A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Government  Decree-Law No. 179/2012 establishing measures to promote production and exploitation of forest biomass Government 2012 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n. 179/2012 de 3 de Agosto

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law amends article 3 of Decree-Law No. 5/2011, establishing measures to promote the production and exploitation of those forests destined to the supply of biomass centrals. Amendments specify extension of delays to present request of incentives.

Link:

Factsheet: Exploitation of forest biomass

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Regional Legislative Decree No. 16/2005/A implementing Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances Portuguese Environmental Agency 2005 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto Legislativo Regional n. 16/2005/A de 20 de Julho Transpõe a Directiva n.o 286/278/CEE, do Conselho, de 12 de Junho, referente à utilização das lamas de depuração na agricultura

Language: English

Summary:

Regional Legislative Decree No. 16/2005/A implementing Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances included in List I of the Annex to Directive 76/464/EEC. This Decree, composed of 14 articles, introduces in the Azores Regional legal system the Council Directive 86/280/EEC on limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances within agricultural activities. In particular, the Decree regulates discharges’ characteristics, soil requirements, protection areas, licensing procedures, information duties, control and monitoring procedures and the required reporting system.

Link:

Factsheet: Decree on discharge of dangerous substances in agriculture

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-law 23/2010 of 25 March Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2010 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-lei 23/2010 de 25 de Março

Language: English

Summary:

Decree-law 23/2010 introduced the legal framework for cogeneration activities and a remunerative framework for operators. As such it implements the directive 2004/8/EC of February 11 of the European parliament and council on the promotion of cogeneration which amended directive 92/42/EEC of May 21. It aims to increase energy efficiency and security of supply by creating a framework for the promotion and development of high efficiency cogeneration of heat and electricity based on useful heat demand and primary energy savings in the internal energy market. This law regulates the activity of cogeneration, establishing its legal status and remuneration. The tariff is based on two modalities, according to the choice of cogeneration, accessible to efficient cogeneration and high efficiency cogeneration. Incentives are provided based on three criteria: reduction of primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions compared with the separate production of electric and thermal energy; cogeneration production that is efficient and uses renewable resources; and promoting the participation of cogeneration in the electricity market. At least 50% of primary energy consumed must come from renewable resources.

Link:

Factsheet: Cogeneration

Government  Tax Reduction for Renewable Energy Equipment Government 1999 PT

Language: English

Summary:

New budget provisions allow purchasers of renewable energy equipment, such as solar panels for residential use, to benefit from a reduced VAT of 5%. Investment costs in renewable end-use technology were deductible from the income tax with a limit to the deduction set at PTE 50 000 in 2000. Beginning in 1999, investors in equipment using solar energy are entitled to claim a depreciation rate of 25% (previously set at 7.14%).

Link:

Tax Reduction for Renewable Energy Equipment

Government  New Tariffs for Renewables Government 2001 PT

Language: English

Summary:

In 2001, the buy-back tariffs for renewables were increased (up to 25% for wind energy), in order to develop more electricity generation under the special regime for co-generation and renewables.

Link:

New Tariffs for Renewables

Ministry of Economy and Innovatoin (MEI)  Resolution of the Council of Ministries - 63/2003 Ministry of Economy and Innovatoin (MEI) 2003 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Promotion of national competitiveness : the main focus is the liberalisation of the electricity market and to decrease energy intensity. In early 2007, the renewable energy targets were reviewed and made more ambitious: -The target rate of electricity produced from renewable energy sources by 2010 was set higher, going from its initial figure of 39% to 45%. – The percentage of biofuels as part of road-transport fuel was set at 10% by 2010, up from the previous target of 5.75%. – 5% to 10% of coal used in Sines and Pego power plants is to be prelaced by biomass or waste by 2010.

Link:

Resolution of the Council of Ministries - 63/2003

Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI)  Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables. Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007 Ministry of the Economy and Innovation (MEI) 2007 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Decree Law No. 225.2007 of 31 May 2007, revised the feed-in tariffs established by the previous Decree Law No. 33 A/2005. The Law covers a wide variety of renewable energy sources, and tariffs vary by source and by capacity. Different tariffs are provided for small (below 5 MW) and large (above 5MW) installations. Wind Below 5 MW: EUR 75/MWh; above 5 MW: EUR 74/MWh Hydro Below 5 MW: EUR 77/MWh; between 5 and 10 MW: EUR 75/MWh Photovoltaic Up to 5 kW: EUR 450/MWh 5 kW to 5 MW: EUR 317/MWh Above 5 MW: EUR 310/MWh micro-generation photovoltaic Under 5 kW: EUR 470/MWh Between 5 and 150 kW: EUR 355/MWh Bioenergy Biomass : EUR 104-109/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102-107/MWh above 5 MW (depending on source) Biogas from anaerobic digestion of waste biomass: EUR 117/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR115/MWh above 5 MW Landfill gas: EUR 104/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 102/MWh above 5 MW Municipal Sold Waste (incineration): EUR 54/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 53/MWh above 5 MW Waste-derived fuel (incineration): EUR 76/MWh up to 5 MW; EUR 74/MWh above 5 MW Wave power Demonstration wave power up to 4 MW: EUR 260/MWh Pre-commercial wave power from 5 MW up to 20 MW: EUR 191/MWh Commercial wave power above 5 MW: EUR 131/MWh for the first 100 MW; EUR 101/MWh for the subsequent 150 MW; EUR 76/MWh thereafter On 13 September 2007, the Portuguese government approved new incentives for the micro-generation of renewable electricity. This refers to electricity produced primarily for personal consumption, with any excess production available for distribution to third parties or the national grid, up to a limit of 150 kW. The revised rules set a micro-generation tariff of EUR 650 per megawatt hour (MW/h) for an initial five-year period, with payment via electricity bills. An electronic registration platform for micro-generation has been established to manage the new incentive programme, and a simplified licensing and registration procedure has been put in place.

Link:

Modified feed-in tariffs for renewables

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Decree-Law No. 351/2007 on air quality Portuguese Environmental Agency 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.º 140/99

Language: English

Summary:

This Decree-Law is composed of eight articles and five annexes. It introduces in the national legal order Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. In particular, it rules on assessment of air concentrations and on related communication procedures. Annexes provide: standards and methods for concentration assessment; reference values of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; quality objectives.

Link:

Factsheet: Decree on biodiversity protection

Portuguese Environmental Agency  Government Resolution No. 65/2006 on the National Plan for Forest Protection against fires PNDFCI Portuguese Environmental Agency 2007 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.º 351/2007

Language: English

Summary:

This Resolution is composed of one article and one Annex. It approves the National Plan for Forest Protection against fires PNDFCI. The Plan defines the general objectives, the main axes of intervention and the Plan’s continuous monitoring. Moreover, it provides Municipal Operative Plans (POM) and related monitoring indicators. The Plan also contains as appendix an historical perspective of forests in Portugal.

Link:

Factsheet: Air quality Decree

European Unions Community Support Framework (POE)  Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) 2000 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME. In 2000, a new programme in support of economic development activities under the European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) was prepared. It set out new regulations related to incentives for energy efficiency and energy diversification (renewables) projects.

Link:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME

Government  Portugal feed-in tariff Government 2014 PT

Language: English

Summary:

In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources generated in existing installations is promoted through a feed-in tariff. Support to new installations can be provided through specific power granting tenders. The new remuneration regime for Small Production Units (UPP) will come into force in January 2015 and will be based on a bidding model in which producers offer discounts to a reference tariff.

In Portugal, the government has set a fund to finance research and projects on innovation and technological development in the field of renewable energy, as well as has started campaigns to raise awareness on RES issues. With regards to policies in the building sector, the obligation to use solar thermal collectors for heating water and other regulations on the certification of performance and durability of installations and components are in place. In addition, training programmes for installers of RES plants are already part of the education system. In Portugal, there are two support schemes for the use of renewable energy sources in the transport sector: a tax exemption to small producers (PPDs) and a biofuel quota to companies supplying fuels for consumption in the market.

Link:

Feed-in tariff (Tarifas feed-in)

Ministry of Economy  Quota system / Green certificates Ministry of Economy 2008 RO

Title (orig.): Quota system / Green certificates

Language: English

Summary:

Quota system: In Romania, the main means of promotion is a quota system based on quota obligations, tradable certificates, and minimum and maximum prices. Electricity suppliers and producers are obliged to present a certain number (or quota) of green certificates (art. 8 par. 1 Law No. 220/2008 as referred to in art. 1 par. 11 Emergency Ordinance No. 88/2011). These tradable certificates are allocated to the producers of electricity from renewable sources (art. 6, 10 Law no. 220/2008 as referred to in art. 1 par. 9, 12 Emergency Ordinance No. 88/2011).

Link:

Quota system / Green certificates

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development  Subsidies for RES in agriculture Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 2011 RO

Title (orig.): Subsidies for RES in agriculture

Summary:

RES-H technologies may be supported by subsidies from the National Rural Development Programme for own consumption.However, there is currently no open call for Measure 123.Furthermore, the Romanian Environmental Fund provides subsidies to legal entities and natural persons for the installation of heating systems using renewable energy sources.However, there has been no call for applications since 2011, since the budget for 2012 has been used for financing projects on the waiting list from 2011. Due lacking funds, no new call for applications took place in 2013. The availability of budgets for a new call for applications in 2014 is still uncertain. However, the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change announced that the subsidy programme should be continued and a new call for applications can be expected for the end of 2014 or latest for 2015.

Link:

Subsidy (Modernizarea exploatatiilor agricole – Masura 121)

Government  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Government 2010 RO

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

In the Biomass supply table (2006):  in biomass from forestry sector, the landscape management residues (woody biomass from parks, gardens, tree rows, bushes) are included but unfortunately not quantified in potential. Same treatment in the Biomass from agriculture and fisheries sector for clippings form vines, olives, fruit trees.

Budget allocations for the afforestation of degraded lands, which allowed the afforestation of approx. 5 000 ha of degraded lands per year during the 2005-2006 period have significantly decreased in recent years. Following the issuing of Law 46/2008 – the Forestry Code – the special financial resources established by the latter (the Forest Conservation and Regeneration Fund) or by Law No 18/1991 of the Land Fund (Improvement fund of the forestry land fund) for the afforestation of forest lands and degraded lands incorporated in the forest fund, have also decreased. This decrease has been mainly caused by the fact that special laws have been promoted by means of which developers building touristic roads by forest clearance have been exempted from performance of compensatory payments. Such measures had a direct negative effect on the integrity of the current Forestry Fund, the possibility to extent it in the future as well as on the balance of GHG emissions resulting from the forest clearance action (which shall also be compulsorily reported in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol), which could prevent the fulfilment of the emissions reduction engagement undertaken for the 2010 – 2020 period. Such derogations shall be eliminated from the Organic Law (the Forestry Code).

At present, there are no specific measures promoting the production and use of biogas. Biogas is supported by the following laws: – Law 220/2008 on the establishment of the system for the promotion of energy production from renewable sources, which provides for the granting of 3 green certificates for each 1 MWh supplied within the electricity network by producers generating electricity from biomass, biogas, landfill gas, geothermal energy and associated fuel gas.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

WMW (Waste Management World)  Babcock & Wilcox Vølund lands order on second generation multi-fuel plant. New multi-fuel fired CHP plant in Landskronaa WMW (Waste Management World). Multi-fuel fired plant 2010 SE

Title (orig.): Babcock & Wilcox Vølund lands order on second generation multi-fuel plant. New multi-fuel fired CHP plant in Landskronaa

Language: EN

Summary:

The new facility in Landskrona, Sweden is part of a new generation of plants capable of burning a wide range of biomass and sorted waste fuels. Multi-fuel fired combined heat and power plants will cover the future need for advanced technology to exploiting all resources. New fuels, ranging from sorted industrial waste to wood chips, will contribute towards meeting the EU requirements for a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases.

Ministry of Economic Development  Public call to tender for co-financing of district heating Ministry of Economic Development 2011 SI

Title (orig.): Public call to tender for co-financing of district heating

Language: Slovenian

Summary:

Public call to tender for co-financing of district heating using biomass for the period 2011 to 2015 (DOLB 3) – The call document defines the terms, conditions and amount of the subsidy scheme granted by the Ministry of Economic Development for co-financing the district heating systems that use biomass for the period from 2011 to 2014.

Link:

Uradni list Republike Slovenije

Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning  National energy efficiency action plan 2014 – 2020 Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning 2015 SI

Title (orig.): National energy efficiency action plan 2014 – 2020

Language: English

Summary:

The measures contained in the plan are divided by sector: households, the public sector, commerce and  transport. Most of the measures are already in place and being implemented, with the intermediate targets  having so far been met. Some of th e measures are new, chiefly those in the public sector, where there is a  requirement to meet an obligation to renovate 3% of the total floor area of central government buildings every year. There are also additional measures in the commercial sector: efficient energy consumption is becoming an ever more important factor in improving economic competitiveness. The plan include co-financing programme for the construction of district heating systems using wood biomass.

Link:

National energy efficiency action plan 2014 – 2020

UE and Regional Government  Rural Development Programme 2014 - 2020 UE and Regional Government 2014 SI

Title (orig.): Rural Development Programme 2014 - 2020

Language: English

Summary:

Support for rural development by the Fund of European Agricultural for Rural Development (FEASR).

Link:

Factsheet on 2014-2020 Rural Development Programme for Slovenia

Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning  Decree on Support for Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy Sources Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning 2002 (last amended 2012) SI

Title (orig.): Uredba o podporah električni energiji, proizvedeni iz obnovljivih virov energije – neuradno prečiščeno besedilo NPB7, PisRS)

Language: English

Summary:

A decree law passed in 2002 paved the way for establishing prices and premiums for purchasing electricity from qualified producers. Qualified producers are those that produce electricity from renewable energy sources, or in facilities with higher than average efficiency for combined heat and power.

Under the scheme producers can choose to receive either fixed feed-in tariffs or premium feed-in tariffs from the network operators. A Purchase Agreement is concluded, valid for 10 years. According to the Law on Energy, the uniform annual prices and premiums are set at least once a year. Feed-in tariffs and premiums are differentiated in terms of both technology and size. In 2006, the size differentiation was removed for solar energy, and increased the tariff and premium for biomass. Producers can also choose to adhere to a double tariff system, whereby either the tariff or premium amount varies according to season and time of day. This system is advantageous to producers that can adapt their production.

As of January 2012, new rates for the feed-in premium allocated to renewable power producers on top of the electricity price for technologies have been adjusted. Premiums for all technologies and for plants smaller than 5 MW were increased, except for biomass and CHP. Tariffs for solar PV projects greater than 5 MW were reduced and increased for biomass and CHP. Due to a change in legislation (Off. Gazette, 43/2011) biogas plants connected to the grid after 1. 7. 2012 that use 40% or more of primary agricultural produce (e.g. corn) are not entitled to receive support. If they use less than 40% but more than 25%, then the variable part of the reference costs are set at 70 %.The variable part of feed in tariff in case of solid biomass shall be adjusted in line with changes to the prices of wood biomass (contained in the forecast published by the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia).

Link:

Decree on Renewable Electricity support

Government  National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020 (NREAP) Government 2010 SI

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020 (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

The objective of the NREAP is to assess and determine the necessary quantitative values of energy consumption from RES by individual sector (heating and cooling, electricity and transport) and to propose measures to facilitate consumption of the desired quantity of energy from RES in future years. In the NREAP account needs to be taken of the effects of policies for efficient energy use (EEU) on final energy consumption, and measures that must be adopted to achieve the target shares of RES and to fulfil the requirements of Articles 13 to 19 of Directive 2009/28/EC, taking into account the cooperation of local and national authorities, the envisaged statistical transfers of energy from renewable sources between Member States or joint RES projects in other Member States or third countries, and national policies for developing existing and mobilising new sources of biomass.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020 (NREAP)