A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Ministry of the Economy  Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1993 LU

Title (orig.): Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Language: English

Summary:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993 provides the legal basis for deployment and renewable energy usage in Luxembourg. The Law sets out energy savings and renewable energy objectives and measures.

The Law provides for research and demonstration activities on renewable energy sources and/or energy conservation to benefit from public assistance, particularly in the form of pilot projects. It establishes that electricity produced from small-scale renewable energy sources and cogeneration are to be connected to public networks, and that feed-in tariffs are to be established for these sources. It also provides the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration obligations to be set, for buildings requiring large amounts of energy and those in industry.

The Law establishes mandatory energy use norms and standards for buildings. Building owners must undertake energy performance evaluation. They must also undertake energy-saving improvements in insulation, heating and cooling components, should heating needs exceed 600 kW, cooling needs exceed 300 kW or transformer capacity exceed 500 kW.

 

(LCMW) Relevance: Providing the possibility for renewable energy or cogeneration

Link:

Framework Law concerning rational use of energy: Law of 5 August 1993

Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI)  Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables. Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007 Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI) 2007 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007, revised the feed-in tariffs established by the previous Decree Law No. 33 A/2005. The Law covers a wide variety of renewable energy sources, and tariffs vary by source and by capacity. Different tariffs are provided for small (below 5 MW) and large (above 5MW) installations. Wind Below 5 MW: EUR 75/MWh; above 5 MW: EUR 74/MWh Hydro Below 5 MW: EUR 77/MWh; between 5 and 10 MW: EUR 75/MWh Photovoltaic Up to 5 kW: EUR 450/MWh 5 kW to 5 MW: EUR 317/MWh Above 5 MW: EUR 310/MWh micro-generation photovoltaic Under 5 kW: EUR 470/MWh Between 5 and 150 kW: EUR 355/MWh Bioenergy Biomass : EUR 104-109/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102-107/MWh above 5 MW (depending on source) Biogas from anaerobic digestion of waste biomass: EUR 117/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR115/MWh above 5 MW Landfill gas: EUR 104/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102/MWh above 5 MW Municipal Sold Waste (incineration): EUR 54/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 53/MWh above 5 MW Waste-derived fuel (incineration): EUR 76/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 74/MWh above 5 MW Wave power Demonstration wave power up to 4 MW: EUR 260/MWh Pre-commercial wave power from 5 MW up to 20 MW: EUR 191/MWh Commercial wave power above 5 MW: EUR 131/MWh for the first 100 MW; EUR 101/MWh for the subsequent 150 MW; EUR 76/MWh thereafter On 13 September 2007, the Portuguese government approved new incentives for the micro-generation of renewable electricity. This refers to electricity produced primarily for personal consumption, with any excess production available for distribution to third parties or the national grid, up to a limit of 150 kW. The revised rules set a micro-generation tariff of EUR 650 per megawatt hour (MW/h) for an initial five-year period, with payment via electricity bills. An electronic registration platform for micro-generation has been established to manage the new incentive programme, and a simplified licensing and registration procedure has been put in place.

Link:

Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables

Ministry of the Environment  CO2 Reduction Action Plan Ministry of the Environment 2006 LU

Title (orig.): CO2 Reduction Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

The CO2 Reduction Action Plan was presented on 3 May 2006 by the Minister of Environment, introducing multi-sectoral measures targeting emissions reductions.

The measures elaborated in the Plan are to be tracked and progress measured regularly, while the plan is to evolve as necessary. Implementation and monitoring of the Plan is to be done through a taskforce, supervised by the Ministry of Environment, but which brings together various Ministries (Agriculture, Finance, Housing, Interior, Transport and Public Services).

(LCMW) Relevance: Supporting use of cogeneration and biomass

Link:

CO2 Reduction Action Plan

Ministry of the Environment  Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE) Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Language: English

Summary:

The Fund for Environmental Protection (“Fonds pur la Protection de l’Environment (FPE)”) was established on 25th November 1999. The goals of the Fund are:

  • Prevention and fight with air pollutions, noise and climate change
  • Prevention and waste management
  • Protection of the environment and environmental heritage
  • Rehabilitation of waste disposal sites and their management
  • Rehabilitation of contaminated areas
  • Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency
  • Deployment of renewable energies

(LCMW) Relevance: Promotion of rational usage of energy and energy efficiency; Deployment of renewable energies

Link:

Fund for the Protection of the Environment (FPE)

Ministry of the Environment  National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg) Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Language: English

Summary:

In the context of the Rio Conference, the Luxembourgish Government approved in 1999 the National Plan for a Sustainable Development. The main objectives of the Plan are the search and the application of political, economic and social policies thus enhancing the sustainable development of the Luxembourgish economy and society, reducing the use of natural resources and preserving the quality of the environment.
The Plan aims at identifying the priority domains of intervention for a sustainable development, at formulating concrete objectives and at proposing actions and tools supporting its implementation and monitoring.

(LCMW) Relevance: Protection of natural and human environment as well as of natural resources

Link:

National Plan for Sustainable Development (Luxembourg)

Ministry of the Environment  Energy Tax Ministry of the Environment 1999 LU

Title (orig.): Energy Tax

Language: English

Summary:

The Energy tax was established by the National Plan on Suistainable Development from 1999. The tax was introduced in order to unify legislative framework in the energy sector to the measures outlined in the EU Directives 2003/55/EC and 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning Common Rules for the Internal Market in Natural Gas and Electricity.

(LCMW) Relevance: Unification of the legislative framework in the energy sector

Link:

Energy Tax

Ministry of the Environment  Act of 21 March 2012 on the management of waste and amending Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2012 LU

Title (orig.): Loi du 21 mars 2012 relative à la gestion des déchets, et modifiant

Language: Luxembourgish

Summary:

Act of 21 March 2012 on the management of waste and amending:

  • A law of 31 May 1999 on the establishment of a fund for environmental protection
  • The law of 25 March 2005 on the operation and financing of the action SuperDrecksKëscht
  • The law of 19 December 2008 a) on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators b) amending the amended Law of 17 June 1994 on the prevention and management of waste
  • The law of 24 May 2011 on services in the internal market

(LCMW) Relevance: Management of waste and amending

Link:

Loi du 21 mars 2012 relative à la gestion des déchets, et modifiant

Ministry of the Environment  Nature protection Law Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2015 LU

Title (orig.): Nature protection Law

Language: French

Link:

Protection De La Nature Et Des Ressources Naturelles

Ministry of the Environment and Minister of Treasury and Budget  Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2001 LU

Title (orig.): Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources

Language: English

Summary:

This legislation provided incentives in form of financial grants for the installation of renewable systems.

Eligibility criteria:

  • Only private owners were eligible to benefit from the scheme when installing renewable energy installation
  • Two classes of grants depending on electricity generation capacity: 1) 1 kWp – 4 kWp, and 2) > 4 kWp – 50 kWp
  • Systems had to be installed within the private property of the owner
  • Off-grid and connected to the grid installations were eligible for the support

Grant characteristics:

  • One-time financial grant on installation costs
  • Max. EUR 4000 per kWp per beneficiary
  • Owners benefiting from this scheme could also benefit from the  VAT reduction

(LCMW) Relevance: Financial grants for the installation of renewable systems

Link:

Regulation establishing scheme promoting rational use of energy and development of renewable energy sources

Ministry of the Environment, Departement of Financial Aid  Subsidies for investments in renewable electricity generation Official newspaper the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2013 LU

Title (orig.): Subsidy I (Regime d'aides pour la promotion de l'utilisation rationnelle de l'énergie et la mise en valeur des énergies renouvelables)

Language: English

Summary:

Investments in renewable electricity generation are subsidised by the state, which awards investment grants up to a certain maximum. New support conditions were introduced from 1 January 2013 for investments made between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016. According to the new regulation, only PV installations with a maximum capacity of up to 30 kWp are eligible for subsidy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Investments in renewable electricity generation

Link:

Subsidy I (Regime d'aides pour la promotion de l'utilisation rationnelle de l'énergie et la mise en valeur des énergies renouvelables)

Morgenroth, Andreas  The energy transition at the cemetery - production and use of renewable energies in cemetery open spaces Aeternitas e.V. - Verbraucherinitiative Bestattungskultur 2006 DE

Title (orig.): Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof - Erzeugung und Nutzung regenerativer Energien auf Friedhofsfreiflächen

Language: DE

Summary:

Landscape architect Andreas Morgenroth describes the benefits and shows how to use renewable energy in cemeteries. He constitutes the framework of the energy transition and explains sustainability aspects of cemetery management, taking into account the special cemetery cultural concerns. On German cemeteries approximately 15,000 hectares are no longer needed for burials. The trend is towards small urn graves. Morgenroth explains several options of production and use of renewable energies and describes cemetery open spaces as predestined.

(LCMW) Relevance: Potential of landscape material from cemeteries for incineration and digestion.

Link:

Pressemitteilung: Friedhöfe könnten Energie erzeugen
Die Energiewende auf dem Friedhof (PDF)

Müller S., Steensen T., Büscher O., Jandewerth M.  Preparation of a biomass potential map BIS-Verlag, Oldenburg (EnviroInfo Conference 2014) 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Preparation of a biomass potential map

Language: EN

Summary:

Proceedings of the 28th EnviroInfo 2014 Conference, Oldenburg, Germany (September 10-12, 2014)

Normally, there are no reliable data sources that give information about the objects of interest like hedges and vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins. There is a great demand for an inventory of these biomass sources which could be answered by applying remote sensing technology. To generate that kind of spatial information, satellite imagery is used in combination with area-wide available GIS and elevation data.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass potential map of hedges and vegetation along streets, railways, rivers and field margins.

Link:

Preparation of a biomass potential map (PDF)

Municipality of Salas  Interreg - Salas Interreg 2009 CZ

Title (orig.): Interreg - Salaš

Language: Czech

Summary:

The Interreg IIIA project was supported to use environmentally clean heating biomass – wood, along with the use of solar collectors for domestic hot water. The basic idea is to utilize local sources of wood (contract with Lesy Czech Republic) for heating houses also reducing emissions from transport. The result of the project is the creation of one job associated with the organization of harvesting, handling, record keeping and billing itself individual participants in the project.

(LCMW) Relevance: Use of environmentally clean biomass for heating.

Link:

Interreg - Salas

National Agency for Housing  Decree of 2 April 2012 regarding the regulation of the fund for the support of the thermal renovation of private housings National Agency for Housing 2012 FR

Title (orig.): Decree of 2 April 2012 regarding the regulation of the fund for the support of the thermal renovation of private housings

Language: English

Summary:

The French government has introduced a national programme to support modest households in the thermal renovation of their buildings in order to decrease energy losses called “habiter mieux”. This subsidy is given in form of a lump sum, which can only be granted in addition to a subsidy of the National Agency for Housing, provided the renovation works improve the energetic performance of the housing unit by at least 25% (compared to the conventional energy consumption) (Annex, Décret n° 2012-447). Moreover, the district where the housing unit is located shall be signatory of a local commitment agreement against fuel poverty (Annex, Décret n° 2012-447). Biogas is eligible, as well as wood fuelled burners, heat-accumulation stoves, pellet stoves and wood-burning stoves are eligible under certain conditions regarding the capacity and output of the plant (Art. 41-44, Arrêté du 3 mai 2007) The subsidy amounts to € 1,600 per household. However the applicant may receive an additional support of the local authorities where the building is located, in which case the National Agency for Housing commits itself to increase the subsidy by the same amount up to € 500. The maximum amount of the subsidy allocated by the National Agency for Housing cannot exceed € 2,100 (Annex, Décret n° 2012-447). From 2013, the amount of the subsidy shall be revised on 1 January of each year.

Link:

Fund for thermal renovation of private housings
Feed-in tariff

National Government Decree  Legislative Decree 28/2011 - authorization procedures National Government Decree 2011 IT

Title (orig.): DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 3 marzo 2011 , n. 28

Language: Italian

Summary:

It defines a new system of incentives for biomass plants renewable, differentiated by size of theplant. With regard to biogas, the decree provides, among other things, that the incentive to take account of traceability and the origin of the raw material and that it’s finalized Also to promote the efficient use of waste and by-products.concerning the promotion of energy from renewable sources, the Decree includes in the definition of ‘biomass’ even’ the cuttings and prunings from the public and private green.

Link:

DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 3 marzo 2011 , n. 28

National Government Decree  Legislative Decree 307/2003 National Government Decree 2003 IT

Title (orig.): Decreto Ministeriale 307/2003

Language: Italian

Summary:

As part of the management of transactions in the Electricity Market, GME was also assigned with the task of organising venues for the trading of Green Certificates (art. 6, Ministerial Decree of 24 Oct. 2005) and of Energy Efficiency Certificates (articles 10, Ministerial Decrees of 20 Jul. 2004, as subsequently amended and supplemented by the Ministerial Decree of 21 Dec. 2007). Legislative Decree 387/03 (as subsequently amended and supplemented), implementing Directive 2001/77/EC on promotion of electricity generation from renewables in the internal electricity market, contains additional provisions on Green Certificates.

Link:

Il Piano di Azione Nazionale (PAN)

Netherlands Enterprise Agency  Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme) Ministry of Economic Affairs 2014 NL

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme)

Language: English

Summary:

This tax benefit enables entrepreneurs based in the Netherlands to write off investments in renewable energy plants against tax (art. 3.42 Wet IB 2001). The eligibility criteria are extensively described in the Energy List. The level of funding depends, among other things, on the source of energy and the type of plant used. Investments of less than 450 Euros are ineligible (art. 3.45 (1) (a) Wet IB 2001). Furthermore, a total of at least 2,300 € (and at most €116 million) must be invested in eligible projects within one year (art. 3.42 Wet IB 2001).

(LCMW) Relevance: Regulation of investments in renewable energy plants

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms II (Energy Investment Allowance, EIA scheme)

Netherlands Enterprise Agency  Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace Ministry of Economic Affairs 2016 NL

Title (orig.): Subsidies for nature protection and landscape maintenanace

Language: Dutch

Summary:

In the Netherlands, the provinces are responsible for nature conservation. They act as a field director in rural areas and bring the parties together to provide the policy and the implementation of nature and landscape. The provinces also determine where they want to achieve the targets and allocation of resources for this purpose.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy and the implementation of nature and landscape

Link:

Over het Subsidiestelsel

Norman Dandy  Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees "The Research Agency of the Forestry Commission" 2010 UK

Title (orig.): "Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees"

Language: English

Summary:

There are two main elements of the report – a review of the social and cultural values associated with street trees (Section 2) and a review of the governance affecting the presence and absence of street trees in the urban environment (Section 3). These relate to Milestone M1 of Work Package 5 within the Climate Change & Street Trees project plan. Funding for further work on this Work Package has been withdrawn.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanance of urban trees

Link:

Report online

Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association  Wood heating for hotels and industry Österreichischer Biomasseverband, Austrian Biomass Association 2016 AT

Title (orig.): Holzwärme für Hotels und Gewerbe

Language: German

Summary:

This flyer presents best practice projects in which Austrian hotel companies – from small inns to luxury 5-star wellness hotels – have switched from oil to wood heating. It describes how the change took place, the motivation of the hotel operators and the economic effects of the measure.

Link:

Online Shop of the Austrian Biomass Association to download flyer