A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

Partners of the greenGain.eu INFORMATION PLATFORM can contribute with their content to the section greenGain DATABASE.
Please let us know if you are interested to become a partner via e-mail platform@greengain.eu.

If you are allready partner, you can sign in:

Sign in

Forgot pasword/login?

Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment  Building Renovation Program Conference of cantonal directors of energy departments, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Swiss Federal Office of the Environment 2010 CH

Title (orig.): Building Renovation Program

Language: English

Link:

Building Renovation Program

Conrady et. al.  Landscape management without shepherd? – Results based on the pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” Thüringer Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Forsten, Umwelt und Naturschutz 2013 DE

Title (orig.): Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer? - Ergebnisse aus dem Pilotprojekt "Biodiversität und Energieholz"

Language: German, English Abstract

Summary:

The pilot project “Biodiversity and firewood” examines the use of wood from landscape management for energy production to maintain the natural value of open habitats with their important biodiversity in cultural landscapes. Since 2009, different methods of timber harvesting have been tested on up to 34 areas in Brandenburg and Thuringia in Germany – with a special focus on cost reduction, economic efficiency and environmental compatibility. The project shows the benefit of combining efforts to maintain open habitats in our cultural landscape with using harvested woody biomass as fuel wood. This benefit was visible already after the first few measures – economically and ecologically.

(LCMW) Relevance: Hederows on banks, nature protection, landscape management

Link:

Download portal for single chapters of conference script "The steppe habitats in Europe - Hazards, conservation measures and protection"

Attachment

PDF Landschaftspflege ohne Schäfer (323.30 KB)

Cremer, Tobias  Mobilisation and economical utilization of raw wood from forests and landscape for energy production DBU (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt) 2007 DE

Title (orig.): Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Language: DE

Summary:

The aim of this project was to develop and implement optimised mobilisation, supply and logistic concepts for energy wood from forests and LCMW biomass for a concrete region. Existing and innovative technologies and organisational approaches for the supply of energy wood were further developed and combined. During this process, all affected regional actors were involved.

(LCMW) Relevance: A new approach for the assessment of the potential of LCMW biomass for energetic use was described.

Link:

Mobilisierung und wirtschaftliche Nutzung von Rohholz aus Wald und Landschaft zur Energieerzeugung

Croatian Energy Market Operator  Croatia Feed in tariff Croatian Energy Market Operator 2011 HR

Title (orig.): Croatia Feed in tariff

Language: English

Summary:

Feed-in tariff. RES-E plant operators, which have been classified as “qualified producers” and have signed a contract with the Croatian Energy Market Operator (HROTE), are paid a fixed price per kWh of electricity supplied.

Moreover the following support schemes are available

HBOR-Loans. The loans granted for the employment of RES-E technologies are part of the “environmental protection” loan scheme by the Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development (HBOR) in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Fund and business banks.

Environmental Fund-Loans. The Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency offers interest-free loans for the promotion of renewable energy sources.

In general, all RES-E technologies are eligible for all incentive schemes

Link:

Tariffs for RES and CHP electricity

Danish Energy Agency  Limiting the use of corn and other feedstocks for the production of biogas Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building 2012 DK

Title (orig.): Begrænsning for brug af majs og andre energiafgrøder til produktion af biogas

Language: Danish

Summary:

Quotation: “Under  the  new  conditions,  the  Danish  biogas  sector  is subject  to  legislation  that  limits  the  quantity  of  purposely  grown energy  crops  that  can  be  used  in  biogas  plants  to  25%  (weight based,  %  of  total  biomass  digested)  by  2017  with  further  reduction  to  12%  by  2020.”

(Meyer, A.K.P., Ehimen, E.A. and Holm-Nielsen, J.B. 2014. Bioenergy production from roadside grass: A case study of the feasibility of using roadside grass for biogas production in Denmark. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2014, 93, pp. 124–133.)

Link:

Begrænsning for brug af majs og andre energiafgrøder til produktion af biogas PDF

DECC and in Northern Ireland: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI)  Renewables Obligation (RO) DECC and in Northern Ireland: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI) 2002 UK

Title (orig.): Renewables Obligation (RO)

Language: English

Summary:

The Renewables Obligation (RO) is one of the main support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects in the UK. Smaller scale generation is mainly supported through the Feed-In Tariff (FITs). The RO came into effect in 2002 in England and Wales, and Scotland, followed by Northern Ireland in 2005. It places an obligation on UK electricity suppliers to source an increasing proportion of the electricity they supply from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support mechanisms for renewable electricity projects in the UK

Link:

Renewables Obligation (RO)

Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources  Bioenergy action plan Department for Communications Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Bioenergy action plan

Language: English

Summary:

Comprehensive strategy for the 2007-2013 period to increase the deployment of renewable energy across three key sectors: transport, heat and electricity and aims to cut Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions by 2 million tonnes per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Bioenergy action plan of Ireland

Link:

Online PDF
Online source

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs  Policy paper Circular economy and waste markets: UK government response to European Commission consultations Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 2015 UK

Title (orig.): Policy paper Circular economy and waste markets: UK government response to European Commission consultations

Language: English

Summary:

The UK government’s response to three Commission consultations on the Circular Economy, barriers to waste markets and changes to waste laws. The UK government chose to submit a joint response for the public consultations on the:

The third consultation, aimed at Member States, asked for detail on the technical workings of existing waste legislation.

(LCMW) Relevance: Politicals strategies on biomass waste management in UK

Link:

Online sources

Department for transport; department of energy & climate change; department for environment, food and rural affairs  UK Bioenergy Strategy 2012 Department for transport; department of energy & climate change; department for environment, food and rural affairs 2012 UK

Title (orig.): UK Bioenergy Strategy 2012

Language: English

Summary:

This strategy sets out the Coalition Government’s approach to securing the benefits of bioenergy. It is the result of extensive analysis by a Cross Government team. In considering how to secure these benefits we have examined the wide range of evidence on the availability of sustainably-produced biomass feedstocks to UK users, the likely carbon impacts of bioenergy compared to possible alternative uses of the biomass resource; and the role of biomass in the energy system compared to other choices for low-carbon energy. The strategy also builds on analysis used for the Committee on Climate Change’s Bioenergy Review and includes the Coalition Government’s response to that review

(LCMW) Relevance: This strategy sets out the approach to securing the benefits of bioenergy

Link:

UK Bioenergy Strategy

Department Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl), works for Dutch governments and European Union  Stimulation of Sustainable Energy Production, SDE+ Department Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO.nl), works for Dutch governments and European Union 2015 NL

Title (orig.): Stimulering duurzame energie, SDE+

Language: English

Summary:

The SDE+ is an incentive for the production of renewable energy in the Netherlands. Renewable energy is generated from clean, inexhaustible sources. In 2015, the SDE+ is open from 31 March from 9 am to 17 December 2015, 5 pm.

The SDE+ scheme grants a premium on top of the market price to the producers of renewable energy in order to compensate for the difference between the wholesale price of electricity from fossil sources and the price of electricity from renewable sources. The SDE+ is aimed at companies and (non-profit) organizations that would like to produce renewable energy.

The sum of the premium, paid on top of the market price, is variable and depends on the annual electricity market price development and is adjusted by a correction value accordingly (art. 13 (5) SDE+). The premium is paid for a period of 5, 12 or 15 years. The support is made available in 6 stages and is allocated on a ‘first come, first serve’ basis. The scheme’s budget was capped at € 3.5 billion for 2014.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable sources

Link:

SDE+ Brochure

Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR)  Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff 2 and 3 (REFIT 2 and 3) Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR) 2010 IE

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff 2 and 3 (REFIT 2 and 3)

Language: English

Summary:

Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff (REFIT) scheme in Ireland is split into two programmes: REFIT 2 and REFIT 3. REFIT 2 programme was opened in March 2012 and covers small and large scale onshore wind, biomass landfill gas and small hydro (≤ 5MW). REFIT 3 programme opened in February 2012 and supports anaerobic digestion, biomass with CHP and biomass combustion and co-firing. The REFIT 2 and REFIT 3 competitions are separate schemes with separate terms and conditions in respect to each scheme. Both schemes close down to new applications on 31st December 2015 or if the capacity caps in both programmes will be reached before that date. REFIT capacity cap is 4,000MW and REFIT 3 has an overall limit of 310 MW, differentiated by technology:

  • Anaerobic digestion (including AD CHP): 50MW
  • Biomass CHP: 100MW
  • Biomass combustion (including co-firing with peat): 160MW.

FIT contracts are awarded for period of 15 years (both for REFIT 2 and REFIT 3). Projects benefiting from REFIT programmes must be operational by 2017. The financial support awarded through REFIT will not exceed beyond 31st December 2032.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on biomass production in Ireland

Link:

IEA online

Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources  Green paper: towards a sustainable energy future in Ireland Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources 2007 IE

Title (orig.): Green paper: towards a sustainable energy future in Ireland

Language: English

Summary:

This Green Paper reflects the Government’s goals of ensuring safe and secure energy supplies, promoting a sustainable energy future, and delivering economically efficient prices to Irish consumers. The Government supports the delivery of these objectives through competitive market mechanisms, supplemented by regulatory oversight. The energy system is highly complex, impacting on various aspects of the environment, the transport and built environment sectors. Delivering an effective energy policy requires an integrated programme, which is joined up across all of government.

(LCMW) Relevance: Political strategies for biomass as a part of renewable sources in Ireland

Link:

PDF online

Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources  Green paper on energy policy in Ireland Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources 2014 IE

Title (orig.): Green paper on energy policy in Ireland

Language: English

Summary:

White Paper on Energy Policy in Ireland is all about providing a vision for sustainable energy in Ireland into the future, and a pathway to get there. This Green Paper on Energy Policy in Ireland aims to stimulate a discussion between citizens, policymakers, businesses and stakeholders on such a vision for Irish energy policy.

(LCMW) Relevance: Providing suistanable energy in Ireland

Link:

PDF online

Department of Energy & Climate change  UK Biomass Strategy Department of Energy & Climate change 2012 UK

Title (orig.): UK Biomass Strategy

Language: English

Summary:

This publication was published under the 2010 to 2015 Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition government.

This strategy sets out the Coalition Government’s approach to securing the benefits of bioenergy. It is the result of extensive analysis by a Cross Government team. In considering how to secure these benefits have been examined the wide range of evidence on the availability of sustainably-produced biomass feedstocks to UK users, the likely carbon impacts of bioenergy compared to possible alternative uses of the biomass resource; and the role of biomass in the energy system compared to other choices for low-carbon energy. The strategy also builds on analysis used for the Committee on Climate Change’s Bioenergy Review and includes the Coalition Government’s response to that review.

(LCMW) Relevance: Evidence on the availability of sustainably-produced biomass feedstocks to UK users

Link:

UK Bioenergy Strategy

Department of Environment  National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions Ministry of sustainable Development and Infrastructure 2000 LU

Title (orig.): National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

Language: English

Summary:

In May 2000, the government issued a National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions. The report stresses the need to ensure sustainable development and to set up a medium-term plan. The report recommends six categories of actions:

  • To ensure that electricity from renewable energies will amount to at least 10% of final electricity consumption by 2010
  • To improve energy efficiency in energy generation
  • To increase energy savings
  • To set an eco-tax progressively
  • To curb the increase in road transport
  • To rely on flexible mechanism allowed by Kyoto Protocol

On top of that, Plan lists 29 measures, some of which have been already envisaged in the National Plan on Sustainable Development from 1999.

(LCMW) Relevance: Electricity from renewable energies

Link:

National Strategy to Reduce GHG Emissions

Department of Environment, Community and Local Government  National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste Department of Environment, Community and Local Government 2006 IE

Title (orig.): National Strategy on Biodegradable Waste

Language: English

Summary:

Improving waste management system is a key challenge that is currently engaging Ireland’s citizens and government. A primary goal in accordance with the EU Landfill Directive is to reduce dependence on landfill in favour of more environmentally sound alternatives. This document outlines Government policy for the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste from landfill, building upon the key objectives established in policy documents Changing Our Ways (1998), Delivering Change – Preventing and Recycling Waste (2002) and Waste Management: Taking Stock and Moving Forward (2004).

(LCMW) Relevance: Diversion of biodegradable waste

Link:

PDF online

Dept of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Dept of Communications, Energy & Natural Resources 2010 IE

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

Ireland’s overall target is 16% of gross final energy consumption to come from renewable sources by 2020 (3.1% in 2005). This 16% target will be made up of contributions from renewable energy in electricity (RES-E), renewable energy in transport (RES-T) and renewable energy for heat and cooling (RES-H). The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) sets out the Government’s strategic approach and concrete measures to deliver on Ireland’s 16% target under Directive 2009/28/EC.

(LCMW) Relevance: National Renewable Energy Action Plan of Ireland

Link:

National action plan online
SEAI online

Deputy Secretariat of State for Green Economy Development and Climate Policy for the Ministry of National Development  Republic of Hungary national renewable energy action plan 2010 - 2020 Hungary, Deputy Secretariat of State for Green Economy Development and Climate Policy for the Ministry of National Development 2010 HU

Title (orig.): Republic of Hungary national renewable energy action plan 2010 - 2020

Language: English

Summary:

The aim of the National Action Plan is to provide the greatest possible benefit to the entire society by drawing on Hungary’s natural, economic, social, cultural and geopolitical assets. The main objective of the utilisation of renewable and alternative energy is to reduce dependency on gas and crude oil imports.

The measures of the present National Action Plan concern the following public tasks:

>> the drafting of a new act on sustainable energy management in 2011;

>> restructuring of the implementation of existing aid schemes and making it more efficient and more simple;

>> launching an independent energy support scheme (cofinanced by the EU) between 2014 and 2020;

>> a comprehensive adaptation of the mandatory off-take scheme for renewable electricity (hereinafter referred

to as green electricity) (the relevant amendment of Act LXXXVI of 2007 on Electricity is currently being submitted

for administrative consultations);

>> examination of the possibilities for subsidising green heat;

>> facilitating a more active participation in direct Community support and other support schemes;

>> review of the incentives incorporated into energy regulations for buildings (in accordance with Directive 2010/31/EC);

>> review of spatial plans, creation of regional energy concepts;

>> establishment of green forms and programmes of financing (green bank);

>> review and simplification of regulatory and authorization systems and procedures;

>> drafting of awareness-raising programmes and information campaigns (integrated information programmes);

>> launching educational and training programmes based on renewable and alternative energy sources and energy efficiency;

>> launching employment programmes in the field of renewable energy sources;

>> launching development programmes for the purpose of developing the related industries;

>> encouraging research and development and innovation incentive programmes;

>> programmes and measures for spreading second generation bio- and alternative fuels;

>> drafting of an agricultural energy programme;

>> preparation of the administrative staff taking part in regulatory and authorisation procedures in relation to renewable energy and related fields.

Link:

Republic of Hungary national renewable energy action plan 2010 - 2020

Directorate General for Energy and Climate  Tax credit for energy transition (CITE) Directorate General for Energy and Climate 2005 FR

Title (orig.): Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Language: English

Summary:

In 2005, the government recalibrated the tax credits for purchases of equipment for primary residences (Article 200 of the General Tax Code) to promote both sustainable development and energy conservation. Specifications regarding equipment covered were modified in 2006 and 2007, to account for technological change. These were modified again in 2009, when the credit was extended to 31 December 2012 (from end of 2009). To be eligible for the tax credits the building in which the equipment is used must be a primary residence and at least two years old; for renewable energy equipment the building can be new or old. The tax credits are as follows: – 15% for purchases of low-temperature boilers; (until 31 December 2008) – 25% for purchases of condensation boilers, thermal insulation and heating regulation devices; This amount increases to 40% if: a) the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners; b) the material was purchased after 1 January 2006. Since 2009, the installation costs for thermal insulation of walls, floors, roofs and ceilings are also covered by the tax credit. – 40% for energy production equipment using renewable energy and heat pumps devoted primarily to heat production; Increased to 50% for renewable energy used for heating as of 1 January 2006. However the credit for heat pumps decreases to 40% in 2009 and 25% in 2010 for biomass or wood boilers, and heat pumps. It remains at 40% if the material and equipment is installed in a home constructed both before 1 January 1977 and that this installation occurs before the 31 December of the second year of the homes acquisition by its present owners. Air-air heat pumps are excluded as of 1 January 2009. -50% for obtaining an energy audit, when not required by law (as of 1 January 2009, limited to one audit every 5 years); -25% for the purchase of equipment and heating systems drawing the majority of their power from cogeneration or renewable energy sources (as of 1 January 2006); The tax credit is limited to EUR 8000 per person, EUR 16 000 for a couple and EUR 400 for each additional dependent.

Since 2005 and the Programme Law setting the directions of the energy policy (POPE), privateindividuals have been able to benefit from a tax credit for the purchase of the most efficient materials or equipment in terms of saving energy or generating renewable energy.From 1st July 2015, the CIDD will be subject to an eco-conditionality criterion: the work must be performed by installers that hold the quality sign “recognised Grenelle de l’environnement”.Between 2005 and 2011, over 6 million of the 34 million primary residences in metropolitan France benefited from the CIDD at least once.

Link:

Tax credit for energy transition (CITE)

Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development  Decree-Law No. 34/2011 of 8 March - legal framework for RES-E generation by small power installations or plants Directorate General for Energy and Geology at the Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development 2013 PT

Title (orig.): Decreto-Lei n.° 34/2011 de 8 de Março

Language: English

Summary:

This decree-law establishes the legal framework for renewable energy generation by small power installations or plants (miniproduction units). A miniproduction unit is defined as an installation that uses a single production technology and has a capacity of up to 250 kW (art. 1 DL 34/2011). Any entity that has a contract for purchasing electricity with a relevant consumption of electricity can apply to this law, provided that injected power does not exceed 50% of the contracted power. A special tariff is provided to installations with a capacity below 20 kW. For biogas and biomass installations in case of miniproduction, 60% of the reference tariff is provided (art 11(7) DL34/2011). The tariffs are limited to 15 years, the maximum production may not exceed 5 MWh/year and the annual maximum capacity eligible for the tariff is 30 MW in 2013 (art 11). Currently the regime is being discussed by the government.

Link:

Factsheet: RES-E in small power installations