A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth  Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012 Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth 2012

Title (orig.): Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Summary:

Green Electricity Act 2012

Link:

Ökostromverordnung (feed-in tariffs) 2012 - ÖSVO 2012

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Bio Waste Regulation Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 1996 DE

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Bioabfallverordnung

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Federal Emissions Protection Ordinances (BImSchV) Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2015 DE

Title (orig.): 1. BImSchV: Verordnung über kleine und mittlere Feuerungsanlagen

Language: Deutsch

Link:

1. BImSchV: Verordnung über kleine und mittlere Feuerungsanlagen

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety  Federal Act for the Protection of Nature and Landscape Management Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 2010 DE

Title (orig.): Gesetz über Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Gesetz über Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)  Law on Energy and Climate Fund Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) 2011 DE

Title (orig.): Law on Energy and Climate Fund

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB)  National Energy Action Plan Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), European Comission 2010 DE

Title (orig.): National Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

Measures in Germany are the EEG, Combined Heat and Power Act and Market Incentive Program (all also separately listed)

Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour  Eco-Tax Reform Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour 1999 DE

Title (orig.): Eco-Tax Reform

Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research  Sixth Energy Research Programme Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection and Federal Ministry of Education and Research 2011 DE

Title (orig.): 6.Energieforschungsprogramm - Forschung für eine umweltschonende, zuverlässige und bezahlbare Energieversorgung

Language: English

Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth  National Renewable Energy Action Plan Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth 2010 AT

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Language: English

Summary:

4.6 Specific measures for the promotion of the use of energy from biomass

4.6.2 Measures to increase biomass availability, taking into account other biomass users (agriculture and forest-based sectors)

Measures to encourage unused arable land, degraded land, etc. to be used for energy purposes

The cultivation of land for food products and the production of bioresources are not in competition in Austria according to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture.

Unused raw material potential arises primarily from the use of grassland for biogas production. Until a few years ago grassland was still hardly used, however in the near future it will be a very interesting source material for various types of usage (fibre, lactic acid, etc.) and subsequent biogas production.

Strategy to promote the production and use of biogas

Biogas is currently still mainly produced for generating sets which produce green electricity and heat. Because biogas is, besides stored hydropower, the only storable renewable energy source, biogas technology may be used for daily production right up to the peak electricity production in the future. Treated biogas has the same chemical composition as natural gas. Therefore the targets aimed at for the future are the integration of treated biogas into the natural gas grid as well as the sale of biogas to filling stations. According to the Biogas and Compost Association, the use of biogas as fuel is possible through the steady spreading of natural gas powered vehicles and natural gas filling stations (Biogas and Compost Association).

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics  National Energy strategy Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economics AT

Title (orig.): National Energy strategy

Language: English

Link:

Federal Ministry of Science Websites

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Electricity act (ElWOG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2010 AT

Title (orig.): Electricity act (ElWOG)

Language: English

Link:

Electricity act (ElWOG)

Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy  Natural gas act (GWG) Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy 2015 AT

Title (orig.): Natural gas act (GWG)

Language: English

Link:

Natural gas act (GWG)

Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment  Biomass Strategy Switzerland Federal Office of Energy, Federal Office of Agriculture, Federal Office of Spatial Development and Federal Office of Environment 2009 CH

Title (orig.): Biomass Strategy Switzerland

Language: Deutsch

Link:

Biomassestrategie Schweiz legt übergeordnete Ziele fest

Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER  BELGIUM National renewable energy action plan Plan Federal-Regional Energy Consultation Group CONCERE-ENOVER 2010 BE

Title (orig.): D’action national en matière d'énergies renouvelables; Nationaal actieplan voor hernieuwbare energie

Language: English

Summary:

Belgian authorities pursue a sustainable energy policy that takes into account the economic and social interests of the energy sector as well as the exhaustion of fossil resources and environmental concerns. In this context, renewable energy sources contribute to achieving the following targets:

  • reducing consumption of energy from fossil sources to safeguard future reserves
  • reducing greenhouse gas emissions; – reducing the country’s dependence on energy imports
  • minimising the impact of price fluctuations for energy from other sources
  • creating employment in the framework of an innovative economy
  • diversifying the available range of energy to improve the functioning of the energy market

In the field of electricity generation, Belgium has set up a scheme of green certificates and guaranteed minimum prices to support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support the development of electricity generation from renewable sources

Link:

Belgium National Action Plan

Federation of Retail and Distribution Enterprises  Retailer Sustainable Commerce Agreement Federation of Retail and Distribution Enterprises 2008 FR

Title (orig.): Retailer Sustainable Commerce Agreement

Language: English

Summary:

On 29 January 2008, the French Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Planning signed a five-year agreement with the Federation of Retail and Distribution Enterprises, representing 26 500 outlets nationwide. The agreement commits the retail sector to establish packaging waste and greenhouse gas emission reduction goals. Retailers agreed to undertake detailed analysis of the CO2 emissions of all their activities, to better assess emissions from merchandise transportation and in-store activities. They also pledged to improve energy efficiency in stores, by switching to low-energy lighting and upgrading refrigeration and freezer systems. They also committed to acquiring at least 20% of their overall energy use from renewable energy sources by 2020

Link:

Retailer Sustainable Commerce Agreement

Finish Government  National Energy and Climate strategy 2013 Finish Government 2013 FIN

Title (orig.): National Energy and Climate strategy 2013

Language: English

Link:

National Energy and Climate strategy 2013

Finish Ministry of the Environment  Land Use and Building Act (Finish) Ministry of the Environment 1999 FI

Title (orig.): Land Use and Building Act

Language: English

Summary:

The objective of this Act is to ensure that the use of land and water areas and building activities on them create preconditions for a favourable living environment and promote ecologically, economically, socially and culturally sustainable development.

The Act also aims to ensure that everyone has the right to participate in the preparation process, and that planning is high quality and interactive, that expertise is comprehensive and that there is open provision of information on matters being processed.

Link:

Land Use and Building Act

Attachment

Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market  Flanders: Net-Metering (Mécanisme de compensation) Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market 2012; 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Flanders: Net-Metering (Mécanisme de compensation)

Language: English

Summary:

Flanders supports electricity from renewable energy sources by means of a quota system, an ecological premium and a net-metering scheme. Regarding heating and cooling from renewable energy resources, the Flemish support scheme provides for a quota system. Grid operators and municipalities are responsible for setting up premium schemes. The access of electricity from renewable energy sources to the grid is regulated by the basic legislation on energy market and technical regulations by the Flemish Electricity and Gas Regulator (VREG). Electricity from renewable energy sources is given priority in both connection to and use of the grid. Distribution grid operators are obliged to finance grid expansion. Diverse policies are currently under discussion. The level of implementation differs. On 28 September 2012, the Energy Regulation has been revised transposing the building obligations for heat from renewable energy into Flemish law.

(LCMW) Relevance: Support on electricity from renewable energy sources

Link:

Flanders: Net-Metering

Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market  Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support) Flemish Ministry of Energy, Housing, Cities and Social Economy; Flemish Regulator of the Electricity and Gas market 2014 BE

Title (orig.): Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support)

Language: English

Summary:

Enterprises that make certain ecological professional investments in Flanders, can benefit from ecological aid in the form of an investment grant. The application for the ecology premium is made entirely electronically through the Internet.

In general, companies are stimulated to invest in environmental friendly and energy efficient technologies via a subsidy scheme consisting of the Ecologic Premium Plus (EP-PLUS) and Strategic Ecologic Support (EP-STRES).  An ecologic premium plus (EP-PLUS) is paid to technologies registered within a limited technology list (LTL) compiled and revised by the Ministry on the basis of proposals made by VITO (Independent Research Centre). Technologies not singled out in LTL may apply for strategic ecologic support (EP-STRES).The subsidy is paid to companies that operate in the Flemish region (Art. 10 Decree on Economic Aid). For both, the support cannot be combined with green electricity certificates (Art. 17 6° Decree on Ecological Investment). Projects are selected on a call for project basis 3 times per year.

(LCMW) Relevance: Investment in environmental friendly and energy efficient technologies

Link:

Flanders: Subsidy (Ecologic Premium Plus/Strategic Ecologic Support)

Forest research, Forest Commission  Scottish and England Forestry Strategy Forest research, Forest Commission 2006 UK

Title (orig.): Scottish and England Forestry Strategy

Language: English

Summary:

Use of land degraded by former industrial and urban activity makes an increasingly important contribution to the expansion of woodland. Trees planted on such sites offer immense social benefits in addition to the possibility of economic activity on formerly unproductive land. This programme supports the related objectives of the English Forestry Strategy and across Great Britain generally.

(LCMW) Relevance: Maintanence of forests and urban trees in England and Scotland

Link:

England Forestry Strategy
The Scottish Forestry Strategy
Forest Reseach: Waste minimisation and utilisation in greenspace creation
Forest Reseach
Forestry commission England
Forestry commission Scotland