation Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy 2014 FR

Title (orig.): Zero percent interest loan for housing renovation

Language: English

Summary:

Full name of Instrument & Measure (English): Order of 30 March 2009 regarding the granting conditions of the zero percent-interest loan for the support of housing renovation aiming at improving the energetic performance of existing buildings
The zero percent-interest loan for housing renovation was introduced by the Finance Act of 2009 within the frame of the Environment Grenelle. It allows the financing of work aiming at improving the energy performance of the housing without paying a cash advance and without paying interests. One of the conditions in order to benefit from the loan is to carry out a bunch of works, consisting of at least two actions including the installation of a heating plant or of a sanitary hot water system using renewable energies (Art. 244 quater U, §2, CGI). Only one loan can be granted per housing unit. Moreover, the housing unit shall be a main residence built before 1990 (Art. 244 quater U, §1, CGI). For biomass plants the following are eligible: Wood fuelled heating plants, provided they comply with the requirements of the third rate (“classe 3”) as defined in the Annex II (Art. 7, Arrêté du 30 mars 2009). Wood-burning stoves, wood-fired hearths as well as fireplace inserts are also eligible, provided they have an energetic performance of at least 70% (Art. 7, Arrêté du 30 mars 2009).

Link:

Zero percent interest loan for housing renovation

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy; Ministère de l'Environnement - Ministry of the Environment  Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy; Ministère de l'Environnement - Ministry of the Environment 2002 FR

Title (orig.): Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste

Language: English

Summary:

All information relating to waste under Title IV of Part V of the Environmental Code and its implementing regulations must be provided using the codes listed in the list contained in Annex II of this decree. Waste that exhibits one or more of the properties listed in Annex I of this decree is considered hazardous waste. These hazardous wastes are marked with an asterisk in the list in Annex II.

Link:

Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste

Ministry of Economic Affairs  NL Green Deals Ministry of Economic Affairs 2011 NL

Title (orig.): NL Green Deals

Language: English

Summary:

Launched in 2011 in order to help Netherlands achieve its EU 2020 target – 14 % of total energy consumption.

The Green Deals programme seeks to promote and support domestic sustainability. Citizens, companies, local councils and other can propose projects to the government. The projects must address energy, raw materials, transport or water. The government does not provide grants for these projects but can offer seed capital and loans through an innovation fund, and supports projects in various other ways, including through tax breaks, sustainable public procurement and even changing the law to eliminate obstacles.

The aim of Green Deals is to support projects that will produce rapid results – the benefits should become clear within three years.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on domestic sustainability

Link:

NL Green Deals

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication  National Development Plan of the Energy Sector until 2020 Estonian Government 2009 EST

Title (orig.): National Development Plan of the Energy Sector until 2020

Language: English

Link:

National Development Plan of the Energy Sector until 2020

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications  Investment Support for the Production of Bio Energy Estonian Government 2012 EST

Title (orig.): Taastuvenergiaallikate laialdasem kasutamine energia tootmiseks

Language: English, Estonian

Summary:

Investment Support for the Production of Bio Energy – Through this measure, investments are available to support farmers in creating the necessary conditions for processing, production and consumption of energy from biomass.

(http://www.res-legal.eu/search-by-country/estonia/single/s/res-e/t/promotion/aid/subsidy-ii-investment-support-for-the-production-of-bio-energy/lastp/123/)

The investment supports for the use of bio energy by farmers are available:

  • for the growing of an energy culture,
  • for processing of biomass and for the production of heat, electricity and fuel from biomass (In case of investment for the production of energy from biomass, the energy must be consumed by the farmer for business or personal means),
  • support to the construction infrastructure necessary for the two abovementioned points (§ 5 par.1, 2 Investment Support for the Production of Bio Energy).

(http://www.res-legal.eu/search-by-country/estonia/single/s/res-e/t/promotion/aid/subsidy-ii-investment-support-for-the-production-of-bio-energy/lastp/123/)

Link:

Subsidy II (Investment Support for the Production of Bio Energy)

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance  Tax Code - VAT reduction Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance 2001 FR

Title (orig.): Tax Code - VAT reduction

Language: English

Summary:

In 2001, the tax credit was extended to include renewable energy sources. Accordingly, natural persons may deduct from income tax a certain percentage of investments in renewable energy plants. Art. 18 bis of Annex IV of the Code Général des Impôts lists all eligible plants and specifies technical and performance requirements. Further provisions regarding the implementation of the tax credit are laid down in Instruction fiscale 5 B-26-05 N° 147, Instruction fiscale 5 B-17-07 N° 88, Instruction fiscale 5 B-10-09 N° 38, Instruction fiscale 5 B-20-10 N° 77 and Instruction fiscale 5 B-22-09 N° 65. The crédit d’impôt for renewable energy plants will apply until the end of 2012 (art. 200 quater, Code Général des Impôts, referred to and specified in Instruction fiscale 5 B-22-09 N° 65). However, it is extended until 2015 for installations carried out in buildings completed since more than two years (Art. 200 quater, Code Général des Impôts).

Link:

Tax Code - VAT reduction