A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Ministry of Economic Development  Public call to tender for co-financing of district heating Ministry of Economic Development 2011 SI

Title (orig.): Public call to tender for co-financing of district heating

Language: Slovenian

Summary:

Public call to tender for co-financing of district heating using biomass for the period 2011 to 2015 (DOLB 3) – The call document defines the terms, conditions and amount of the subsidy scheme granted by the Ministry of Economic Development for co-financing the district heating systems that use biomass for the period from 2011 to 2014.

Link:

Uradni list Republike Slovenije

Ministry of Economic Development  Decree "Conto Thermal", DM 28/12/12 G.S.E. S.p.a. 2012 IT

Title (orig.): Conto Termico (DM 28/12/12)

Language: Italian

Summary:

With the publication of DM 28/12/12, the SO-CALLED Decree “Conto Thermal”, it gives effect to the support system introduced by Legislative Decree 3 March 2011, n. 28 for the stimulation of interventions of small dimensions for increased energy efficiency, and for the production of thermal energy from renewable sources.The Manager of Energy Services – GSE S.p.A. It is the entity responsible for the implementation and management of the mechanism, including the provision of incentives to the beneficiaries. The incentive mechanism is aimed at two types of subjects :

  • Public administrations
  • Private entities , considered as physical persons , condominiums and owners of business income or income from farming

For access to the mechanism , the beneficiary of the incentive is called ” Responsible Party ” is the person who incurred the expenses for the implementation of interventions. The responsible entity may operate through a delegated person for submitting the request for incentive (so-called ” card – demand ” ) and management of contractual relations with the GSE. Are eligible for incentives provided by the DM 12/28/12 the following two categories of actions:

A) interventions to increase energy efficiency

B) interventions of small dimensions relative to installations for the production of thermal energy from renewable sources and high efficiency systems

The government may require the incentive for both categories of interventions (category A and category B).Private individuals are eligible for incentives only for interventions related to small plants for the production of thermal energy from renewable sources and efficient systems (category B). Interventions access to incentives Income Thermal relation to the amount in excess of that required for compliance with the requirements for the integration of renewable sources in new buildings and existing buildings undergoing major renovation, provided by Legislative Decree no. 28/11 and required to the issuance of the building.Now in 2016 it is going to be approved the new the new Conto Thermal: allowed more intervention and introduced simplifications.New types of work allowed , from home automation lighting for processing into nearly zero energy buildings , more generous incentives and simpler procedures . These are the main new features of the new version of the Income Thermal second draft in circulation. New types of work allowed, from home automation lighting for processing into NZEB (nearly zero energy buildings), more generous incentives and simpler procedures. These are the main new features of the new version of the Income Thermal second draft in circulation (attached below), developed by the Ministry of Economic Development in the valley of the public consultation ended on 28 February and which will replace the MD 28 December 2012 .As in the current version, there are available 900 million euro per year, 700 to 200 individuals and businesses and for public authorities. In the latter also includes housing cooperatives.New interventions incentivized the new draft adds, always only for the government, three new measures:

  • transformation into “nearly zero energy buildings” (NZEB)
  • replacement of lighting systems with efficient devices
  • installation of technology management and automatic control of the heating and electrical systems in buildings (building automation), systems of thermoregulation and heat metering

Link:

Conto Termico (DM 28/12/12)
Ecco il nuovo Conto Termico: ammessi più interventi e introdotte semplificazioni

Ministry of Economic Development  Ministerial Decree 10/09/2010 Ministry of Economic Development 2010 IT

Title (orig.): Decreto Ministeriale 10/09/2010

Language: Italian

Summary:

National guideline for the authorization of plants powered by renewable sources.

Link:

Decreto Ministeriale 10/09/2010

Ministry of Economic Development  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Ministry of Economic Development 2010 IT

Title (orig.): Piano di Azione Nazionale per le energie rinnovabili (PAN)

Language: Italian

Summary:

The plan outlines the strategies identified for the development of renewable energy sources and draws the main lines of action for each area of intervention (Electricity, Heating – Cooling and Transport).the identifies measures – economic, not economic, support and international cooperation – necessary to achieve the objectives. It also provides for the adoption of certain cross-cutting measures, such as the streamlining of the authorization process, the development of electricity transmission and distribution, the introduction of the technical specifications for the installations, the installer certification, sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids and international cooperation measures.

Link:

Piano di Azione Nazionale per le energie rinnovabili (PAN)

Ministry of Economy  Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy and cogeneration (Règlement du 12 février 2008 et du 23 novembre 2012) Ministry of Economy 2014 LU

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy and cogeneration (Règlement du 12 février 2008 et du 23 novembre 2012)

Language: English

Summary:

The Act on production of electricity based on renewable energy sources establishes system of certificates guaranteeing renewable origin of the electricity produced. Certificates are necessary for the administration purposes and dealings between plant’s owner and network operator and other administrative purposes.

(LCMW) Relevance: System of certificates guaranteeing renewable origin of the electricity

Link:

Feed-in tariffs for renewable energy and cogeneration (Règlement du 12 février 2008 et du 23 novembre 2012)

Ministry of Economy  Energy Development Strategy 2014-2020 Latvian Government 2014 LV

Title (orig.): STRATĒĢISKAIS IETEKMES UZ VIDI NOVĒRTĒJUMS Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2014.- 2020.gadam

Language: Latvian

Link:

STRATĒĢISKAIS IETEKMES UZ VIDI NOVĒRTĒJUMS Enerģētikas attīstības pamatnostādnēm 2014.- 2020.gadam

Ministry of Economy  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Ministry of Economy 2013 HR

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

In the Biomass supply table (2006):  in biomass from forestry sector, the landscape management residues (woody biomass from parks, gardens, tree rows, bushes) are included but unfortunately not quantified in potential. Same treatment in the Biomass from agriculture and fisheries sector for clippings form vines, olives, fruit trees.

Unused arable land:

The Agricultural Land Act (Official Gazette 39/13) stipulates that arable lands must be maintained suitable for agricultural production, which implied preventing its overgrowth with weeds or perennial vegetation, and reductions of its fertility. Furthermore, the Act prescribes the obligation for agricultural land owners and users to cultivate arable lands, with the use of the necessary agrotechnical measures, in a manner that does not diminish its value. The Act also prescribes the level of monetary fines for legal persons, responsible persons and natural persons in the case that arable lands are not maintained in a suitable state for agricultural production, and are not cultivated using the appropriate agrotechnical measures. As evident from the above, non-use of arable lands is not permitted in the Republic of Croatia.

For the implementation of tasks to protect, use, disposal of, trade and consolidate agricultural lands, in 2009 the Government of the Republic of Croatia established the Agency for Agricultural Lands. Pursuant to the provisions of the said Act, unused arable land (defined as those lands that are not in function or are overgrown in perennial vegetation) under government ownership comprises an integral part of the Land Fund the Agency manages. The Agency may issue public calls to give these arable lands into lease or exchange them, exceptionally it may sell them and manage them for the purpose of consolidation. The decision to call a public tender is made by the Agency. Following public tenders implemented in the period from 2003 to 2011, a total of 53,966.87 ha of unused arable lands remain in state ownership, which has remained available and may be given for concession or multi-year lease.

Biogas:

The Energy Strategy of the Republic of Croatia has set the objective that agricultural production used in energy purposes in 2020 is equivalent to at least 20% of the total conditional cattle heads, thus producing about 2.6 PJ of energy from biogas or about 100 million m3 of biogas. The Republic of Croatia promotes the production and use of biogas for the purpose of rational energy use (substitution of fossil fuels with RES), the handling of waste from agricultural and food production, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and stimulating the development of agricultural holdings.

The produced biogas is most often used as a fuel in cogeneration plants for the production of electricity and thermal energy. In the system of eligible electricity producers, with which HROTE has concluded an agreement on electricity purchase, a total of nine biogas-fuelled plants have been connected to the electricity network, with a total installed capacity of 8.135 MW. HROTE has concluded electricity purchase agreements with four project leaders whose plants are yet to become operational, with a total installed capacity of 3.299 MW (status as at 30 September 2013). All produced electricity, reduced by own consumption, is delivered to the electricity distribution system, with the application of incentive prices in line with the Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and cogeneration (Official Gazette 63/12). A part of the produced heat is used through own consumption for maintaining technological processes of anaerobic degradation, while the remainder may be sold (e.g. for heating greenhouses for the growing of vegetables, heating/cooling of rooms or other useful purposes). Producers have not yet achieved the right to the incentive price for the production of thermal energy using biogas as a fuel.

With the applied technology of anaerobic decomposition, biodegradable organic waste is used as a raw material for the production of electricity and thermal energy, and high quality organic fertiliser. Plans are in place to implement technology that would purify biogas to the quality of natural gas (biomethane) and its compression into the distribution network of natural gas, and the use of compressed biomethane in transport.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Ministry of Economy  Quota system / Green certificates Ministry of Economy 2008 RO

Title (orig.): Quota system / Green certificates

Language: English

Summary:

Quota system: In Romania, the main means of promotion is a quota system based on quota obligations, tradable certificates, and minimum and maximum prices. Electricity suppliers and producers are obliged to present a certain number (or quota) of green certificates (art. 8 par. 1 Law No. 220/2008 as referred to in art. 1 par. 11 Emergency Ordinance No. 88/2011). These tradable certificates are allocated to the producers of electricity from renewable sources (art. 6, 10 Law no. 220/2008 as referred to in art. 1 par. 9, 12 Emergency Ordinance No. 88/2011).

Link:

Quota system / Green certificates

Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade  National Renewable Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade, European Comission 2010 LU

Title (orig.): National Renewable Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy targets

Link:

LU National Renewable Action Plan (NREAP)

Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade, Department of Energy  Grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy investments Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2010 LU

Title (orig.): Grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy investments

Language: English

Summary:

This law allows for grants to companies in the industrial, commercial and handcraft sector having a commercial establishment permit. Under this regulation, the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade provides subsidies for energy-saving, and renewable energy investments.

These subsidies are offered for measures taken that improove energy efficiency of industrial processes, for the use of renewable energy sources or for combined heat and power (CHP) production based on renewable energy sources. The assessment is made by comparing the planned investments to a counterfctual scenario.

Grants cover up to 40% of eligible costs. Small and medium sized enterprises are eligible for grants that cover up to an additional 10% of eligible costs.

(LCMW) Relevance: Subsidies for energy-saving, and renewable energy investments

Link:

Grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy investments

Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade, Department of Energy  Compensation mechanism for renewable electricity Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2010 (last amended 2014) LU

Title (orig.): Compensation mechanism for renewable electricity

Language: English

Summary:

The regulation establishes a clearing mechanism for the net costs resulting from the feed-in tariff system for the deployment of renewable energy instillations.

The compensation fund is managed by the Luxembourg Institute of Regulation (ILR), which sets the amount of the annual contribution based on the market price of electricity produced by conventional methods. The revenues gathered through the mechanism are distributed to the end electricity consumers in order to decrease electricity bills costs.

(LCMW) Relevance: Feed-in tariff system for the deployment of renewable energy instillations

Link:

Compensation mechanism for renewable electricity

Ministry of Economy and Innovatoin (MEI)  Resolution of the Council of Ministries - 63/2003 Ministry of Economy and Innovatoin (MEI) 2003 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Promotion of national competitiveness : the main focus is the liberalisation of the electricity market and to decrease energy intensity. In early 2007, the renewable energy targets were reviewed and made more ambitious: -The target rate of electricity produced from renewable energy sources by 2010 was set higher, going from its initial figure of 39% to 45%. – The percentage of biofuels as part of road-transport fuel was set at 10% by 2010, up from the previous target of 5.75%. – 5% to 10% of coal used in Sines and Pego power plants is to be prelaced by biomass or waste by 2010.

Link:

Resolution of the Council of Ministries - 63/2003

Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism 2010 BG

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC member countries of the European Union are obliged to draft and submit to the European Commission National Renewable Action Plans (NREAPs) outlining pathway which will allow them to meet their 2020 renewable energy, energy efficiency and GHG cuts targets.

Bulgaria 2020 renewable energy targets:

  • Overall target: 16% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumptions;
  • Heating and Cooling: 24% of heat consumption met by renewable energy sources;
  • Electricity: 21% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 8% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources;
  • Measures to promote the use of energy from renewable energy source that will facilitate achievement of above enlisted targets:
  • Feed-in tariff system
  • Obligatory connection of RES plant to the network;
  • Long-term power purchase agreements (25 years for electricity purchased from geothermal and solar plants, 15 years from hydropower plants up to 10MW and from any other type of renewable plant);
  • Obligatory purchase of the electricity from renewable energy producers;
  • Guarantees of origin;
  • Compulsory blending of biofuels;
  • Zero rate of excise duty for pure biofuels;
  • Short and long-term programmes aiming at development of renewables.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Finland  Finnish Bioeconomy strategy Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Finland 2014 FIN

Title (orig.): Finnish Bioeconomy strategy

Language: English

Summary:

The Finnish Bioeconomy Strategy is based on smart exploitation of biomass, but strongly based on the traditional forest industry. No direct reference to landscape material, but goal 4 of the strategy is the accessibility of biomass in which the diversity of origin from within Finland should be secured.

Link:

Finnish Bioeconomy strategy PDF

Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Finland  Energy and Climate Roadmap 2015 Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Finland 2014 FIN

Title (orig.): Energy and Climate Roadmap 2015

Language: English

Link:

Energy and Climate Roadmap 2015 PDF

Ministry of Energy  Feed-in Tariffs for Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources (3rd quarter of 2015) Lithuanian Government 2015 LT

Title (orig.): Feed-in Tariffs for Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources (3rd quarter of 2015)

Language: English

Link:

Feed-in Tariffs for Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources (3rd quarter of 2015)

Ministry of Energy  Law on Energy from Renewable Sources Lithuanian Government 2011 LT

Title (orig.): Law on Energy from Renewable Sources

Language: English

Link:

Law on Energy from Renewable Sources

Ministry of Energy  Purchase of heat produced from RES (Support scheme) Lithuanian Government 2011 LT

Title (orig.): Purchase of heat produced from RES (Support scheme)

Language: English

Summary:

The production of heat and the purchase of heat produced from renewable sources are public service obligations. The state promotes the purchase of heat produced from all renewable energy sources. Utilities have a priority purchase obligation for renewable heat generated by independent producers. Heat suppliers are obliged to purchase all RES heat generated by independent heat producers that is cheaper than the heat produced by the heat supplier himself and which satisfies quality, supply security and environmental requirements. This obligation does not apply where the supply of renewable heat generated by independent heat producers exceeds network capacity (Chapter IV Art. 25 Law on Energy from Renewable Sources; Chapter II Art. 4; Chapter IV Art. 10 Par. 1 Law on Heat Sector).

The procedure and the conditions for the purchase of heat from independent heat producers are defined by the National Control Commission for Prices and Energy (Chapter II Art. 4 Item 2, Chapter IV Art. 10 Item 1 Law on Heat Sector).

Link:

Purchase of heat produced from RES (Support scheme)

Ministry of Environment  Environment policy strategy 2009-2015 Latvian Government 2009 LV

Title (orig.): Environment policy strategy 2009-2015

Language: English

Summary:

The Environmental Policy Strategy 2009–2015 (hereinafter – the EPS) is a medium-term policy planning document reflecting the current situation, defining objectives of the environmental policy, problems to be solved, basic principles and policy results, as well as lines ofaction for the achievement of policy objectives. The EPS has been drafted by the Ministry of Environment. Consultations and discussions were held with industry experts during drafting of the EPS, as well as discussions on the draft EPS with participation of the general public took place on the Web portal www.politika.lv. The policy area covered by the EPS is environmental policy. The overall objective of the Environmental Policy Strategy is to form a basis for preservation and restoration of environmental quality, as well as for sustainable use of natural resources, while at the same time limiting the impact of hazardous environmental factors on human health. Considering that environment- and nature-related issues cover a very broad spectrum of problems, the EPS has been divided into five thematic sections – “AIR”, “WATER”, “LAND”, “NATURE” and “CLIMATE”.

Link:

Environment policy strategy 2009-2015

Ministry of Environment  10 regional Waste Management Plans Latvian Government 2007 LV

Title (orig.): Valsts un reģionālie atkritumu apsaimniekošanas plāni

Language: Latvian

Link:

Valsts un reģionālie atkritumu apsaimniekošanas plāni

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