A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland  Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland 1996 FIN

Title (orig.): Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Language: English

Summary:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry (1094/1996, amendments up to 112/2003 included) contains 9 chapters:

  • Chapter 1 – General provisions
  • Chapter 2 – Ensuring the sustainability of timber production
  • Chapter 3 – Support for maintaining the biological diversity in forests
  • Chapter 4 – Forest ecosystem management
  • Chapter 5 – Other promotion measures
  • Chapter 6 – Application, granting and payment as well as recovery and legal consequences
  • Chapter 7 – Steering and supervision
  • Chapter 8 – Miscellaneous provisions
  • Chapter 9 – Entry into force and transitional provisions

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial support on maintenance of forest biomass

Link:

Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development  Subsidies for RES in agriculture Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 2011 RO

Title (orig.): Subsidies for RES in agriculture

Summary:

RES-H technologies may be supported by subsidies from the National Rural Development Programme for own consumption.However, there is currently no open call for Measure 123.Furthermore, the Romanian Environmental Fund provides subsidies to legal entities and natural persons for the installation of heating systems using renewable energy sources.However, there has been no call for applications since 2011, since the budget for 2012 has been used for financing projects on the waiting list from 2011. Due lacking funds, no new call for applications took place in 2013. The availability of budgets for a new call for applications in 2014 is still uncertain. However, the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change announced that the subsidy programme should be continued and a new call for applications can be expected for the end of 2014 or latest for 2015.

Link:

Subsidy (Modernizarea exploatatiilor agricole – Masura 121)

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment  Royal Decree 1007/2015, of 6 November, by which regulates the acquisition, for the Carbon Fund for a Sustainable Economy, carbon credit Plan to Promote Environment in the sector of the company "PIMA Company" for reducing greenhouse gases at its facilities Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment 2015 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 1007/2015, de 6 de noviembre, por el que se regula la adquisición, por el Fondo de Carbono para una Economía Sostenible, de créditos de carbono del Plan de Impulso al Medio Ambiente en el sector de la empresa "PIMA Empresa" para la reducción de gases de efecto invernadero en sus instalaciones

Language: Spanish

Summary:

Royal Decree 1007/2015, of 6 November, by which regulates the acquisition, for the Carbon Fund for a Sustainable Economy, carbon credit Plan to Promote Environment in the sector of the company “PIMA Company” for reducing greenhouse gases at its facilities.

Link:

Real Decreto 1007/2015, de 6 de noviembre, por el que se regula la adquisición, por el Fondo de Carbono para una Economía Sostenible, de créditos de carbono del Plan de Impulso al Medio Ambiente en el sector de la empresa "PIMA Empresa" para la reducción de gases de efecto invernadero en sus instalaciones

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry  Decree No. 2007-951 on state subsidies granted for forest investment Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry 2007 FR

Title (orig.): Decree No. 2007-951 on state subsidies granted for forest investment

Language: English

Summary:

The provisions of this Decree state that the State may grant the general budget to enable the achievement of the following: 1) afforestation, reforestation, regeneration and stand; 2) Work forest improvement; 3) The work of forest service; 4) The work of forest protection including restoration of mountain land, investment in prevention and defense against forest fires and coastal dune fixation operations; 5) cleaning, restoration and pest control in forest stands affected by exceptional natural phenomena; 6) The work of protection and restoration of biodiversity. Grants are awarded on the basis of an estimate and description, in accordance with the general rules on state subsidies for investment projects. However, the subsidy amounts for the transactions referred to in item 5 may be established on the basis of regional scales adopted by regional prefects, under the conditions laid down in Annex 1 to this Order.

Link:

Forest Subsidies
Feed-in tariff

Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries (MADRP)  Decree Law No. 63/2004, of 22 March (Permanent Forest Fund (FFP) Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries (MADRP) 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-lei 63/2004 de 22 de Março (Fundo Florestal Permanente (FFP))

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law, composed of 6 articles, institutes the Permanent Forestry Fund, an autonomous body, created complementarily with the Institute for Financing and Supporting the Agriculture and Fisheries Development (IFADAP). It sets the objectives of the Fund, as, for instance: promoting the investment, management and prevention of forest fires; supporting the preventive measures of forest fires; creating financial mechanisms for enabling sustainable forestry models. The Ministry for Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries shall approve the programme of financial aid to be granted by the Fund. Finally, the Decree indicates the various possible aid foreseen (subsidies, credit lines, insurance premiums and guarantees) and the areas covered by the Fund. The decree is amended by Order No. 296/2013. Amended articles: 3-5 and 7-26 of the Regulation of the Permanent Forestry Fund (approved by Order No. 113/2011) deal with administrative and legal proceedings as well as competence, duties and responsibilities of the above mentioned Forestry Fund, aiming at creating financial mechanisms for enabling sustainable forestry sector. The Ministry for Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries shall approve the programme of financial aid to be grated by the Fund.

Link:

Factsheet: Permanent forest fund

Ministry of Budget, Public Accounts and Civil Service  Finance Law 2009: Sustainable energy provisions Ministry of Budget, Public Accounts and Civil Service 2009 FR

Title (orig.): Finance Law 2009: Sustainable energy provisions

Language: English

Summary:

Sustainable energy provisions. The 2009 Finance Law contains various provisions to increase support of renewable energy. Some of the primary measures are described below. Eco-loan: 0% loan for energy-efficient renovation (Art. 99) The Law also creates a zero-interest loan programme for major renovation activities. The aim is for energy savings to allow repayment of the loans capital. Activities that can be covered under the loan include: -Thermal insulation for roofs, exterior walls, and exterior glass surfaces; -Installation, regulation or replacement of heating or hot water systems; -Installation of heating or hot water systems using renewable energy. The loan amount is limited to EUR 30 000. Biofuels (Articles 16 and 17) The Law also includes some provisions targeting biofuels. Ethanol E85 is to benefit from progressively reduced consumption taxes; these are EUR 23.85 per hectolitre as of 1 January 2009, going down to EUR 20.69 as of 1 January 2010, and EUR 17.29 as of 1 January 2011. In addition, a new category of biofuel blend known as E10 is recognised, a low-lead fuel containing 10% ethanol and 22% ethers. It also provides for a consumption tax reduction on a variety of biofuels, ranging from EUR 15 to 21 in 2009, EUR 11 to 18 in 2011, and EUR 8 to 14 in 2012.

Link:

Finance Law 2009: Sustainable energy provisions

Danish Energy Agency  Limiting the use of corn and other feedstocks for the production of biogas Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building 2012 DK

Title (orig.): Begrænsning for brug af majs og andre energiafgrøder til produktion af biogas

Language: Danish

Summary:

Quotation: “Under  the  new  conditions,  the  Danish  biogas  sector  is subject  to  legislation  that  limits  the  quantity  of  purposely  grown energy  crops  that  can  be  used  in  biogas  plants  to  25%  (weight based,  %  of  total  biomass  digested)  by  2017  with  further  reduction  to  12%  by  2020.”

(Meyer, A.K.P., Ehimen, E.A. and Holm-Nielsen, J.B. 2014. Bioenergy production from roadside grass: A case study of the feasibility of using roadside grass for biogas production in Denmark. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2014, 93, pp. 124–133.)

Link:

Begrænsning for brug af majs og andre energiafgrøder til produktion af biogas PDF

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism  Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism 2003 CY

Title (orig.): Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Summary:

Grant scheme for the promotion of electricity generation using wind, solar thermal, photovoltaic systems and the utilization of biomass – The minimum selling price of electrical energy that will be produced by utilizing biomass-landfill and fed to the transmission / distribution grid is 117.9 -97.4 Eur/MWh for the first 20 years. The grant, paid from the Special Fund for RES will result from the difference between the total selling price and the purchase price of electricity from renewable sources, by the electricity distributor as it is periodically determined by CERA. Note that if the purchase price kWh from the supplier surpass total selling price, then the supplier will pay the excess amount to the Special Fund for RES and RUE.

Link:

Law on the Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and tourism  National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Ministry of Commerce, Industry and tourism 2010 CY

Title (orig.): National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan – The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism in cooperation with all others competent bodies, considered various scenarios regarding development plans for projects implementing renewable energy sources technologies in the sectors of electricity, heating/cooling and transport and selected the best scenario for Cyprus. The selection was based on the following criteria:

  • the obligation of the Republic of Cyprus to achieve the targets set by Directive 2009/28/•C for both the share of energy from renewable sources in the final consumption of energy and the rate of renewable sources consumed in transport;
  • the domestic renewable energy potential per technology;
  • the cost, maturity, efficiency, potential, development and social acceptance of each technology;
  • the cost and most efficient utilisation of the Special Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Fund revenue;
  • safe network operation and the potential of each technology with respect to stocks.

Link:

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development  Feed-in tariff and tax benefits Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development 2009 FR

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariff and tax benefits

Language: English

Summary:

In France, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff and tax benefits. The generation of heat through renewable energy plants is promoted through several systems of energy subsidies, tax regulation mechanisms as well as through a zero percent-interest loan. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. Furthermore, biofuels are supported through fiscal regulation. The use of the grid for the transmission of electricity from renewable sources is subject to the general legislation on energy. There are no special provisions for electricity from renewable sources. The following policies aim at promoting the development, installation and usage of RES-installations: There are 2 training programmes for RES-installers; 4 certification schemes for PV installations, solar thermal plants, wood-heating systems and heat pumps; one research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programme; a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and two support schemes for RES-H infrastructures. As far as heating and cooling is concerned, public distribution of heat in France is a competence of the local or regional authorities. In order to promote the use of renewable energies, territorial collectivities are entitled to classify heating networks located in their area, provided they are supplied with at least 50% of heat from renewable energy sources. New and renovated buildings located within a classified area are obliged to be connected to the heating network. The procedure of grid connection is at the same time also the procedure for grid development, since the construction of a plant must occur simultaneously with the construction (development) of the district heating grid. In France, public distribution of heat is a competence of the local or regional authorities.

Link:

Feed-in tariff and tax benefits

Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) France Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development 2010 FR

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) France

Language: English

Summary:

2020 renewable energy targets:

  • Overall target: 23% of share of energy generated from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption;
  • Heating and cooling: 33% of heat consumption met by renewable sources;
  • Electricity: 27% of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources;
  • Transport: 10.5% of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

In order to achieve above enlisted targets France runs following incentive schemes:

  • Modifications of administrative procedures in order to overcome administrative barriers to the deployment of renewable energies;
  • Tax reliefs (VAT,
  • Measures improving energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings;
  • Grants
  • Financial aid to research, development and deployment of renewable and energy efficiency technologies;

•Investments in railway infrastructure with purpose of energy savings

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) France

Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development  Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Biomass Ministry of Ecology, Energy and Sustainable Development 2009 (amended 2011) FR

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Biomass

Language: English

Summary:

A) The following feed-in tariffs were established under the Electricity Law of 2000. All sites benefiting from the mandatory buyback rates must be under 12 MW of nominal capacity: – Wind energy: production sites built after the law was published (November 2001) can sign a fifteen-year contract which guarantees a FF 0.55/kWh (0.0838) rate for the first five years for all sites. The tariff for the next ten years depends on wind conditions; plants working at full capacity for less than 2,000 hours continue to get EUR 0.0838, those at a full-capacity of 3,600 h/year receive 0.0541/kWh (tariffs in between are determined by a linear regression). These tariffs apply for the first 1,500 MW of nationally installed capacity, thereafter all tariffs decrease by 10% (only for new projects). These tariffs are applicable until December 2002, after they decrease by 3.3% annually to reflect technology learning. – Small hydro: production sites built after the publication of the law (or for the marginal production from retrofits increasing production by more than 10%) can sign a twenty-year contract which guarantees FF 0.40/kWh (0.0610) for sites with a capacity under 500 kW and FF 0.36/kWh (0.0549) for larger ones. An incentive for regularity of production of up to FF 0.10/kWh (0.0152) is available in winter (regularity and winter incentives can be separated). – Combustible waste: production sites built after the publication of the law are guaranteed rates of up to FF 0.299/kWh (0.0456) for medium-voltage connections and FF 0.274/kWh (0.0418) for high-voltage connections. – Solar (PV or any radiative technology): The rate is 0.305/kWh in the overseas departments and Corsica, and 0.0155/kWh on mainland France. It also provides a grant of 4.6/watt for direct grid-connected installations. – Biogas from landfills: production sites built after the publication of the law are guaranteed, in metropolitan France, rates up to 0.0572/kWh for small installations, up to 0.0450/kWh for large installations and linear interpolation for medium-sized installations. -Municipal solid waste (other than biogas): Rate of EUR 0.045 to EUR 0.05/kWh with a bonus for energy efficiency ranging from 0 to EUR 0.003/kWh. -Cogeneration: Rate of between EUR 0.061 and EUR 0.0915/kWh, according to the price of gas, running time and power. Feed-in tariffs for most technologies have been superseded by subsequent regulations, except for biogas from landfills, municipal solid waste and cogeneration. Tariffs for landfill biogas and municipal solid waste run 15 years, while those for cogeneration are 12 years.

B)  In 2002, feed-in tariffs were set for the following renewable energy sources, completing the list of tariffs provided for in the Electricity Law, which came into force in 2001. The tariffs have been set for 15 years, except for solar PV which is for 20 years. All sites benefiting from the mandatory buyback rates must be under 12 MW of nominal capacity: – Biomass (Arreté of 16 April 2002): EUR 0.049/kWh, plus bonus for efficiency of between 0 and EUR 0.12/kWh. – Methanisation (Arreté of 16 April 2002): EUR 0.046/kWh, plus bonus for efficiency of between 0 and EUR 0.12/kWh. – Geothermal (Arreté of 13 March 2002): EUR 0.0762/kWh, with a bonus for efficiency between 0 and EUR 0.003/kWh. – Animal waste (Arreté of 13 March 2002): EUR 0.045 to EUR 0.05/kWh, with a bonus for efficiency between 0 and EUR 0.003/kWh. – Solar photovoltaics (Arreté of 13 March 2002): A tariff of EUR 0.305 per kWh has been set in the overseas departments (DOM), in the islands of Saint Pierre et Miquelon and Corsica and of EUR 0.152 per kWh for mainland France. New tariffs have subsequently been set for most of these technologies (see related entry)

Link:

Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Biomass

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy  Zero percent interest loan for housing renovation Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy 2014 FR

Title (orig.): Zero percent interest loan for housing renovation

Language: English

Summary:

Full name of Instrument & Measure (English): Order of 30 March 2009 regarding the granting conditions of the zero percent-interest loan for the support of housing renovation aiming at improving the energetic performance of existing buildings
The zero percent-interest loan for housing renovation was introduced by the Finance Act of 2009 within the frame of the Environment Grenelle. It allows the financing of work aiming at improving the energy performance of the housing without paying a cash advance and without paying interests. One of the conditions in order to benefit from the loan is to carry out a bunch of works, consisting of at least two actions including the installation of a heating plant or of a sanitary hot water system using renewable energies (Art. 244 quater U, §2, CGI). Only one loan can be granted per housing unit. Moreover, the housing unit shall be a main residence built before 1990 (Art. 244 quater U, §1, CGI). For biomass plants the following are eligible: Wood fuelled heating plants, provided they comply with the requirements of the third rate (“classe 3”) as defined in the Annex II (Art. 7, Arrêté du 30 mars 2009). Wood-burning stoves, wood-fired hearths as well as fireplace inserts are also eligible, provided they have an energetic performance of at least 70% (Art. 7, Arrêté du 30 mars 2009).

Link:

Zero percent interest loan for housing renovation

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy; Ministère de l'Environnement - Ministry of the Environment  Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy; Ministère de l'Environnement - Ministry of the Environment 2002 FR

Title (orig.): Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste

Language: English

Summary:

All information relating to waste under Title IV of Part V of the Environmental Code and its implementing regulations must be provided using the codes listed in the list contained in Annex II of this decree. Waste that exhibits one or more of the properties listed in Annex I of this decree is considered hazardous waste. These hazardous wastes are marked with an asterisk in the list in Annex II.

Link:

Decree No. 2002-540 on the classification of waste

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling Ministry of Economic Affairs 2006 NL

Title (orig.): Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

Language: English

Summary:

Upon its publication in the EU Official Journal on 4 January 2003, the EU Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) entered into EU law, allowing member states until 4 January 2006 to transpose the Directive into domestic building codes. The Directives principal objectives are: To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU through cost effective measures; To promote the convergence of building standards towards those of Member States which already have ambitious levels. Measures include: Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings; Application of performance standards on new and existing buildings; Certification schemes for all buildings; Regular inspection and assessment of boilers/heating and cooling installations. The Netherlands transposed into national law these measures, along with a building labelling scheme designed to encourage property buyers to choose property using relatively less fossil energy – either through integrated renewable energy generation or the buildings energy efficiency.

(LCMW) Relevance: Renewable energy generation and the buildings energy efficiency

Link:

Implementation of EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD): Energy Performance Certificate and Energy Labeling

CertiQ (formerly the Green Certificate Body)  Green Certificate Trading Ministry of Economic Affairs 2001 NL

Title (orig.): Green Certificate Trading

Language: English

Summary:

To promote green energy on the national electricity market, the Netherlands in 2001 established a tradable green certificates program. In a green certificate system, the credits function as an accounting system to verify whether demand has been met or, when there is no demand, to measure the amount of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (RES-E). Secondly, certification facilitates trade: through the establishment of green certificates (GCs) a separate market for the renewable characteristic of the electricity will originate besides the market for physical electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Green Certificate Trading

Ministry of Economic Affairs  NL Green Deals Ministry of Economic Affairs 2011 NL

Title (orig.): NL Green Deals

Language: English

Summary:

Launched in 2011 in order to help Netherlands achieve its EU 2020 target – 14 % of total energy consumption.

The Green Deals programme seeks to promote and support domestic sustainability. Citizens, companies, local councils and other can propose projects to the government. The projects must address energy, raw materials, transport or water. The government does not provide grants for these projects but can offer seed capital and loans through an innovation fund, and supports projects in various other ways, including through tax breaks, sustainable public procurement and even changing the law to eliminate obstacles.

The aim of Green Deals is to support projects that will produce rapid results – the benefits should become clear within three years.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on domestic sustainability

Link:

NL Green Deals

Agentschap NL (Netherlands Enterprise Agency)  International Energy Programme Ministry of Economic Affairs 2010 NL

Title (orig.): International Energy Programme

Language: English

Summary:

The Dutch government initiated the International Energy Programme, a research co-operation partnership, to further benefit from international experience and knowledge in the field of sustainable energy policies. The backbone of the programme is knowledge management and international networking. The Energy Programme aims to enhance Dutch national policies through information sharing and international co-operation, especially with focus countries namely Russia, Romania, Ukraine and China.

(LCMW) Relevance: Sustainable energy policies

Link:

International Energy Programme

Netherlands Enterprise Agency  Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme) Ministry of Economic Affairs 2014 NL

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme)

Language: English

Summary:

This tax benefit enables entrepreneurs based in the Netherlands to write off investments in renewable energy plants against tax (art. 3.42 Wet IB 2001). The eligibility criteria are extensively described in the Energy List. The level of funding depends, among other things, on the source of energy and the type of plant used. Investments of less than 450 Euros are ineligible (art. 3.45 (1) (a) Wet IB 2001). Furthermore, a total of at least 2,300 € (and at most €116 million) must be invested in eligible projects within one year (art. 3.42 Wet IB 2001).

(LCMW) Relevance: Regulation of investments in renewable energy plants

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme)

Netherlands Enterprise Agency  Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace Ministry of Economic Affairs 2016 NL

Title (orig.): Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace

Language: Dutch

Summary:

In the Netherlands, the provinces are responsible for nature conservation. They act as a field director in rural areas and bring the parties together to provide the policy and the implementation of nature and landscape. The provinces also determine where they want to achieve the targets and allocation of resources for this purpose.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy and the implementation of nature and landscape

Link:

Over het Subsidiestelsel