A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Estonian Government  Estonian Waste Act Estonian Government 2004 EST

Title (orig.): Estonian Waste Act

Language: English

Link:

Estonian Waste Act

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)  Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL) European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 2014 BG

Title (orig.): Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

Language: English

Summary:

BEERECL has been established to support industrial energy efficiency and small renewable energy projects in the private sector by using funding from the Kozloduy International Fund, which was created by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in May 2002. BEERECL provides grants of up to 20 percent of the disbursed loan principle for RES projects financed prior to 30 September 2009, and up to 15 percent grants for financing received after the latter date. However, eligible Investments in biomass should have installed capacity of less than 5 MW electric output, and Investments in biomass heat only boilers with a thermal input higher than 10 MWth are subject to EBRD approval – No restrictions for biogas plants.

Link:

Bulgarian Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Credit Line (BEERECL)

European Commission  Country Report Sweden 2015 European Commission 2015 SWE

Title (orig.): Country Report Sweden 2015

Language: English

Link:

Country Report Sweden 2015 PDF

European Commission  ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD) European Commission 2015 EU

Title (orig.): ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD)

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive aims to promote transition from conventional (starch-rich energy crops) biofuels (with a risk of ILUC emissions) to advanced biofuels (that deliver substantial greenhouse gas savings and low-ILUC) and encourage a greater market penetration of advanced biofuels by allowing such fuels to contribute more to the targets in the RED than conventional biofuels.

The ILUC Directive sets a cap for biofuels produced from energy crops, however, it promotes a production and use of advanced generation biofuels.

References to the RED and FQD that sets out the sustainability criteria. The overall obejctive of the ILUC Directive is to limit ILUC.

In Recital 7 it is recognised that “advanced biofuels, such as those made from wastes and algae, provide high greenhouse gas emission savings, with low risk of causing indirect land use change, and do not compete directly for agricultural land for the food and feed markets. It is appropriate, therefore, to encourage greater research, development and production of such advanced biofuels as they are currently not commercially available in large quantities”. Recital 15 states that “biofuels made from feedstocks that do not lead to additional demand for land, such as those from waste feedstocks, should be assigned a zero emissions factor.” Article 2(1)(p) establishes that ‘waste’ shall be defined as in Article 3(1) of Directive 2008/98/EC. Article 2(2) explains that when setting policies for the promotion of the production of advanced biofuels, MS “shall have due regard to the waste hierarchy as established in Article 4 of Directive 2008/98/EC, including its provisions regarding life-cycle thinking on the overall impacts of the generation and management of different waste streams”.

Link:

ILUC Directive (amendments to RED and FQD)

European Commission  Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020 European Commission 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

Language: English

Summary:

These European Commission guidelines are new rules on public support for environmental protection and energy to help renewable sources of energy enter the marketplace. Their aim is to support EU countries in reaching their 2020 climate targets while addressing the market distortions that may result from subsidies granted to renewable energy sources.

Art 3.2.5.1.For measures supporting integrated projects such as integrated energy-efficiency measures, or biogas projects, the counterfactual scenario can be difficult to establish. Where a counterfactual scenario cannot credibly

be established, the Commission is amenable to consider the total costs of a project as an alternative, which may imply lower aid intensities to reflect the different eligible cost calculation. Art 3.3.2.3. A i d f o r e x i s t i n g b i o m a s s pl a n t s a f t e r p l a n t d e p r e c i a t i o n (132) Unlike most other renewable sources of energy, biomass requires relatively low investment costs but higher operating costs. Higher operating costs may prevent a biomass    *(2) plant from operating even after depre ciation of the installation as the operating costs can be higher than the revenues (the market price). On the other hand, an existing biomass plant may operate by using fossil fuel instead of biomass as an input source if the use of fossil fuel as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass. To preserve the use of biomass in both cases, the Commission may find operating aid to be compatible with the internal market even after plant depreciation.

(133) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that the operating costs borne by the beneficiary after plant depreciation are still higher than the market price of the energy concerned and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary and the market price; and

(c) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify whether the operating costs borne are still higher than the market price of energy. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated production cost information and take place at least on an annual basis.

(134) The Commission will consider operating aid for biomass after plant depreciation compatible with the internal market if a Member State demonstrates that, independent from the market price of the energy concerned, the use of fossil fuels as an input is more economically advantageous than the use of biomass and provided that the following cumulative conditions are met:

(a) the aid is only granted on the basis of the energy produced from renewable sources;

(b) the measure is designed such that it compensates the difference in operating costs borne by the beneficiary from biomass compared to the alternative fossil fuel input;

(c) credible evidence is provided that without the aid a switch from the use of biomass to fossil fuels would take place within the same plant; and

(d) a monitoring mechanism is in place to verify that the use of fossil fuels is more beneficial than the use of biomass. The monitoring mechanism needs to be based on updated cost information and take place at least on an annual basis   Annex 2 Typical State Intervention Biogas production which is upgraded to a level of natural gas: If the aid is limited to the upgrading of biogas, the counterfactual

constitutes the alternative use of these biogas (including burning). Biofuels and biogas used for transport:  In principle the extra investment cost compared to that of a normal

refinery should be chosen, but the Commission can accept alternative counterfactuals if duly justified.

Targets are:

— greenhouse gas emissions 20 % (or even 30 %, if the conditions are right) lower than 1990 levels;

— 20 % of energy from renewables; and

— 20 % increase in energy efficiency.

Link:

Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy 2014-2020

European Commission  Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC European Commission 2009 EU

Title (orig.): Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive sets environmental criteria for fossil fuel components such as petrol and diesel. It also determines the permitted level of emissions derived from fossil fuels and includes GHG emission reduction target.

The FQD determines permitted GHG emissions level and reduction targets from fuels. It also sets a sustainability criteria and describes mass-balance system (same as the RED).

Art. 7b sets out sustainability criteria for all biofuels produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they guarantee real GHG savings and protects biodiversity. Art. 7b.1 defines that biofuels produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria in relation to the GHG savings. (Same as the RED).

Art. 7c defines a mass balance system, which allows consignments of raw material or biofuel with differing sustainability characteristics to be mixed and requires information about the sustainability characteristics and sizes of the consignments. (same as the RED)

Art. 7a.2 sets a requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the GHG intensity of energy supplied for road transport by up to 10 % by 2020 (Low Carbon Fuel Standard). This reduction shall consist of: (1) 6 % by 2020 with the intermediate targets: 2 % by 2014 and 4 % 2017; (2) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through: “the supply of energy for transport supplied for use in any type of road vehicle, non-road mobile machinery (including inland waterway vessels), agricultural or forestry tractor or recreational craft” and/or “the use of any technology (including carbon capture and  storage) capable of reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy from fuel or energy supplied”; (3) 2% by 2020 to be achieved through the use of credits purchased through the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, under the conditions set out in Directive 2003/87/EC.

Link:

Fuel Quality Directive (FQD); 2009/30/EC

European Commission  Renewable Energy Directive European Commission 2009 EU

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Directive

Language: English

Summary:

The Directive establishes an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU.

The RED sets a mandatory RES target in overall energy consumption and in transport fuels and GHG emission reduction target (which could be achieved through use of the RES such as biomethane). It establishes sustainability criteria for biofuels and describes mass-balance system.

Mandatory national targets for the overall share of energy from renewable sources. Rules relating to the national renewable energy action plans, joint projects between Member States and with third countries, guarantees of origin, administrative procedures, information and training, and access to the electricity grid for energy from renewable sources. Sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids.

Art. 3.1 sets binding national targets to create 20% of energy consumption from renewables, increase energy efficiency by 20% and reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020.  Art. 3.4 obliges all Member States to ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020.

Art. 17 sets out sustainability criteria for all biofuels and bioliquids produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they guarantee real GHG savings and protects biodiversity.  Art. 17.1 defines that biofuels and bioliquids produced from waste and residues, other than agricultural, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry residues, need only fulfil the sustainability criteria in relation the GHG savings. Art. 21(2) establishes the “double-counting” system, i.e. the contribution made by biofuels produced from wastes, residues, non-food cellulosic material, and lingo-cullulosic material is considered to be twice that made by other biofuels.

As a sustainability criteria, Art. 17(2) establishes 35% GHG emission reduction level. It will be raised up to at least 50% from 2017 and at least 60% from 2018. Art. 19 provides a calculation of GHG emissions.

Link:

Renewable Energy Directive

European Environment Agency  IEA: Energy support schemes - country profile Estonia European Environment Agency 2012 EST

Title (orig.): IEA: Energy support schemes - country profile Estonia

Language: English

Link:

IEA: Energy support schemes - country profile Estonia

European Parliament & Council  Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives European Parliament & Council 2008 EU

Title (orig.): Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives

Language: English

Link:

Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives

European Parliament & Council  Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure European Parliament & Council 2014 EU

Title (orig.): Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Language: English

Link:

Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

European Unions Community Support Framework (POE)  Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) 2000 PT

Language: English

Summary:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME. In 2000, a new programme in support of economic development activities under the European Unions Community Support Framework (POE) was prepared. It set out new regulations related to incentives for energy efficiency and energy diversification (renewables) projects.

Link:

Revision of Energy Programme and PEDIP, SIME

Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation  Federal Energy Law/Energy Act Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation 2014 CH

Title (orig.): Federal Energy Law/Energy Act

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Energiegesetz (EnG)

Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation  Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation 2015 CH

Title (orig.): Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment

Language: English

Link:

Federal Act on the Protection of the Environment

Federal Council  Energy Strategy 2050 Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE 2011 CH

Title (orig.): Energy Strategy 2050

Language: English

Link:

Energy Strategy 2050

Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC)  Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC) 2007 CH

Title (orig.): Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Language: English

Link:

Action Plans for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Federal Environment Ministry  Market Premium Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2012 DE

Title (orig.): Market Premium

Language: English

Summary:

2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act EEG

Link:

Market Premium

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Renewable Energy Sources Act Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2014 DE

Title (orig.): Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG)

Language: English

Summary:

Crucial law for the development of renewable energies in Germany is the “2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act –EEG” supporting energy production from renewable sources. The objective of the EEG is to continue steady deployment of renewable energy in Germany in a cost efficient manner by fostering the integration of renewable energy sources into the market. The act aims to increase the gross consumption of electricity produced by renewable energies to 40%-45% by 2025 and to 55% – 60% by 2035. One mean to reach this goal is, among others, to rise the installed performance of biomass energy plants up to 100 MW per year (gross) (EEG, § 3(4)).

Mandatory direct marketing:

In order to better integrate renewable energy into the market, operators of new renewable energy plants are obliged to market their generated electricity directly, either independently or through a direct marketer. The EEG 2014 contains two ways of direct marketing:

  1. direct marketing with the purpose of receiving a market premium (subsidised direct marketing) or
  2. direct marketing without receiving a subsidy (other direct marketing).

The payment of the market premium requires that the energy is direct marketed. The Market Premium consists of the fixed statutory tariff of the respective renewable energy plant minus its technology-specific monthly market value.

Following plants are exempted from obligatory direct marketing:

  • Plants with a capacity no larger than 500 kW commissioned before 1st January 2016 and
  • Plants with a capacity no larger than 100  kW commissioned before 31st December 2015.

RES generators with a capacity up to 500 kW commissioned before 1st of January 2016 are supported via fixed feed-in tariffs. Plant operators may switch on a monthly basis between feed-in tariffs and a market premium or may benefit proportionately from the feed-in tariffs or the market premium.

In connection with the EEG the specifications for the energetic use of biomass are described in the Biomass Ordinance (BiomasseV). The Ordinance regulates for the scope of the EEG which materials are classified as biomass, what technical procedures for power production from biomass apply for the EEG and what environmental requirements have to be met when producing power with biomass (BiomasseV, § 1). In paragraph 2 the Biomass Ordinance defines, among others, organic waste as biomass according to § 2 Nr. 1 of the Ordinance for Organic Waste (BioAbfV). Here material from landscape and maintenance work without the main purpose of nature conservation is categorized as organic waste (BioAbfV, Annex 1) and the energetic use e.g. in biogas plants oblige different permission and must meet many requirements.

For detailed information on the exact requirements for the singe renewable energy sources, the given tariff amounts (Euros/kWh) and the particular regression rates see second link bellow.

Link:

2014 Amendment of the Renewable Energy Sources Act -EEG-
Feed-in tariff (EEG feed-in tariff)

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  CHP Agreements with Industry Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2012 DE
Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWärmeG) Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2015 DE

Title (orig.): Erneuerbare-Energien-Wärmegesetz

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Erneuerbare-Energien-Wärmegesetz

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy  Biomass Regulation Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy 2005 DE

Title (orig.): Biomass Regulation

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomasse-Verordnung