A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)  Bioenergy: a burning issue Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) 2012 UK

Title (orig.): Bioenergy: a burning issue

Language: English

Summary:

The UK is currently witnessing a major rush to build large-scale electricity-only biomass plants as well as seeing an increase in biomass used in co-firing. The scale of proposed power plant development dwarfs the planned use of domestic fuel resource. Instead, many of these new plants are expected to be dependent on imported biomass. They are generally being built on the UK coast near port facilities with expected sources of feedstock from Canada, the US, Russia and the Baltic States, among others. Furthermore, new plants are often being sited in locations where it is either not possible or not economic to capture the substantial quantities of heat produced, significantly reducing their efficiency and therefore their ability to deliver greenhouse gas emissions reductions.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass plants in UK

Link:

Bioenergy: a burning issue

Sandija Zēverte-Rivža  Article: Promotion of biogas production in Latvia (2014) Energetika 2014 LV

Title (orig.): Article: Promotion of biogas production in Latvia (2014)

Language: English

Link:

Promotion of biogas production in Latvia

Schonhoff, Andreas; Berger, Florian; Khalsa, Jan Hari Arti; Lenz, Volker; Teltewskaja, Gundula; Werner, Hans  Final report of the customized concept for municipal energy carriers Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum 2016 DE

Title (orig.): Schlussbericht für das Verbundvorhaben Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept (IbeKET)

Language: German

Summary:

Endbericht des Verbundvorhaben “Innovatives bedarfsangepasstes Kommunal-Energieträger Konzept” (IbeKET). Zu den konzeptionellen Zielen gehörten die Erarbeitung eines übertragbaren Konzeptes zur Beschaffung, Aufbereitung und energetische Nutzung von Biomasse wie Laub, Grünschnitt und Gewässepflegematerial, sowie das Anstreben einer Umsetzung am Standort der LUTRA GmbH. In technischer Hinsicht sollte grundsätzlich die energetische Nutzung der genannten Reststoffbiomassen unter Einhaltung der gegebenen Rahmenbedingungen ermöglicht werden.

Link:

Dokumentinformation

Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland  The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 Secretary of State for the Environment; Secretary of State for Wales; Secretary of State for Scotland 1994 UK

Title (orig.): The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Language: English

Summary:

The Secretary of State for the Environment as respects England, the Secretary of State for Wales as respects Wales and the Secretary of State for Scotland as respects Scotland, being Ministers designated(1) for the purposes of section 2(2) of the European Communities Act 1972(2) in relation to measures relating to the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution of water and the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers conferred on them by section 2(2) of that Act, sections 30(4) and 104(1) of the Control of Pollution Act 1974(3), sections 1(3)(a), 2, 8(2) and 9(1)(4) of the Control of Pollution (Amendment) Act 1989(5), sections 29(10), 33(3), 35(6), 36(1), 39(3), 40(3), 43(8), 45(3), 50(3), 54(14), 64(1), (4) and (8), 74(6), 75(8) and 156 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990(6) (having in particular had regard in exercising their powers under section 33(3) of that Act to the matters specified in section 33(4) of that Act) and of all other powers enabling them in that behalf hereby make the following Regulations:

(1S.I. 1989/2393 and 1992/2870.
(4) See the definition of “prescribed”.

(LCMW) Relevance: Policy on reduction and elimination of pollution caused by waste, in exercise of the powers

Link:

The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994

Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM)  Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP) Secretary to Energy and Administrations for Energy, Regional Energy Administrations (ANRE, DGTRE, IBGE-BIM) 2002 BE

Title (orig.): Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Language: English

Summary:

In April 2000, the federal government decided that all generators of electricity from renewable sources will become progressively free to choose their own electricity supplier if they use more electricity than they are able to generate. Consumers who buy a significant amount of their electricity from renewable sources are also eligible to choose their electricity supplier. When coordinating the call to electricity suppliers, the transport-grid manager, taking into account the needed supply security, gives priority to plants using renewable energy sources for power production, or to cogeneration units. The Flemish Parliament approved the decree regarding the liberalisation of the electricity market and marked the following categories as eligible:

  • Producers using quality CHP installations or renewables for electricity generation (up to a certain ceiling)
  • Consumers of renewables-generated electricity by means of a CHP unit (for a certain amount of electricity) or consumers using heat from CHP units or renewables
  • Consumers using heat from a supplier who generates this heat by means of CHP units or renewables (for a maximum of 500 kWh electricity per GJ heat)

In Wallonia, a corresponding decree was approved and aims to gradually open the market for producers using CHP and/or renewables for electricity generation, as well as consumers using renewable electricity and/or electricity generated by means of a CHP unit, or using heat from CHP units or renewables.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

Access to the Grid (Renewables and CHP)

Šipkovs et. al.  Article: Biomass Utilization Strategies and Policies in Latvia (2012) Riga Technical University 2012 LV

Title (orig.): Publikācija: Biomass Utilization Strategies and Policies in Latvia

Language: Latvian

Link:

Publikācija: Biomass Utilization Strategies and Policies in Latvia

SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable  Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia SPW-DGO4-Département de lénergie et du Bâtiment durable 2005; 2010 BE

Title (orig.): Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

Language: English

Summary:

As of 2006, the Walloon government awarded grants for the installation of micro-cogeneration systems and high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers. Households, entreprises, self-employed workers and private entities were all eligible to receive grants. Every year, the programme is reviewed, taking into account the evolution of technology.

(LCMW) Relevance: Grants for the installation of high-efficiency wood-burning furnaces and heating boilers

Link:

Energy Fund Grants for Small-Scale Heat Generation - Wallonia

State Energy and Water Regulation Commission  Bulgaria feed-in tariff State Energy and Water Regulation Commission 2011 BG

Title (orig.): Bulgaria feed-in tariff

Language: English

Summary:

In Bulgaria, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Producers of electricity from renewable sources are contractually entitled against the grid operator to the purchase and payment of electricity at a guaranteed price. The connection of renewable energy plants to the grid is subject to the provisions of the general legislation on energy. Renewable energy is not given priority access. The use of renewable energy for heating and cooling is promoted through a subsidy from the European Regional Development Fund, several loan schemes and through an exemption for building owners from property tax. In Bulgaria, the main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing petrol or diesel to ensure that biofuels make up a defined percentage of their annual fuel sales. Furthermore, biofuels are supported through a fiscal regulation mechanism. The following policies aim at promoting the development, installation and usage of RES-installations in Bulgaria: There is a professional training programme for RES-installers as wells as a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and for the exemplary role of public authorities. eNERGY ACT 2013 (last amended mid-2015)

Link:

Bulgaria feed-in tariff

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA) State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

Language: English

Summary:

Grid connection. Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Based on the regulations of the Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources and Biofuels Act, electricity distribution companies are obliged to purchase the electricity generated from geothermal and solar energy for 25 years, whereas from the other sources of RES, including biomass, the offtake obligation is fixed at 15 years. End suppliers are obliged to offtake the electricity produced by RES. Failure to do so will result in a penalty amounting to between BGN 7,000 (appr. EUR 3,600) and BGN 20,000 (appr. EUR 10,225).

Link:

Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA)

State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC)  Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources State Energy and Water Regulatory Committee (SEWRC) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources (2011 last updated 2015). Part of the Energy from Renewable Sources Act (ERSA). Producers that own power plants can sell the electricity with regulated prices (feed-in tariff), differentiated on the basis of type of technology (biomass-biogas), plant size and type of fuel (biomass waste, organic fraction of MSW, sewage sludge, agricultural biomass)

Link:

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources

Stegner, Jan  Framework for energetic utilization of biomass from landscape management in Saxony - Final Report Sächsischen Staatsministeriums für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Rahmenkonzept zur energetischen Verwertung von Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Freistaat Sachsen – Abschlussbericht

Language: DE

Summary:

Following topics are assessed:

  • Political and legal framework for energy recovery from biomass from landscape management
  • Volume of landscaping material in Saxony
  • Determination of energetic utilization demand for biomass from landscape management
  • Technical solutions for utilizing biomass from landscape management
  • Analysis and presentation of technological deficiencies and uncertainties exploitation potential
  • Regionalized analysis of acceptance for plant operators and farms with regard to their willingness to energetic utilization of biomass from landscape management
  • Suitable recycling methods and technologies for the energy use of landscaping material

Under the current technical and technological and politico-economic conditions, the energetic use of landscape material via biogas and combustion in small and medium combustion plants or large combustion plants are appropriate ways. Both pathways require further procedural and logistical improvement.

The energetic use of landscape material is currently in Saxony barely realized. Especially in biogas plants, energy use with small technical changes would be possible. However, the political and economic conditions contradict such use.

(LCMW) Relevance: The political and economic conditions contradict the utilization of this biomass type.

Link:

Rahmenkonzept zur energetischen Verwertung von Biomasse aus der Landschaftspflege im Freistaat Sachsen

Straub, Christoph  Assessment of the energy wood potential and its availability in the forest and in the open country with new remote sensing methods Inaugural Dissertation at the Albert Ludwigs University in Freiburg in Breisgau 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Erfassung des Energieholzpotentials und seiner Verfügbarkeit im Wald und im Offenland mit neuen Fernerkundungsmethoden

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The aim of this thesis was to develop new methods to provide detailed information regarding the spatial distribution of biomass and those components that can be used for energy production using modern remote sensing techniques. An important aspect was the development of automated procedures with appropriate software solutions.

(LCMW) Relevance: Biomass assessment with remote sensing

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland  Bioenergy roadmap Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland 2010 IE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy roadmap

Language: English

Summary:

In 2010 a Bioenergy Roadmap for Ireland was developed and published to outline the growth potential of bioenergy in Ireland to 2050 such as:

  • Annual abatement of over 11Mt of CO2
  • Bioenergy is highly suitable for inclusion in a national distributed energy network
  • Over 3,500Ktoe of indigenous resources are available for the bioenergy supply chain by 2050
  • bioenergy in transport should meet 27% of total transport  primary energy demand
  • biomass in electricity generation should meet 28% of total electricity demand
  • biomass should meet 40% of  total heat demand
  • reach 80% emissions reduction

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy Roadmap for Ireland

Link:

Bioenergy roadmap PDF online
SEAI online

Swedish Government  Quota system for renewable energies Swedish Government 2003 FIN

Title (orig.): Quota system for renewable energies

Language: English

Summary:

Act No. 2011:1200 obliges electricity suppliers, certain electricity consumers and energy-intensive companies to annually acquire renewable energy certificates in due proportion to their electricity sales and their consumption by a set date (Chapter 4 §§ 1 and 4 Act No. 2011:1200). Furthermore, the Act stipulates the conditions in which owners of renewable energy generation plants may acquire electricity certificates (Chapter 2 §§ 1-13 Act No. 2011:1200).

In general, all renewables, including biogas generated from biomass, are eligible for the quota system (Chapter 1 § 2 No. 2 Act No. 2011:1200). One certificate is issued for every MWh of electricity produced, regardless of the generation technology employed (Chapter 3 § 2 Act No. 2011:1200). Obligated persons that fail to satisfy their quota obligation shall pay a quota obligation fine.

During the past few years, certificate prices ranged between 15 and 40 €/MWh.

A change introduced in 2006 was the extension of the validity of the certificates from 2010 to 2030 in order to improve long-term investment security.

According to the Swedish Energy Agency, Sweden and Norway introduced a common electricity certificate market on 1 January 2012. The producers of RES electricity receive certificates in their own country. These certificates can be traded on both the Swedish and Norwegian markets (Chapter 1 § 5 Act No. 2011:1200).

The Swedish RES quota system has led to an increase of the share of RES electricity from 51.2% in 2004 to 60% in 2012. During the first few years, mainly biomass power plants (and to a smaller degree hydro-power) benefitted from the scheme while in recent years, the share of wind energy has been steadily increasing.

Link:

Energypedia: Quota system for renewable energies
Quota system for renewable energies

Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment  Tax regulation mechanisms Swedish Tax Authority; Ministry of the Environment 1990-2010 SWE

Title (orig.): Tax regulation mechanisms

Language: English

Summary:

  • Tax reductions for households. Act No. 2009:194 sets rules for the tax-deduction of RES-related installation works in households. The installation of renewable energy devices and the replacement of conventional heating sources with renewable ones may be deducted from tax.
  • Energy and carbon dioxide taxes. In Sweden, energy and carbon dioxide taxes are levied on the supply, import and production of fossil fuels for heating purposes. Renewable energy sources are exempt from these taxes. The biogas must be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598. Biomass must also be certified with sustainability certification according to Chapter 3 § 1b Act No. 2010:598.
  • Nitrous oxide tax. The producers of heat are obliged to pay a tax according to their nitrous oxide emissions. Heat producers using renewable energy sources are exempt from this obligation.

All renewable energy technologies are exempt from the tax obligations.

Link:

Tax regulation mechanisms

Swiss Federal Council  Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) Swiss Federal Council 2016 CH

Title (orig.): Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC)

Language: English

Link:

Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC)

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Pilot and Demonstration Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Pilot and Demonstration Program

Language: English

Link:

Pilot and Demonstration Program

Swiss Federal Office of Energy  Energy Research Program Swiss Federal Office of Energy 1977 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Research Program

Language: English

Link:

Energy Research Program

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE  SwissEnergy Programme Energieschweiz 2001 CH

Title (orig.): SwissEnergy Programme

Link:

SwissEnergy Programme

Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE  Feed-in remuneration at cost for renewable energy sources Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Kostendeckende Einspeisevergütung (KEV)

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariff at cost is an instrument that was developed by the federal government for the purpose of promoting electricity production from renewable energy sources. It covers the difference between the production cost and the market price, and guarantees producers of electricity from renewable sources a price that corresponds to their production costs. Feed-in tariff at cost is available for the following technologies: hydropower (installed capacity up to 10 megawatts), photovoltaics (installed capacity from 10 kilowatt), wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass and biological waste. Contributions are made to the associated fund by all electricity consumers, who pay a fee per consumed kilowatt hour.

The tariffs for power from renewable sources are specified on the basis of reference power plants for each technology and output category. The tariff is applicable for 20 years (10 years for biomass infrastructure power plants). In view of technological progress and the increasing degree of market maturity of new technologies, the tariff rates are subject to a regular review. Reductions only apply to new production facilities that are put into operation.

New facilities can be registered with the national network operator, Swissgrid. Due to the great demand, there is a long waiting list. Owners of small photovoltaic power plants (from 2 up to 30 kilowatt) can ask a unique capital subsidy. For more details, see the Swissgrid website.

For detailed information on the amount of base payments and wood bonus (Swiss Francs/kWh) see third link bellow.

Link:

Feed-in remuneration at cost for renewable energy sources