A list of available literature covering biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work. We include both academic and popular sources, literature written in English and also in other languages.

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Author Title (in English) Publisher Year Country
FPS Public health - environment  Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances FPS Public health - environment 2011 BE

Title (orig.): Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances

Language: English

Summary:

The Royal Decree of 5/4/2011 on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances establishes sustainability and physico-chemicals requirements for wood pellets.

(LCMW) Relevance: Wood pellets

Link:

Decree on wood pellets for non-industrial heating appliances

French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)  Survey and Pre-feasibility Assistance French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) 2000 FR

Title (orig.): Survey and Pre-feasibility Assistance

Language: English

Summary:

Disposition Général des Aides à la Décision. Starting in 2000, ADEME provided surveys and pre-feasibility studies in the areas of renewables, energy efficiency, waste management, pollution. – Surveys (conseil dorientation, prédiagnostique) are used to identify and prioritise possible solutions to resource mismanagement. Over a two-day period, certified experts audit and diagnose a situation, for a total cost of 2 300 euros. -“Conseils dorientation” are used for complex sites and can cost up to 75000 Euro (ceilings for residential and transport projects are regionally set). A maximum of 70% of the costs for both technical studies are supported by ADEME. – Diagnostics and feasibility studies are used to go to a further level of detail. Diagnostics can cost up to 30 000 Euro for industry and agriculture, ceilings for residential and transport projects are locally set. Feasibility studies can cost up to 75 000 Euro in industry, maximum support levels are 50% of costs. In 2000, ADEME provided assistance to 540 projects in industry, 2240 buildings and 110 000 households.

Link:

Survey and Pre-feasibility Assistance

French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)  Government Crediting and Loan Guarantee for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investment French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) 2001 FR

Title (orig.): Government Crediting and Loan Guarantee for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investment

Language: English

Summary:

The FOGIME was created in 2000 in co-operation with the French development bank for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) and ADEME. The guarantee fund for investments in energy sustainability (efficiency and renewables) has a budget of approximately ? 17.8 million, of which ? 7.62 million comes from ADEME and ? 10.21 million come from a branch of the development bank for SMEs (BDPME). This fund guarantees up to ? 242 million for loans to the private sector. Its goal is to provide SMEs with the option to obtain loans for energy efficiency and renewable energy investments. This guarantee is only available for SMEs created prior to 2000. Eligible investments include: high performance production, use, recovery and energy storage equipment; energy efficient modifications of production processes and renewables. The guarantee covers medium and long-term risks (2-15 years) and insures the risk taken by the financial institution providing the loan. The guarantee covers 70% of the loan in comparison to 40% average coverage rates for other SME projects covered by BDPME.

Link:

Government Crediting and Loan Guarantee for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Investment

French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)  Renewable energy market development (support for demonstration and diffusion) French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Renewable energy market development (support for demonstration and diffusion)

Language: English

Summary:

In addition to available grants for surveys, pre-feasibility and feasibility studies, ADEME provides support for demonstration projects and diffusion in the renewable energy sector. Grants for demonstration projects can go up to 30 to 40% of project costs depending on the energy source and targeted sector. Assistance can also be provided for market diffusion of demonstrated technologies/projects, grants can reach 15 to 30% of the costs depending on sector they can also be calculated on the basis of avoided CO2-equivalent emissions (up to 400 Euro/t avoided carbon). Support is also available to increase market diffusion of mature and validated innovative technologies which still need to overcome cost barriers. The programme covers wood-energy for industrial boilers, collective and individual household heating; biogas recovery for energy production, electricity from renewables, geothermal heat and ground source heat pumps as well as solar energy.

Link:

Renewable energy market development (support for demonstration and diffusion)

French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME)  Green innovation funding: the French programme of Investments for the future French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) 2010 FR

Title (orig.): Green innovation funding: the French programme of Investments for the future

Language: English

Summary:

Since 2010, the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) has been in charge of four investment programmes to support testing in real conditions and demonstration plants for renewable energy and green chemistry, lowcarbon vehicle, smart grid and circular economy projects. Totalling EUR 2.45 billion of credits, this initiative is part of the EUR 35 billion Investments for the Future (PIA) programme. The programme is already demonstrating its ability to unite companies and research partners, and to stimulate their innovation capabilities. Compared to other existing national research programmes, this new programme aims at bringing innovation to the market and focuses on specific fields set up by strategic roadmaps.

Specific fields eligible for funding include:

(i) renewable energy and green chemistry (EUR 1.1 billion): development of new technologies in decarbonised energy (e.g. solar, wind), bioresources, low-carbon buildings, energy storage and carbon capture and storage (CCS); (ii) smart grids (EUR 165 million): research and testing in real conditions to enable the integration of intermittent renewable energies into electrical grids and to promote “smart services” that improve energy demand management;(iii) circular economy (EUR 210 million): demonstration plants and circular economy industries, including waste management, soil and sediment remediation, ecodesign and industrial ecology; and (iv) lowcarbon vehicles (EUR 950 million): development of innovative technologies and solutions focused on land and sea transportation.

To manage these projects, ADEME developed specific financial tools, bearing in mind the public objectives of job creation, activity development in the French territory, economic competitiveness and environmental benefits:

(i) state aids complying with European Union regulations on competition. This type of support, the most widely used, consists of refundable grants, where the return mechanism is correlated to the project’s success, and of traditional (non-refundable) grants, mostly dedicated to research laboratories and smalland medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); and

(ii) equity investment tools, where the state plays the role of market investor, one for SME projects and one for intermediate-sized and large enterprise projects. The first 115 selected projects represent investments of more than EUR 3 billion, supported with EUR 940 million from the programme to date. Around two-thirds of allocated credits generate financial returns for the state, based on a risk/gain sharing policy, a new unique form of public-private partnerships in France.

Link:

Green innovation funding: the French programme of Investments for the future

Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency  Loan in the HBOR Bank scheme Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency 2013 HR

Title (orig.): Loan in the HBOR Bank scheme

Language: English

Summary:

The loans granted for the employment of RES-E technologies are part of the “environmental protection” loan scheme by the Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development (HBOR) in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Fund and business banks.

Link:

Loan in the HBOR Bank scheme

Garay et. al.  The potential for the production and use of biomass-based energy sources in Hungary Studies in Agricultural Economics 114 (2012) 1-9 2012 HU

Title (orig.): The potential for the production and use of biomass-based energy sources in Hungary

Language: English

Link:

The potential for the production and use of biomass-based energy sources in Hungary

García D., Gómez M., García A., Royo F.J.  Determination of the real potential of greenhouse emissions reduction in Spain by means of the cofiring implementation (Ene2005-00304/Alt Project): methodology for the biomass potential of cofiring CIRCE Foundation - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption. Natural Resources Division 2008 ES

Title (orig.): Determination of the real potential of greenhouse emissions reduction in Spain by means of the cofiring implementation (Ene2005-00304/Alt Project): methodology for the biomass potential of cofiring

Language: EN

Summary:

Paper presented to the 16th European biomass conference (2 – 6 June 2008, Valencia, Spain).

The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a relevant part in many of the current energy and environment policies in most of the European countries. Diverse alternatives are being used by the governments and the private companies to palliate the emissions and the costs derived from the emissions trade system; one of these possibilities for the CO2 emission remediation is the replacement of solid fossil fuels by biomass (co-firing) in different sectors. In Spain the consumption of fossil fuels account for more than 124 Mtep, from which solid fossil fuels represent 20 % of the share in the primary energy.

The main solid fuel consuming sectors are the power generation sector (more than 82 %) and cement industry (more than 7 %). The equivalent CO2emissions of those solid fuel intensive consuming sectors account for more than 20 % of the gross CO2 equivalent emissions, similar to other important sectors like the transport. Therefore the co-firing technology arises as a promising mean to reduce the emissions from solid fossil fuels.

The current paper presents the project ENE2005-00304/ALT (founded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education). The main objective is the assessment of the potential of co-firing in Spain and the development of a methodology based on the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), allowing a precise knowledge about the multiplier effect, in terms of GHG emissions reduction, associated with this technology and the related economic benefits.

(LCMW) Relevance: The Authors are one of the greenGain project partners (Daniel García, Maider Gómez; CIRCE).

García D., Pascual J., García A., Asín J.  The effect of the surrounding conditions in the assessment of biomass: case study of agricultural residual biomass in Teruel province (Spain) CIRCE Foundation - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption 2007 ES

Title (orig.): The effect of the surrounding conditions in the assessment of biomass: case study of agricultural residual biomass in Teruel province (Spain)

Language: EN

Summary:

Paper presented to the 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition 7-11 May 2007 (Berlin, Germany)

The best location for the sitting of a biomass plant inside a territory requires as input data the energy potentials of the territory. Up to date the area outside the territory under assessment has not been considered, and the territory was studied as an island. The paper summarizes the results of using different spatial resolution degrees for the area surrounding the Spanish Teruel province (NUTS 3). Residual biomass from woody crops pruning has been estimated inside the province of Teruel using the geographical resolution of the Corine Land Cover. The resources evaluation for the area surrounding Teruel province (50 km in straight line) has been carried out at four levels of spatial resolution: no biomass in the surroundings, biomass per province (NUTS3), biomass per municipalities (NUTS5), and biomass assigned to the Corine Land Cover land use characterisation. The sum of the potential biomass in a 50 km-radius circle has been calculated for every point inside the province of Teruel per resolution scale. A comparison among the cases has been carried out by qualitative and quantitative observations. The results have shown the essentiality of the surrounding areas when searching for the maximum potentials in a territory. The use of spatially vast information (NUTS 3) generates a distortion in the geographical potentials and may lead to excessively large errors. For the analysed zone, it has been proved that municipality resolution (NU

Link:

The effect of the surrounding conditions in the assessment of biomass: case study of agricultural residual biomass in Teruel province (Spain)

García-Martín A., de la Riva J., Pérez-Cabello F. and R. Montorio  Using remote sensing to estimate a renewable resource: forest residual biomass InTech 2012 EU

Title (orig.): Using remote sensing to estimate a renewable resource: forest residual biomass

Language: EN

Summary:

Chapter from a book Remote Sensing of Biomass – Principles and Applications, Dr. Lola Fatoyinbo (Ed.)

The objective of this chapter is to explain a methodology developed to estimate the amount of FRB potentially suitable for renewable energy production in the pine forests of Mediterranean areas at regional scale, using satellite images and forest inventory data. It is intended, therefore, to eliminate a major barrier to the use of this renewable source of energy. In turn, by using a plain methodology, it is intended that the method developed can be adopted by decision makers and land managers for both forest management and regional planning, considering that energy planning is a major component of land management.

Link:

Using remote sensing to estimate a renewable resource: forest residual biomass

Gołuchowska et. al.  Biomass Utilization As A Renevable Energy Source In Polish Power Industry – Current Status And Perspectives Journal of Ecological Engineering vol. 16(3), 2015 2015 PL

Title (orig.): Biomass Utilization As A Renevable Energy Source In Polish Power Industry – Current Status And Perspectives

Language: English

Link:

Biomass Utilization As A Renevable Energy Source In Polish Power Industry – Current Status And Perspectives

Government  Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat Government 2006 CY

Title (orig.): Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Link:

Law N.174(I)/2006 - Law for the Promotion of Cogeneration of Power and Heat

Government  National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Of Cyprus Government 2014 CY

Title (orig.): National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Of Cyprus

Language: English

Summary:

Cuprus is a small and isolated system (an island country) without any interconnections to European or other energy networks (electricity, petroleum, natural gas) at present, Cyprus attaches great importance to energy efficiency aiming, inter alia, to improve energy supply security, increase competitiveness and ensure sustainable development/environmental protection. A set of Regulations published in January 2014, provides for the creation of a registry of certified installers of small RES systems for the f Installers of biomass boilers and heating appliances.

Link:

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan Of Cyprus

Government  National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020 (NREAP) Government 2010 SI

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020 (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

The objective of the NREAP is to assess and determine the necessary quantitative values of energy consumption from RES by individual sector (heating and cooling, electricity and transport) and to propose measures to facilitate consumption of the desired quantity of energy from RES in future years. In the NREAP account needs to be taken of the effects of policies for efficient energy use (EEU) on final energy consumption, and measures that must be adopted to achieve the target shares of RES and to fulfil the requirements of Articles 13 to 19 of Directive 2009/28/EC, taking into account the cooperation of local and national authorities, the envisaged statistical transfers of energy from renewable sources between Member States or joint RES projects in other Member States or third countries, and national policies for developing existing and mobilising new sources of biomass.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020 (NREAP)

Government  Loan (Environmental Fund) Government 2006 HR

Title (orig.): Loan (Environmental Fund)

Language: English

Summary:

The Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency offers interest-free loans for the promotion of renewable energy sources.

Link:

Loan (Environmental Fund)

Government  National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) Government 2010 RO

Title (orig.): National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Language: English

Summary:

In the Biomass supply table (2006):  in biomass from forestry sector, the landscape management residues (woody biomass from parks, gardens, tree rows, bushes) are included but unfortunately not quantified in potential. Same treatment in the Biomass from agriculture and fisheries sector for clippings form vines, olives, fruit trees.

Budget allocations for the afforestation of degraded lands, which allowed the afforestation of approx. 5 000 ha of degraded lands per year during the 2005-2006 period have significantly decreased in recent years. Following the issuing of Law 46/2008 – the Forestry Code – the special financial resources established by the latter (the Forest Conservation and Regeneration Fund) or by Law No 18/1991 of the Land Fund (Improvement fund of the forestry land fund) for the afforestation of forest lands and degraded lands incorporated in the forest fund, have also decreased. This decrease has been mainly caused by the fact that special laws have been promoted by means of which developers building touristic roads by forest clearance have been exempted from performance of compensatory payments. Such measures had a direct negative effect on the integrity of the current Forestry Fund, the possibility to extent it in the future as well as on the balance of GHG emissions resulting from the forest clearance action (which shall also be compulsorily reported in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol), which could prevent the fulfilment of the emissions reduction engagement undertaken for the 2010 – 2020 period. Such derogations shall be eliminated from the Organic Law (the Forestry Code).

At present, there are no specific measures promoting the production and use of biogas. Biogas is supported by the following laws: – Law 220/2008 on the establishment of the system for the promotion of energy production from renewable sources, which provides for the granting of 3 green certificates for each 1 MWh supplied within the electricity network by producers generating electricity from biomass, biogas, landfill gas, geothermal energy and associated fuel gas.

Link:

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

Government  Renewable Energy Purchasing Conditions Government 1999 FR

Title (orig.): Renewable Energy Purchasing Conditions

Language: English

Summary:

This policy provided the enabling conditions for EdF to purchase electricity produced from renewable sources such as hydro, co-generation, waste incineration and photovoltaics.

Link:

Renewable Energy Purchasing Conditions

Government  Electricity Law 2000 Government 2000 FR

Title (orig.): Electricity Law 2000

Language: English

Summary:

One part of the Energy Law of 10 February 2000, addresses the obligatory purchase of electricity from renewable sources and cogeneration at fixed feed-in tariffs. The law regulates the free access of independent energy producers to the grid and lays the foundation for higher feed-in tariffs for electricity production from renewables and a new tender scheme for renewable energy production capacity. These tariffs have subsequently been updated in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007 (see separate database entries).

Link:

Electricity Law 2000

Government  Royal Decree 413/2014, regulating the activity of electricity production from renewable energy sources, cogeneration and waste Government 2014 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 413/2014, de 6 de Junio, por el que se regula la producción de energía eléctrica a partir de fuentes renovables, cogeneración y residuos

Language: Spanish

Summary:

Royal Decree 413/2014, regulating the activity of electricity production from renewable energy sources, cogeneration and waste develops the principles established by the Electricity Sector Law and regulates the basis of the new compensation scheme for these facilities. The compensation scheme for each particular facility will be specified according with the type facility to which it will be allocated and the compensation parameters determined for each type facility. Therefore, this Royal Decree will be developed by the corresponding Ministerial Orders providing the type facilities and the corresponding compensation parameters.

Link:

Real Decreto 413/2014, de 6 de Junio, por el que se regula la producción de energía eléctrica a partir de fuentes renovables, cogeneración y residuos

Government  Royal Decree 1699/2011 of 18 November 2011, regulating the grid connection of low-power electricity production facilities Government 2011 ES

Title (orig.): Real Decreto 1699/2011 de 18 de noviembre de 2011, que regula la conexión a red de baja potencia las instalaciones de producción de electricidad

Language: Spanish

Summary:

2011 saw the publication of Royal Decree 1699/2011 of 18 November 2011, regulating the grid connection of low-power electricity production facilities. This standard establishes basic, simplified administrative and technical conditions for connection to the low and high voltage grid (up to 36 kV) of renewable energy and low-power cogeneration facilities in order to reduce the proceedings required to develop these facilities.

Link:

Real Decreto 1699/2011, de 18 de noviembre, por el que se regula la conexión a red de instalaciones de producción de energía eléctrica de pequeña potencia